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NAVEDTRA 12966 


Naval Education and 


July 1991 


Training Command 


0502-LP 213-4100 



Training Manual 
(TRAMAN) 




Naval Orientation 



DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 



The public may request copies of this document by following 
the purchasing instruction on the inside cover. 



Ill 



0S02I_P2134100 



Although the words "he," "him," and "his" 
are used sparingly in this manual to enhance 
communication, they are not intended to be 
gender driven nor to affront or discriminate 
against anyone reading this text. 



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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 



The public may request copies of this document by writing to Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402-0001 or to the Naval Inventory Control Point (NAVICP) - Cog "I" Material, 
Attention Cash Sales, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia PA 19111-S098. 




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NAVAL ORIENTATION 



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NAVEDTRA 12966 




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1991 Edition Prepared by 
LT William L. Brackin, USN 



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PREFACE 



Naval Orientation, NAVEDTRA 12966, and the nonresident training 
course (NRTC), NAVEDTRA 82966, form a self-study training package that 
has been prepared mainly for use in officer training programs. However, it 
is a source of useful information for every member of the Department of the 
Navy. The text provides valuable background information for all hands and 
introduces personnel to the rules, customs, and traditions that govern Navy life. 

The NRTC consists of 12 assignments that have been designed for use with 
this text. 

You may order the self-study training package (NRTC and this text) by 
NRTC NAVEDTRA number (NAVEDTRA 82966) on ADP Form 
1510/1(4-85) from the Naval Education and Training Program Management 
Support Activity (NETPMSA), Code 0742, Pensacola, FL 32559-5000. 
NETPMSA will administer the NRTC. Upon completion of this course, you 
may retain this self-study traming package (NRTC and text). 

You may order additional copies of this text by stock number on a 
DD Form 1348 from Naval Publications and Forms Center (NPFC), 
Philadelphia. 

This text was prepared by the Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, Florida, for the Chief of Naval 
Education and Training. Technical review was provided by the United States 
Naval Academy, AnnapoUs, Maryland; the Naval Military Personnel 
Command, Washington, D.C.; the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 
Washington, D.C.; the Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C.; 
the Naval Supply Systems Command, Washington, D.C.; the Naval Tele- 
communications Command, Washington, D.C.; the Naval Intelligence 
Command, Washington, D.C.; the Marine Corps Institute, Arlington, 
Virginia; and the Naval Reserve Personnel Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Suggestions, comments, and criticisms are invited. Address them to 
NETPMSA, Code 0318, Pensacola, FL 32509-5000. 



Revised 1991 



Stock Ordering No. 
0502-LP-213-4100 



PubHshed by 

NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITY 

UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D.C.: 1991 



THE UNITED STATES NAVY 



GUARDIAN OF OUR COUNTRY 

The United States Navy is responsible for maintaining control of the 
sea and is a ready force on watch at home and overseas, capable of 
strong action to preserve the peace or of instant offensive action to 
win in war. 

It is upon the maintenance of this control that our country's glorious 
future depends; the United States Navy exists to make it so. 



WE SERVE WITH HONOR 

Tradition, valor, and victory are the Navy's heritage from the past. To 
these may be added dedication, discipline, and vigilance as the 
watchwords of the present and the future. 

At home or on distant stations we serve with pride, confident in the 
respect of our country, our shipmates, and our famihes. 

Our responsibihties sober us; our adversities strengthen us. 

Service to God and Country is our special privilege. We serve with 
honor. 



THE FUTURE OF THE NAVY 

The Navy will always employ new weapons, new techniques, and 
greater power to protect and defend the United States on the sea, 
under the sea, and in the air. 

Now and in the future, control of the sea gives the United States her 
greatest advantage for the maintenance of peace and for victory in 
war. 

Mobility, surprise, dispersal, and offensive power are the keynotes of 
the new Navy. The roots of the Navy lie in a strong belief in the 
future, in continued dedication to our tasks, and in reflection on our 
heritage from the past. 

Never have our opportunities and our responsibilities been greater. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER Page 

1. Naval Sea Power 1-1 

2. Makers of Naval Tradition 2-1 

3. The Naval Officer's Career 3-1 

4. Military Duties of the Naval Officer 4-1 

5. Discipline and Leadership 5-1 

6. Governing Regulations 6-1 

7. Military Courtesy 7-1 

8. Honors and Ceremonies 8-1 

9. Uniforms, Insignia, and Awards 9-1 

10. Naval Educational Institutions 10-1 

11. The Armed Forces of the United States 11-1 

12. Components of the Navy 12-1 

13. Supporting Elements of the Navy 13-1 

14. United States Marine Corps 14-1 

15. The Naval Reserve 15-1 

16. Shipboard Organization 16-1 

17. Ship Design and Engineering 17-1 

18. External Equipment of Ships 18-1 

19. Vessel Types and Characteristics 19-1 

20. Naval Weapons Systems 20-1 

APPENDIX 

I. Glossary AI-1 

II. Naval Terms and Customs AII-1 

INDEX INDEX-1 



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in 2012 with funding from 

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CHAPTER 1 



NAVAL SEA POWER 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 



Learning objectives are stated at the beginning of each chapter. These learning 
objectives serve as a preview of the information you are expected to learn 
in the chapter. By successfully completing the nonresident 
training course (NRTC), you indicate you have met the objectives and have 
learned the information. The learning objectives for chapter 1 are listed below. 



Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 

9. Identify the mission of the U.S. Navy. 



1. Define sea power. 

2. Define the establishment of the Continental 
navy. 

3. Portray naval operations of the Civil War. 

4. Describe naval operations of World War L 

5. Identify naval operations of World War II. 

6. Describe naval operations of the Korean 
conflict and the Vietnam conflict. 

7. Describe naval operations in the Persian Gulf. 

8. State the reasons why a strong Navy is needed 
to support our national objectives. 



10. State the four mission areas in which the Navy 
carries out its function. 

1 1 . Analyze the Soviet miUtary threat. 

12. Analyze the Soviet political threat. 

13. Describe Soviet naval capabilities. 

14. Outline the Soviet naval personnel structure. 

1 5 . Identify treaties and pacts of which the United 
States is a member. 



Sea power as a concept means more than 
military power at sea. The Navy's definition of 
sea power is explained in the following paragraph: 

Sea power iy the sum of a nation's 
capabilities to implement its interests in the 
ocean, by using the ocean areas for 
political, economic, and military activities 
ia peace or war in order to attain national 
objectives — with principal components of 
sea power being naval power, ocean 
science, ocean industry, and ocean con^ 
mercc. 



The first use of the term sea power was by 
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN, in his 
principal work. The Influence of Sea Power Upon 
History, 1660-1783, published in 1890. Mahan 
explained six conditions required for a nation to 
have sea power: (1) an advantageous geographical 
position; (2) serviceable coastlines, abundant 
natural resources, and a favorable climate; 
(3) extent of territory; (4) a population large 
enough to defend its territory; (5) a society with 
an aptitude for the sea and commercial enterprise; 
and (6) a government with the influence to 
dominate the sea. 



1-1 



Geographical position was described as the 
most significant condition in the rise of EngUsh 
sea power to world dominance. England was 
ideally situated astride the major sea lanes of 
European trade. Therefore, in times of peace 
England would prosper commercially and in times 
of war would deny the use of these vital sea lanes 
to its enemies. In addition, England's insular 
position protected it from invasion by enemies and 
prevented the necessity of a large army. 

Although geographical position is important, 
Mahan observed that other conditions are also 
important for a nation to become a strong sea 
power. An advantageous geographical position is 
of little benefit to a nation that lacks a suitable 
coastline for harbors, natural resources, and a 
favorable climate. A nation that possesses such 
benefits will seldom look seaward. England, 
lacking these natural advantages, was compelled 
to turn to the sea. 

Mahan 's third and fourth conditions, extent 
of territory and a population large enough to 
defend its territory, are interdependent. A nation's 
coastlines and harbors are not only commercial 
outlets, but also a means of penetration by its 
enemies. 

A nation must have a strong navy and engage 
in profitable trade with other nations to become 
a sea power. Therefore, as Mahan states in the 
fifth requirement, the society of that nation must 
have an aptitude for the sea and commercial 
enterprise. 

Finally, the government of a nation must have 
enough influence over other nations to dominate 
the sea. 

In the decades immediately following the Civil 
War, the primary role of the U.S. Navy was as 
coastal defender and commerce raider. The 
United States did not exercise the concept of sea 
power, but beheved in the concept of national 
isolation. In effect, the nation stressed naval 
expansion within its own country. By 1890, 
however, the nation began naval expansion 
toward other countries, and its concept of national 
isolation began to ebb. 

Those groups in the Navy and in the govern- 
ment who beheved in the concept of sea power 
endorsed Mahan's doctrine. They based their 
endorsement on the behef that history provides 
clues to achieving maritime supremacy. Mahan's 
concept, therefore, became the intellectual force 
behind the United States' development of its Navy 
into a sea power. 



HISTORY OF SEA POWER 

Sea power as an important influence in history 
dates back to 2000 B.C. The ancient Cretans are 
credited with being the first nation to possess a 
navy and a merchant marine. Because of their 
strong naval forces, the Cretans dominated the 
people on the shores of the Aegean Sea. This land 
area became known as Greece and Turkey. 

The age of exploration and colonization was 
the age of sea power in its broadest application. 
Nations employing sea power during this age 
became rich and powerful. They prospered from 
the goods brought in by their ships, and the world 
prospered from the goods sent forth by their 
ships. 

Inevitably, power struggles erupted between 
the maritime rivals, and many wars were fought 
between opposing sea powers. When sea powers 
clashed, the one with the soundest knowledge of 
the sea and the most effective use of its ships 
determined the victor. 

Spain, Portugal, and France, the three great 
maritime powers, made great and enduring 
contributions to discovery, exploration, and 
colonization. Portugal, a country with only 
1 million inhabitants at the time, discovered and 
explored almost two-thirds of the unknown world. 
Eventually the sea power of these countries 
dwindled because their knowledge of the sea was 
either lacking or inferior to that of their 
opponents. 

In one of the most decisive battlesof maritime 
history, the battle of Diu in 1509, the Portuguese 
fleet crushed the Egyptian-Gujerati fleet. This 
victory turned Portugal into a major sea power 
with an empire stretching from Brazil to China. 
It also marked the beginning of four centuries of 
undisputed European sea supremacy in the Indian 
Ocean. This battle was the first proof of the 
importance of artillery mounted aboard ships to 
destroy enemy vessels. 

In 1511 the Portuguese fleet moved northward 
to China and then eastward through the heart of 
the Spice Islands to Malacca. This voyage 
estabUshed one of the first routes to Europe's 
commercial-colonial empires, which were main- 
tained by superiority of firearms and sea power. 

In the Indian ocean, the Portuguese navy was 
the first to understand the concept of sea power 
and to develop a naval strategy to suit its 
individual needs. Countries later achieving naval 
power used the same strategy introduced by the 
Portuguese. 



1-2 



The decline of the Portuguese empire as a 
strong sea power began in 1580 when it united 
with Spain in disputes with other European 
countries. 



DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA 

From 1492 to 1588 Spain stood in the 
forefront of sea power among the nations of 
Europe. But Spain was a classic example of sea 
power based on quantity rather than quality, as 
evidenced by the defeat of the Spanish Armada 
by the English in 1588. At this time, the king of 
Spain, Philip II, determined to end successful 
English raids on Spanish ships and ports. To 
accomphsh this, he launched an attack of over- 
powering mihtary force against England. 

The Spanish Grand Invincible Armada, made 
up of 124 ships, manned by 8,000 sailors, and 
carrying 19,000 soldiers, entered the English 
Channel. To oppose it, the Enghsh had only 90 
ships, plus a mosquito fleet that had never seen 
action. However, they also had the know-how of 
Sir Francis Drake and his men. Drake, a master 
qpbariner, knew how to use the wind and tide as 
aUies. 

As a general rule, most naval battles were 
virtually infantry fights on floating platforms. If 
ramming did not sink an enemy ship, soldiers 
swarmed over its side to engage in hand-to-hand 
combat. The British, however, used the same 
tactics the Portuguese had used at the battle of 
Diu. Instead of engaging in close-range battle, 
Enghsh ships maneuvered to the windward side 
of the Spaniards and pounded them with artillery 
from a distance. The big, lumbering Spanish 
^ips, with their towering upper works, were easy 
targets. 

Ignoring a chance to attack the Enghsh off 
Plymouth, the Spanish sailed on up the Channel 
while the Enghsh pecked away at them. Although 
these attacks did little damage, they induced the 
Spaniards to fire all their heavy shot with no 
teUing effects on the Enghsh. When the Spaniards 
anchored in Calais, the Enghsh forced them out 
by floating several burning hulks down on them 
during the night. The next day the combined 
English and Dutch fleets attacked the Armada and 
might have crushed it had they possessed ample 
powder and shot. After this upsetting blow, the 
demorahzed Spaniards fled north and rounded the 
British Isles to the Atlantic. There, storms nearly 
succeeded in finishing what the Enghsh had 
started. The defeat of the Armada ushered in the 



dechne of Spain's world dominance, while 
England went on to become mistress of the sea. 
While not achieving any great destruction of 
the enemy, the Enghsh demonstrated the 
superiority of tactics over an abundance of 
weapons. From that time on, the use of gunnery 
that could be fired from a distance gradually 
replaced the shock action of close-range battles 
at sea. The cries of "boarders away" and "stand 
by to repel boarders" gradually became less 
frequent. 



THE CONTINENTAL NAVY 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

13 Oct. 1775 Second Continental Congress 
establishes the Continental 
navy. 

4 Apr. 1776 Brig Lexington takes first enemy 
warship. 

4 May 1780 Navy adopts its first official 
seal. 

19 Apr. 1783 General George Washington 
proclaims American Revolution 
ended. At the end of the war, 
British naval strength included 
469 vessels, with 174 of them 
mounting 60 to 150 guns. The 
American naval strength during 
the war reached a peak of 27 
ships averaging 20 guns. 

Navies are born out of a spirit of independence 
and under the threat of war. They are nurtured 
into maturity by the urgent demands of defense 
and sharpened by the encounters of conflict. The 
Continental navy, which was the first American 
navy, was born for such reasons during the 
American Revolution. 

Before the American Revolution, the 
American Colonies were heavily dependent on the 
sea for their Hvehhood. Harbors and shipbuilding 
docks all along the coast offered hvelihood to 
many colonists and provided income to thousands 
more. These ports also harbored the tiny, hastily 
organized American naval forces that were sent 
to harass the mightiest sea power in the world. 
Therefore, when the conflict between the 
Americans and the British began, these ports were 
naturally the first ports the British struck. 



1-3 



The navy of the American Revolution was 
fragmented into many parts, each often acting 
independently of the others. For instance, several 
naval engagements between the Americans and the 
British actually occurred before the Continental 
Congress authorized a navy. Congress finally 
authorized a naval committee and ordered the 
purchase and fitting out of a number of ships in 
October 1775. Thus, the American navy had 
officially begun; but some time would elapse 
before it would have any great effect on the 
mighty British navy. 

The first warships of the Continental navy, 
built during the revolutionary war and into the 
19th century, were classified into three types of 
naval vessels: 

Ships-of-the-line — The battleships of 
the sailing days, these ships were the largest 
of all sailing warships. These battleships 
carried 64 to over 100 guns of various sizes. 
While the British maintained several of 
these ships during the revolutionary war, 
America did not build any until long after 
the war's end. 

Frigates — These vessels were the 
cruisers of the 18th century. They were 
smaller and usually faster than the average 
ships-of-the-line and carried 28 to 44 guns. 

Sloops-of-war— These were small, sail- 
ing warships that carried 10 to 20 guns. 

In addition, the Continental Congress and 
individual states commissioned independent fleets 
of privateers to capture enemy merchant ships as 
prizes of war. 

A typical vessel of the fleet of privateers was 
the schooner. The schooner was a small, fast, 

maneuverable ship that carried smoothbore 
cannons. The size and flexibility of such ships 
proved to be an advantage that eventually helped 
the colonists break the British stronghold on New 
England harbors. Being small and maneuverable, 
these ships allowed the colonists to slip past the 
Royal Navy's men-of-war by hiding in inlets. They 
also allowed the colonists to deliver small but 
effective blows to the large British ships by out- 
maneuvering them instead of meeting them head 
on. 



THE CIVIL WAR 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

27 Apr. 1861 President Lincoln orders block- 
ade of entire Confederate coast. 

3 Aug. 1861 Navy ends daily rum rations for 
enlisted. 

17 Feb. 1864 Steam sloop //ow5aro/j/c torpe- 
doed and sunk by first sub- 
marine, Confederate submarine 
Hunley. 

22 Jun. 1865 Confederate raider Shenandoah 
fires last shot of Civil War while 
in Bering Sea. 

During the Civil War, control of the sea was 
overwhelmingly in the hands of the North. For 
4 years the Union navy was constantly occupied 
with the task of blockading more than 3,000 miles 
of coasthne. It was also kept busy running down 
Southern commerce raiders and opening the 
Mississippi and other waterways leading into the 
South. In addition, it worked in cooperation with 
the army in capturing coastal strongholds. 

The South countered with commerce raiders, 
but the strangling effect of the Union blockade 
eventually took its toll. It crippled the finances 
of the Confederacy, shut out foodstuffs and 
munitions, and proved to be a major influence 
in the outcome of the war. The country learned 
from this war that a navy could not be quickly 
and readily improvised in an emergency. Even 
then, the days were past when merchant vessels 
could be converted rapidly into efficient men-of- 
war. 

Both Union and Confederate navies were 
engaged in frantic shipbuilding programs, which 
brought the era of ironclads into full swing. In 
1862 the Union launched the New Ironsides. 
Equipped with the finest armor of any American 
ship in history, this powerful ironclad once 
survived 50 hits. 

The Civil War also gave us two new types of 
ironclads, the famed Merrimack, renamed the 
Virginia by the Confederacy, and the Union's 
Monitor (which sported a turret). Although the 
ungainly Monitor was called a "cheese box on a 
raft," it and its Confederate counterpart began 
a new era of ironclads. When the two engaged 
in battle, the outcome was indecisive, with both 
sides claiming victory. 

The period also introduced the use of river- 
boats, rams, and gunboats. More changes and 
advances were made in ship designs during the 



1-4 



Civil War (1861 to 1865) than during any other 
period since our Navy began in 1775. 

SEA POWER IN MODERN TIMES 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

28 Dec. 1867 United States claims Midway 
Islands, first territory annexed 
outside continental limits. 

31 Jul. 1874 USS Intrepid, first warship 
equipped with torpedoes, is 
commissioned. 

9 Nov. 1880 USS Ticonderoga, first steam- 
powered ship to circle globe, 
ends cruise begun on 7 Dec. 1878. 

5 Aug. 1882 Congress authorizes first steel 
warship. 



1 Jul. 1897 First use of International Rules 
of the Road. 

16 Dec. 1907 The Great White Fleet, the first 
fleet of warships to circle globe, 
leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia. 

15 Apr. 1912 Navy dispatches USS Chester 
from President Roads, Massa- 
chusetts, to aid survivors of 
SS Titanic sunk by collision with 
iceberg in North Atlantic. 

The span of years between the Civil War and 
World War I brought many changes to the U.S. 
Navy. The ironclads from the Civil War inspired 
vast improvements to shipbuilding technology. 
These technological advances led to the develop- 
ment of an all-steel Navy. Rear Admiral John 
A. Dahlgren (fig. 1-1), the father of modern 




134.14 
Figure 1-1. — Rear Admiral Dahlgren, standing next to one of the guns he designed, was the leading pioneer in modern naval 
ordnance and gunnery. The Dahlgren Gun was the forerunner of today's modern naval gun. 



1-5 



ordnance and gunnery, was instrumental in 
equipping the all-steel Navy with improved 
weapons systems. Against strong protests from 
the Navy, Dahlgren demanded improved weap- 
ons. He designed a new, reinforced gun breech; 
advocated the first real sights; and urged the 
rifling of cannons. 

One of the reasons the Navy expanded during 
this period was President Theodore Roosevelt's 
enthusiasm for a strong Navy. A large Navy gave 
Roosevelt the opportunity to carry out his policy 
of "speak softly and carry a big stick." 



WORLD WAR II 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

1 Sep. 1939 World War II begins as German 
troops invade Poland. 

31 Oct. 1941 USS Reuben James is tOTTpedoed 
and sunk by German submarine 
off Iceland; about 100 sailors 
killed. This is the first U.S. 
naval vessel to be lost by enemy 
action in World War II. 



WORLD WAR I 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

1 May 1915 SS Gulfight torpedoed by Ger- 
man submarine. First American 
merchantman sunk by sub- 
marine in World War I. 

6 Apr. 1917 United States declares war 
against Germany, Navy strength 
at 4,376 officer and 69,680 
enlisted. United States seizes 
and interns German ships in 
American ports. 

11 Nov. 1918 World War I ends. 

World War I involved a struggle between the 
predominance of land power versus naval power. 
Germany's leaders should have recognized that 
the British navy, rather than the French army, was 
Germany's principal barrier to success. A correct 
appraisal of this situation as early as 1905, when 
Germany began an earnest buildup of naval 
strength, might have resulted in a reallocation of 
Germany's war-making resources. Such action 
could have provided Germany with a navy strong 
enough to defeat the British navy. As it was, 
Germany's leaders beheved in land power. 
Therefore, the Imperial army was the favored 
service — a fact that caused Admiral von Tirpitz 
to lament, "We Germans do not understand the 
sea!" Too late, Germany recognized the U-boat 
force, a powerful flotilla of submarines, as its 
deadliest offensive weapon. Although the 
measures taken by von Tirpitz to expand the naval 
arm of the German navy were extensive, his 
efforts were never quite enough. 



7 Dec. 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; 

President orders mobilization of 
U.S. forces. 

8 Dec. 1941 United States declares war on 

Japan. 

4 May 1942 Battle of Coral Sea takes place; 
this is the first carrier-versus- 
carrier engagement and the first 
battle in modern history in 
which opposing ships do not 
exchange shots; all damage is 
inflicted by aircraft. 

4 Jun. 1942 Battle of Midway (4-6 June) 
begins; this battle is turning 
point of war. 

6 Jun. 1944 Allied Expeditionary Force 
invades Western Europe. Land- 
ings are made on the beaches of 
Normandy. 

23 Oct . 1 944 Battle of Leyte Gulf takes place. 

9 May 1945 V-E Day occurs as Germany 

surrenders unconditionally to 
Western Allies and the Soviet 
Union. 

6 Aug. 1945 First atomic bomb is dropped 
on Hiroshima, Japan. 



2 Sep. 



1945 World War II ends. 



During World War II the Germans once again 
demonstrated shortsightedness and the incapacity 
to make the best use of their resources in sea 
power. Again, they failed to plan for control of 
the sea by building an adequate number of ships. 



1-6 



Even so, had the Axis power correctly estimated 
the strategic importance of the Mediterranean 
early in the war, it could have concentrated all 
possible naval resources in that area. Then with 
the Italian fleet as the main striking force and with 
other military forces operating in support, the 
Mediterranean might well have fallen under Axis 
power. Under such circumstances the Allies' 
African campaign would have faced almost 
insurmountable difficulties. 

England held an uncertain tenure in the 
Mediterranean while U.S. forces were being 
assembled. Later, with combined strength, 
the United States and England conducted the 
great amphibious campaigns against North 
Africa, Sicily, Italy, Normandy, and the Med- 
iterranean coast of France. The success of each 
of these campaigns was a stepping-stone to final 
victory. 

In the first years of the war, the United States' 
range of operation was limited. As the Americans 
reduced Japan's navy, the U.S. Navy grew, 
especially in the area of naval air superiority. The 
United States was then able to operate more 
freely, to bypass enemy strongholds, and to omit 
many grueling campaigns. 

Sea power means more than controlling 
the sea for one's own use; it also means 
denying its use to the enemy. Therefore, the 
United States also used naval blockades to deny 
Japan the use of the sea and eventually starve its 
economy. 

With local control of the Pacific, Japan had 
been able to capture Singapore, the western 
Aleutians, the East Indies, the Solomons, and to 
threaten Australia. When Japan lost this control, 
it was unable to send men, suppUes, and ships to 
the aid of Okinawa, the threshold of its home- 
land. 

Because of the effects of sea power, United 
States landings in Leyte and Lingayen were ahead 
of schedule. In addition, the blockades pre- 
vented Japan from exploiting its strength in the 
Philippines and from satisfactorily reinforcing its 
troops at the point of attack. Control of the sea 
enabled United States forces to bypass many 
islands and avoid water controlled by the 
enemy. 

Sea power permits multiple use of the same 
force; a small army becomes in effect many 



armies. This proved to be true as only a handful 
of U.S. forces in the Pacific drove steadily toward 
the Japanese home islands. In much of the central 
and western Pacific, the Japanese had a strong 
numerical superiority; but a large portion of its 
troops never entered into combat. Without 
adequate shipping and naval air power, the 
Japanese legions were helpless against the 
superiority of the few U.S. divisions that opposed 
them. 

As demonstrated against Germany and Japan 
during World War II, naval blockades have 
a major impact on the outcome of war. Further 
understanding of a blockade's numbing grip 
can be gained from figures released in a 
report from General MacArthur's headquarters 
in Japan following World War II. (General 
MacArthur was Commander in Chief, Far East 
Command.) 

This report showed a peak wartime production 
of approximately 9,600,000 tons of steel ingots 
in the Japanese Empire in 1943. By 1945 Japan's 
steel industry was producing at the rate of only 
120,000 tons a year. The report indicated that 
1,800,000 tons of the annual capacity was 
erased by bombing. The remaining 7,680,000-ton 
loss in production was the result of naval 
blockades. 

Another part of this report showed further 
evidence of how naval blockades helped break 
down Japan's economy. In 1941 a total of 
4,000,000 tons of iron ore was required by 
the Japanese steel industry. Of this, some 
3,000,000 tons had to be imported from the 
Asiatic mainland and from the Phihppines. 
As the naval blockade tightened, imports dropped 
off; by 1944 the iron content of imported ore was 
less than 30 percent of the tonnage imported in 
1941. 

In common with those of other nations, 
Japan's sea and air fleets were entirely dependent 
on petroleum for fuel. Japan imported nearly all 
of its petroleum supply. When the blockade 
applied by American submarines cut this vital 
supply line in 1944, Japanese naval and air forces 
were doomed to eventual paralysis. The industrial 
deterioration induced in Japan by the blockade 
was somewhat slower to take effect, but it was 
equally fatal to the nation's war effort. Industrial 
potential is essential in developing sea power; 
therefore, the destruction of an enemy's industrial 



1-7 




134.2 



The sun sets in Tokyo Bay on the Allied naval might gathered there on the eve of world peace, 27 August 1945. 



potential is equally important in weakening its sea 
power. 

Admiral Ernest J. King, former Chief of 
Naval Operations, summarized the part sea power 
played in World War II: 

In the European war, seapower was an 
essential factor because of the necessity of 
transmitting our entire military effort 
across the Atlantic and supporting it there. 
Without command of the sea, this could 
not have been done. Nevertheless, the 
surrender of land, sea, and air forces of 
the German Reich on 8 May 1945 was the 
direct result of the application of airpower 
over land and the power of the allied 
ground forces. 

In the Pacific war, the power of 
our ground and strategic air forces, 
like seapower in the Atlantic, was an 
essential factor. By contrast with Germany, 



however, Japan's armies were intact and 
undefeated and her air forces only weak- 
ened when she surrendered, but her navy 
had been destroyed and her merchant fleet 
had been fatally crippled. Dependent upon 
imported food and raw materials and rely- 
ing upon sea transport to supply her armies 
at home and overseas, Japan lost the war 
because she lost command of the sea and, 
in doing so, lost — to the United States — 
the island bases from which her war- 
making potential could be destroyed by air. 

KOREAN CONFLICT 

Op 26 June 1950 the United Nations made 
a joint decision to give the Republic of Korea 
air and naval assistance. Three days later, 
the cruiser USS Juneau and the destroyer 
USS Dehaven fired the first bombardment of the 
conflict. 



1-8 



When North Korea attacked south of the 38th 
parallel, the U.S. Navy was called on for close 
air support to destroy bridges and block enemy 
supply routes. Navy jets flew from carriers for 
the first time in a war situation. Unlike the enemy 
in World War II, North Korea didn't have the 
capability of striking our carriers; so pilots 
launched their Corsairs and Banshees on the first 
sustained group-support missions in history. 

The helicopter was originally developed during 
World War II but came of age during the Korean 
conflict. The Navy received four Sikorsky 
helicopters in the earlier years of the conflict. In 
comparison with today's helicopter, these were 
primitive, awkward-looking aircraft. The Navy 
used these ugly duckling choppers as spotters for 
artillery fire, to fly emergency supply runs, and 
in direct combat duties. Later, the helicopter was 
used as a cargo transport between ships during 
underway replenishment, for search and rescue 
missions, and in antisubmarine warfare (ASW) 
exercises. 

The Korean conflict also introduced the first 
use of helicopters for medical evacuation. They 
were used to transport wounded soldiers from the 
battlefield to Mobile Army Surgical Hospital 
(MASH) units and from these units to Navy 
hospital ships. In addition to the helicopter, many 
other irmovations currently used by the Navy were 
tested during this conflict. Some of these innova- 
tions included the introduction of Navy jets for 
air combat and the first use of air-to-air missiles. 
The first surface-to-air Terrier missile was also 
tested. In June of 1952 the keel of the world's first 
nuclear-powered submarine was laid. 

One of the most notable events of the Korean 
conflict came on 15 September 1950 when U.S. 
amphibious landings at Inchon began. Besides the 
protection U.S. Navy ships provided for these 
landings with massive shore bombardment, the 
battleship Missouri successfully shelled inland 
supply roads far ashore. This successful operation 
cut the enemy's communications, split its forces, 
and dissolved resistance in the area. The operation 
demonstrated a new concept of sea power — the 
Navy's ability to intervene successfully in a ground 
operation. 

The Korean conflict ended in July 1953. 

VIETNAM CONFLICT 

During the Vietnam conflict, five attack 
carriers were deployed to the western Pacific 
(WESTPAC), with three of them constantly on 
line in the Tonkin Gulf area. Embarked carrier 



air wings furnished almost half of the total tactical 
effort in Vietnam. They destroyed or heavily 
damaged hundreds of military targets in North 
Vietnam. They also successfully suppressed land 
transport as well as waterborne logistic craft on 
rivers and bays and along coastal routes. 

Sharing importance with attack carrier opera- 
tions were amphibious operations on the coast of 
the Republic of Vietnam. Two amphibious ready 
groups with embarked Marine special landing 
forces were committed to the Vietnam effort. 
Each group was capable of conducting assaults 
over the beach by both landing craft and 
helicopter. More than 50 battalion-size am- 
phibious operations were conducted after the 
initial landings in March 1965. The mobility of 
the amphibious groups and their readiness to 
strike on short notice kept the enemy off balance, 
disrupted logistical support, and denied the enemy 
the use of profitable coastal areas. 

The Navy provided gunfire support from May 
1965 until the end of the United States' involve- 
ment. Targets destroyed or damaged by the Navy 
included storage areas, military areas, missile sites, 
and railroads. The battleship USS New Jersey was 
recommissioned to provide increased capabilities 
in naval gunfire support. A heavy cruiser could 
fire an 8-inch projectile only 14 miles. Any one 
of the New Jersey's 16-inch guns could hurl a 
projectile four times the weight of the cruiser's 
projectile a distance of 20 miles. In addition, the 
projectile could penetrate 30 feet of reinforced 
concrete. After the successful completion of its 
mission, the New Jersey was again decom- 
missioned. Realizing the peace-keeping effort 
these ships contribute to the world, the United 
States recommissioned the New Jersey and three 
other battleships in the 1980s. 

The Vietnam conflict exemplified the kind of 
war we can expect in the future — intermingling 
of the most primitive guerilla operations with the 
most advanced weapons. To counter this threat, 
the U.S. Seventh Fleet has provided dramatic 
evidence of the Navy's ability to project the 
national pohcy of the United States wherever 
water permits navigation. 



PERSIAN GULF 

The United States and other nations of the 
Western world together consume nearly three- 
fourths of the world's petroleum products. 
Therefore, the nations of the Western world have 
significant economic, geopolitical, and military 



1-9 



interests in the countries and waters of the Middle 
East. 

U.S. forces have been visible in this vital, oil- 
rich region since 1949. They frequently operate 
in the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, 
Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and western Indian Ocean. 
However, events in the Persian Gulf in the 
mid-1980s brought the United States into new 
roles in defending sea power. 

Iran and Iraq had been at war for 5 years when 
Iraq began attacking Iranian oil facilities and 
tankers in the Persian Gulf. Iran countered with 
attacks against ships flying flags sympathetic to 
Iraq. U.S. Navy ships quickly started protecting 
U.S. flagged tankers from attacks by either 
country in what came to be known as the "tanker 
war." 

In 1987 the United States took action to keep 
oil flowing freely through the Straits of Hormuz, 
As a result, the number of Middle East ships more 
than doubled over the summer of 1987 from 5 to 
12. USS Ranger (CV-61) and USS Missouri 
(BB-63) battle groups, mine countermeasure 
teams, and special warfare units joined other 
forces already in the area. These combined forces 
became America's largest deployed naval presence 
since the Vietnam era. The British, French, 
Italians, Belgians, and Dutch eventually joined 
their American counterparts in the Persian Gulf. 
Working independently, each navy displayed its 
own colors, protected its own shipping, and 
helped sweep mines from shipping lanes. 

Even though the protective forces grew, ships 
traveling in the Persian Gulf were under the 
constant threat of attack. Danger existed from 
fighter aircraft of both sides; Iranian Silkworm 
antiship missiles; Iran's Revolutionary Guard 
suicide boats; and, of course, mines. 

The missile threat proved costly to the United 
States when the USS Stark (FFG-31) was 
mistakenly identified by an Iraq attack aircraft. 
Two missiles fired from the jet struck the Stark 
on 17 May 1987, killing 37 sailors and injuring 
many more. 

Mines had not been a serious threat to naval 
operations for several years, but the Iranians' use 
of mines brought a new awareness of their danger. 
On 14 April 1988 USS Samuel B. Roberts 
(FFG-58) hit a mine in the Persian Gulf and 
suffered severe damage. Since several tankers had 
also hit mines, the Navy had already intensified 
its mine-sweeping efforts. 

In the process of defending the sea lanes in 
the Persian Gulf, the presence of the United States 
was largely a defensive measure. When forced 



to take offensive action, the United States 
bombarded an Iranian oil platform being used as 
an Iranian Revolutionary Guard command post 
(fig. 1-2). American fire power also sunk an 
Iranian mine-laying vessel caught in the act of 
laying mines. The American policy of freedom of 
the high seas was once again preserved in the 
Persian Gulf. As the war ended between Iran and 
Iraq in 1989 and tensions subsided, the naval 
presence of the United States decreased but never 
disappeared. 



IMPORTANCE OF SEA POWER 

To fully understand the importance of sea 
power, you must consider the geographic makeup 
of the earth. Ocean areas are so extensive that all 
landmasses on earth are open to attack or pressure 
from the sea. This attests to the broad impact of 
sea power. 

Today the globe can be spanned by nuclear- 
armed missiles in a mere 15 minutes. However, 
in war or peace the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
remain wide barriers to international and domestic 
commerce. Any significant amount of manpower, 
strategic supplies, raw materials, or manufactured 
goods must still cross these barriers in 20-knot 
ships. 

Although the United States faces both the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Atlantic has been 
of primary interest to this nation since its 
independence. Encompassing 32 miUion square 
miles, the Atlantic is the second largest ocean in 
the world; but its size is not its most important 
feature. More vital is the community of nations 
that border the Atlantic. Bordering the north are 
the industrial centers of our Western civilization. 
Bordering the south are the resource-rich, emerg- 
ing nations of Africa and Latin America. The 
Atlantic is the main highway of commerce binding 
together the old and new nations that conduct 
more than two-thirds of the world's merchant 
shipping. This makes the North Atlantic the most 
heavily traveled stretch of water in the world. 
More than 2,000 merchant vessels are steaming 
North Atlantic trade routes every day of the year. 

In size, however, the Atlantic Ocean is small 
when compared to the Pacific Ocean. Unequaled 
in va^tness by any other landmass or sea, the 
Pacific Ocean covers 67 million square miles. It 
covers a third of the surface of the world, 
equaling the combined areas of the Atlantic, 
Indian, and Arctic Oceans. The Pacific Ocean also 
exceeds in area the total of all the landmasses of 



1-10 




:^^^^ix^^i»S2<i^j^ 



Figure 1-2. — U.S. ships blowing up oil platform in the Persian Gulf. 




134.1 



the world. The north-to-south span of the Pacific 
is more than 75,000 miles. The Pacific separates 
Asia and North America by only 67 miles at the 
northern extremes. These two continents veer 
sharply away from each other at the southern 
extremes with more than 10,500 miles of the 
Pacific Ocean between them. By its very size, the 
Pacific influences the strategic thinking and 
planning of every nation bordering it. 

A third ocean bordering the North American 
continent has achieved strategic importance 
because of the development of nuclear power. 
Nuclear submarines can remain submerged under 
the polar ice pack for long periods of time. 
Therefore, their entry into the Arctic Ocean has 
made this a 5.5-million-square-mile potential 
battleground. The Arctic Ocean is also important 
because the Soviet Union's longest coastUne 
borders it. Since the Arctic Ocean has become 
a naval operating area, the whole Eurasian 
continent, including the Soviet Union, has become 
vulnerable to sea power. The southern borders 
of the Eurasian continent have always been 
susceptible to pressure from the sea. 



For centuries, the Indian Ocean has been an 
arena for competing sea powers vying for the 
riches of south Asian and Middle Eastern 
shores. Twenty-eight milUon square miles of the 
Indian Ocean stretches from Malaysia to Africa, 
countries that occupy a third of the world's 
population. 

Most of the populated land areas of the world 
are no more than 500 miles from the sea. In the 
event of armed conflict, virtually no spot on earth 
is beyond the range of attack from the sea. This 
is the most profound change in the total history 
of warfare. Sea power can be deployed over three- 
fourths of the earth's surface unhampered by 
international boundaries. The sea is unowned — 
but it is jointly owned by all sovereign nations. 

Because the sea is so important in the event ' 
of armed conflict, the U.S. Navy needs to remain 
strong. However, a strong Navy is also important 
in support of our national objectives for the 
following reasons: 

• Two of our states (Hawaii and Alaska) are 
located overseas. 



1-11 



• Four U.S. territories (Puerto Rico, the 
Virgin Islands, Guam, and the northern Marianas) 
lie overseas. 

• We have formal aUiances with 42 nations, 
40 of which lie overseas and two (Canada and 
Mexico) that border the United States. 

• Our principal allies (NATO and Japan) are 
highly dependent on United States support and 
imports, the bulk of which must be transported 
by sea. 

• Ninety-nine percent of United States' 
overseas trade is transported by sea lanes of 
communication (world trade routes). 

• U.S. industrial output depends on con- 
tinued shipments of raw materials and energy- 
producing resources from overseas. 

• Our ability to control the sea is essential 
in the deterrence of general war and aggression 
against any nation or area vital to our interest. 



SEA POWER IN SUPPORT OF 
OUR NATIONAL OBJECTIVES 

One of the greatest concerns of those in the 
naval service is the Navy's mission, function, and 
role involving sea power in support of the national 
objective of the United States. The younger sailor 
often asks questions such as Why are we getting 
underway? What is the purpose of this deploy- 
ment? Why are we operating on the other side of 
the world? 

To understand the answers to these questions, 
you need a good understanding of the Navy's 
mission. You also need to understand the 
functions and roles the Navy plays in support of 
this mission. 

MISSION OF THE NAVY 

The mission of the U.S. Navy is set forth in 
Title 10 of the U.S. Code. It states that the U.S. 
Navy must be prepared to conduct prompt and 
sustained combat operations in support of the 
national interest. This means the Navy must 
assure continued maritime superiority for the 
United States. The U.S. Navy must be able to 
totally defeat any threats to the continued free use 
of the high seas by the United States. The Navy 
assures continued maritime superiority through 



the destruction of hostile aircraft, surface ships, 
and submarines that threaten seaborne forces of 
the United States and our allies. This mission is 
carried out within the framework of the national 
strategy, in joint coordination with the other 
services, and in combined planning with U.S. 
allies. 

To fully understand the Navy's mission, you 
should be familiar with the following terms: 

NATIONAL STRATEGY— National 
strategy is that broad course of action 
designed to achieve national objectives in 
support of national interests. The United 
States maintains defense forces to preserve 
its physical security and protect its political 
independence. The ability of the defense 
forces to satisfy this objective depends on 
their capacity to deter aggression and to 
prevent coercion. It also depends on their 
capacity to exercise a degree of influence 
to shape world events in a manner con- 
ducive to U.S. interests. 

NATIONAL OBJECTIVES— National 
objectives are specific goals our nation 
seeks to advance, support, or protect 
identified national interests. These goals 
can be categorized as political or economic 
objectives or as objectives of security. 

NATIONAL INTERESTS— National 
interests are generalized conditions, fre- 
quently of a continuing nature, the pursuit 
or protection of which is perceived to be 
advantageous to the nation. They range 
from the ultimate interest, national sur- 
vival, to specific regional interests that 
determine the importance of a region to the 
security of the United States. 

NAVAL STRATEGY— Naval strategy 
is the use of naval forces (including naval 
aviation and Marine forces) to achieve 
naval objectives that are determined by 
national strategy. The overall naval- 
strategy objective is to control the sea and 
deny an enemy's use of the sea in those 
areas important to our operations. 

FUNCTIONS OF THE NAVY 

The primary functions of the Navy and the 
Marine Corps are to organize, train, and equip 
Navy and Marine Corps forces to conduct prompt 



1-12 



and sustained combat operations at sea. Opera- 
tions include sea-based aircraft and land-based 
naval air components. In effect, these forces seek 
out and destroy enemy naval forces and suppress 
enemy sea commerce. They gain and maintain 
general naval supremacy, control vital sea areas, 
and protect vital sea lines of communications. 
They also establish and maintain local superiority 
in land and air operations and seize and defend 
advanced naval bases. 

The Navy also provides forces for joint 
amphibious operations. It is responsible for train- 
ing all forces assigned to these operations in 
amphibious warfare as directed by Joint Chiefs 
of Staff. Other specific responsibilities assigned 
to the Navy are naval reconnaissance, antisub- 
marine warfare, protection of shipping, mine- 
laying, and controlled minefield operations. In 
conjunction with the other services, the Navy 
provides forces for the defense of the United 
States against air attack. 

Because of the complexity of the Navy's 
function, a massive modernization of Navy ships, 
aircraft, and weapons has been undertaken. 
Basically, the modernization has taken three 
forms: (1) the speedup of research and develop- 
ment to develop new weapons; (2) laying up of 
old ships to save operating and overhauling costs, 
thereby directing this money into new construc- 
tion; and (3) the "hi-low balanced mix" concept. 
This hi-low concept is a balance in the purchase 
of a few highly effective ships and aircraft, such 
as CVNs, SSBNs, and F/A-18 aircraft, with a 
concurrent development of new classes of low-cost 
ships, such as guided-missile frigates. 

The Navy has entered a new phase of scientific 
warfare — one in which nuclear weapons and 
guided missiles are the primary destructive 
weapons. Conventional weapons, of course, are 
still maintained and being improved. Such 
weapons enable the Navy, with its Marine 
component, to deploy rapidly and to apply the 
force necessary to contain a limited war. 

The Navy's achievements in the development 
of scientific projects continue to lead the world. 
These achievements range from earth navigation 
and communications satellites to the improvement 
of nuclear propulsion. The Navy's Polaris missile, 
operational in nuclear-powered submarines at sea, 
was the first intermediate-range baUistic missile 
(IRBM) to be equipped with the sohd-propellant 
motor. The Poseidon and Trident missiles, which 
have extended range and multiple warheads, were 
developed following the success of the Polaris 
missile. They have since replaced the Polaris. 



Other Navy achievements include pioneering 
new developments in communications, naviga- 
tion, underwater acoustics, oceanography, and a 
host of other scientific fields. One particular 
achievement is the successful pioneering of the 
route from the Pacific to the Atlantic beneath the 
North Polar ice cap. 

The Navy has divided its mission into four 
functional areas: (1) strategic deterrence, (2) sea 
control, (3) projection of power ashore, and (4) 
naval presence. 

Strategic Deterrence 

Strategic deterrence has three objectives. The 
first of these is to deter (prevent or discourage) 
an all-out attack on the United States or its allies. 
The second objective is to cause any possible 
attacker to face an unacceptable risk in the event 
of an attack. The final objective is to keep the 
United States and its allies pohtically stable and 
secure enough to withstand the threat of attack 
or blackmail. 

How does the Navy accomplish the objectives 
of strategic deterrence? First, the Navy maintains 
an ASSURED SECOND-STRIKE CAPABIL- 
ITY. This means that if an enemy were to launch 
an all-out attack, the United States could deliver 
massive retaliation (counterattack) even after the 
attack. The Navy's fleet baUistic missile sub- 
marines (nuclear) (SSBNs) are the backbone of 
this tactic because of their high probability of 
surviving a nuclear attack. Second, the tactic of 
CONTROLLED RESPONSE is used. This means 
that the Navy will respond to a partial attack only 
to the degree required. This is hoped to prevent 
a general nuclear war. The SSBN fleet is also the 
backbone of this tactic. 

Sea Control 

Our nation's definition of sea control is 
denying the use of the sea to our enemy and 
assuring the use of the sea to the United States 
and its allies. In today's world, sea control can 
be exercised only over limited areas of the sea. 

Although sea control is accomplished by four 
tactics, many weapons and weapons systems can 
be used with these tactics. The correct tactic and 
weapons systems to be used depends on the situa- 
tion. The four tactics used to accomplish sea 
control are as follows: 

1. SORTIE CONTROL is used to keep an 
enemy within ports and bases. As the enemy 



1-13 



attempts to sortie (go on missions), the enemy 
units are destroyed. Submarines and mines are 
often used with this tactic. 

2. CHOKEPOINT CONTROL is used to pre- 
vent the enemy from going through geographical 
bottlenecks. The enemy must concentrate forces 
when at these points and is, therefore, vulnerable 
to attack. 

3. OPEN /\REA OPERATIONS are used 
when the tactics above do not work or if the 
enemy is already underway at sea or in the air. 
Search and surveillance systems are used to locate 
and track the enemy before attacks. 

4. LOCAL ENGAGEMENT is the final 
tactic. This tactic involves a concentration of 
forces in a Hmited area. These forces may attack 
and destroy any enemy when it enters the range 
of their weapons either before or after an attack. 

Historically, the Navy's radius of action has 
been limited to the enemy's coastline, plus the 
range of the ship's guns. With the development 
of high-performance aircraft and ballistic missiles, 
the Navy's range of action now spans continents. 

Ships, because of their mobility, are less 
accessible targets than shore bases. Furthermore, 
as a partial deterrent to the destructive capabilities 
of nuclear weapons, the dispersal concept has 
been added to fleet doctrine. 

Projection of Power Ashore 

This functional area involves the impact of 
naval forces on land forces. Three types of 
actions are used to project power ashore: 
AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT, NAVAL BOM- 
BARDMENT, and TACTICAL AIR PROJEC- 
TION. 

Although amphibious assault and naval bom- 
bardment are probably famihar to you, tactical 
air projection may not be. Tactical air projection 
is divided into four categories: 

1. DEEP INTERDICTION— This tactic in- 
volves carrier-based air attacks outside the battle 
area. These attacks are designed to destroy or 
cripple the enemy's military potential. 

2. BATTLEFIELD INTERDICTION— This 
tactic involves carrier-based air attacks on military 
targets of immediate importance. These attacks 
are used to slow the enemy's movement of 
supplies and reinforcements. 

3. CLOSE AIR SUPPORT— This tactic 
provides direct support to front-line ground 
troops by specially trained Marine Corps air units. 



It usually involves precision attacks on targets just 
ahead of the front-line troops. 

4. COUNTER AIR/ANTIAIR WARFARE— 
This tactic is designed to keep the enemy from 
using aircraft or missiles to attack our forces or 
defend the enemy's forces. It involves attacks on 
enemy aircraft, missile installations, and air fields. 

Naval Presence 

Naval presence is the use of naval forces for 
political objectives without war. Generally, it 
consists of PREVENTIVE DEPLOYMENTS and 
RESPONSIVE DEPLOYMENTS. 

Preventive deployments are a show of force 
during peacetime to indicate the capability of the 
Navy's forces. Responsive deployments are an 
indication of the response of the Navy to a crisis 
situation. 

In either case, the presence of the Navy is a 
threat of action. This threat does not have to be 
spoken. Hopefully, the mere presence of the Navy 
will be enough to cause the problem to disappear. 
United States forces can use these deployments 
to reassure aUies and deter possible aggression 
from potential enemies. 

All of these tactics are designed to accomplish 
the mission of the Navy — preparedness to con- 
duct prompt and sustained combat operations at 
sea. 



THE SOVIET THREAT 

Before a nation can make any strategic plans 
for the employment of its forces, it must consider 
who or what its threat or opponent might be. It 
can then analyze the opponent or threat and make 
plans to counter any opposition that arises. For 
the United States, the Soviet Union and the 
Warsaw Pact nations are considered to be a 
threat. 

SOVIET MILITARY THREAT 

The Communist party of the Soviet Union is 
concerned with the nature of a possible future 
war. The military doctrine of the Soviet Union 
is to prepare the country and its armed forces for 
conducting such a war. The Soviets view war as 
an Extension of poUtics and therefore emphasize 
offensive operations. A Soviet victory in either 
a conventional or nuclear war would neutralize 
the influence of NATO on world politics. It would 
also end the political structure of the United States 
as we know it today. 



1-14 



Soviet leadership understands that in addition 
to maintaining strong offensive capabiHties, an 
equally strong defensive posture is needed. The 
Soviet Union maintains a massive arsenal of 
military weaponry and a sizable number of 
military personnel to use these weapons. The 
Soviet preparedness is a threat that should not be 
taken lightly. As part of the free world, we should 
learn the capabilities of the Soviets and stay 
abreast of the changes in their systems and 



equipment. For a comparison of U.S. and Soviet 
mihtary assets, see figure 1-3. 

SOVIET POLITICAL THREAT 

The Soviet political threat lies in the nation's 
political policy of spreading communism to Third 
World countries. While the Soviets maintain a 
strong influence over Warsaw-Pact nations, they 
exert even more influence on Third World 



PLATFORM 


UNITED STATES 


RUSSIA 


TrnMc .,,......,, '^ -* 


1,000 
560 


1,386 
978 


QRMc ... . .. 


/ 




STRATEGIC BOMBERS 


• • iik. 


372 


888 


STRATEGIC DEFENSE INTERCEPTORS • 




252 


2,250 


TACTICAL AIRCRAFT 


4 


3,976 


5,170 


ATRrr'ArT rARPirR^ . - . . ^^ 


4t 


15 
223 


4 
276 


PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS' • 


• • -^^ 




.1 -LLii:£iU>u 


80 


408 




' ■^■^^■^■l^Bki 


flIIYTI TADTFQ 




130 


311 




SUBMARINES 




132 


308 





Figure 1-3. — Comparison of United States and Soviet niilitar>' assets. Figures are approximate, based on information available 

at the time of writing. 



1-15 



countries. While seeking the promised benefits of 
communism, these countries often fail to realize 
the future price they will pay for accepting the 
Communist regime. The Soviet Union has spread 
its influence all over the world, establishing 
puppet states in such places as North Korea, Viet- 
nam, Cuba, Nicaragua, and Peru. 

In December of 1979 the Soviets invaded 
Afghanistan in an unsuccessful attempt to dictate 
to a sovereign nation through the introduction of 
Soviet troops. On 15 February 1989 the last Soviet 
troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan. The 
Soviet Union seriously miscalculated the ability 
and determination of Afghan Resistance Forces 
to defend their country against communism. 

In March of 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev assumed 
the post of General Secretary of the Communist 
party. Under his leadership a new policy of 
glasnost has been adopted. Although glasnost is 
interpreted by some in the West to mean open- 
ness, its meaning to the Soviets is publicity or 
officially managed perceptions. Under this policy, 
the Communist party still maintains control over 
the media. However, the regime selectively allows 
more complete reporting of "negative" domestic 
news and foreign policy issues previously sup- 
pressed by Soviet censors. The regime has also 
significantly loosened the restrictions on cultural 
expression, tolerating a much wider range of 
themes in literature, film, theater, and art. The 
Soviet leadership has continued to crack down on 
alcohol, drug abuse, and other manifestations 
of what Gorbachev calls "social corrosion." 



Nevertheless, the Communists still prohibit public 
debate on certain topics, such as the primary 
influence of the party in national Ufe, the KGB, 
and some human rights issues. 

Whether glasnost will alter the Soviet political 
threat remains to be seen; however, these changes 
do bring hope. 

THE SOVIET NAVY 

Today's Soviet navy is larger, better equipped, 
and more balanced in structure than ever before. 
It is also far more capable of meeting the 
requirements of conventional or nuclear war at 
almost any level (fig. 1-4). Future Soviet naval 
policy and programs will be directed toward 
broadening the range of military and political 
options available. These options will span the 
entire spectrum of conflict, from peacetime 
competition to nuclear war. 

The Soviets began the 1980s with the introduc- 
tion of three new classes of surface warships, two 
new classes of attack submarines, and a new class 
of helicopters. The Kirov entered the Soviet fleet 
as its first nuclear-powered surface combatant. 
Also entering the fleet was the ASUW-oriented 
Sovremennyy-class guided-missile destroyer 
(DDG) and the ASW-oriented Udaloy-class DDG. 
Among them, these three classes introduced six 
new weapons systems: The Kirov's SS-N-19 
antiship cruise missile (ASCM) and SA-N-6 
surface-to-air missile (SAM); the Sovremennyy's 
medium-range SS-N-22 ASCM and SA-N-7 SAM 




134.3 



Figure 1-4. — Soviet warships. 



1-16 



and new 130-mm dual-purpose, twin-gun mount; 
and the Udaloy's SA-NX-9 SAM. 

Presently, the Soviet navy includes about 185 
surface combatant ships and craft carrying 
surface-to-surface missiles. In addition, nearly 70 
of the navy's submarines carry subsurface-to- 
surface missiles. The Kirov and Slava cruisers 
(introduced in 1982) and the Sovremennyy DDG's 
have greatly increased cruise-missile firepower. 
They carry antiship missiles with performance 
characteristics that make offensive tactics increas- 
ingly difficult. 

Also entering the fleet during 1980 were two 
general-purpose submarines classes, the Oscar I 
(fig. 1-5) and the Kilo. Those in the Oscar I class 
are nuclear-powered, cruise-missile attack sub- 
marines (SSGN). They have slightly over three 
times the displacement of their functional 
predecessors, the Charlie Il-class SSGNs, and can 
carry 24 ASCMs. In wartime, the Oscar I-class 
submerged-launch SS-N-19 ASCMs will be 
targeted primarily against NATO carrier battle 
groups. In contrast, the Kilo-class diesel-electric 
attack submarines (SS) are relatively small (about 
3,000 metric tons). These submarines rely on 
antisurface or ASW torpedoes and were designed 
for operations primarily in sea areas near the 
Soviet Union, 

The Oscar I and Kilo classes of attack sub- 
marines are noteworthy in that they typify recent 
Soviet naval construction trends. Specifically, the 
Soviets have continued building naval platforms 
capable of operating in the open ocean. They have 
built these vessels without sacrificing those 
designed to perform the Soviet navy's traditional 



coastal defense mission. These vessels demonstrate 
marked improvements in submarine quieting. This 
feature reduces their noise level under certain 
operating conditions, while improving their 
effectiveness against opposing submarines. 

Improvements of existing ASW aircraft 
evolved into the production of the Helix A and 
the Helix B ship-based helicopter and the long- 
range Bear F Mod 4. Similar improvements in 
ships designed primarily for ASW have also been 
observed. Even the largest modern Soviet com- 
batants, including the Kiev-class carriers and the 
Kirov-class CGNs, carry sensor and weapons 
suites (a group of systems). These suites include 
powerful low frequency sonars; ASW rockets, 
missiles, and torpedoes; and ASW helicopters. 

The Soviets have expended considerable 
resources in recent years on developing ASW 
platforms and systems, particularly nuclear- 
powered attack submarines. However, they have 
not yet resolved the problem of locating Western 
submarines in the open ocean. 

All things considered, the Soviets are a 
formidable naval power. They can be expected to 
increase their emphasis on making general- 
purpose naval forces more capable. They can also 
be expected to continue challenging the West's 
traditional dominance of the open oceans. 

SOVIET NAVY PERSONNEL 

Soviet navy personnel occupy a respected 
position within the Soviet society. Military 
service in the Soviet Union is regarded as a special 
form of service to the state. It is rewarded by 




134.4 



Figure 1-S. — Soviet OSCAR-I submarine. 



1-17 



continuous praise and commendation from Soviet 
public leaders and the press. Even more tantalizing 
to the average Soviet citizen, for whom foreign 
travel is basically impossible, is the opportunity 
navy personnel have to see the world. 

Enlisted men are either 2-year or 3-year 
draftees; the latter term of service is required if 
the draftee is assigned sea duty. The Soviet Union 
does not draft women for military service. They 
are used in clerical and support positions. Soviet 
women are not considered to be an integral part 
of the armed services as are the service women 
of the United States. 

Of approximately 443,000 uniformed person- 
nel of the Soviet navy, about 169,000 serve afloat 
and 70,000 are attached to naval aviation units. 
In addition to the 18,000-man naval infantry 
force, another 14,000 are assigned to coastal 
defense activities. About 46,000 are engaged in 
various stages of training, and 126,000 are used 
to provide shore support. Additionally, a large 
number of civilians, perhaps as many as 30,000, 
form the crews of the majority of Soviet naval 
auxiliary ships. 



Enlisted Personnel 

The enlisted man of the Soviet navy is a 
draftee with limited training and little career 
inclination. Draftees are drawn from all the 16 
republics within the USSR. Often those from 
Asian republics speak little Russian. Since draftees 
are inducted into the services twice a year, this 
means that every 6 months about 15 percent 
of the naval enlisted strength is replaced by 
recruits. 

The new inauctees undergo a 9-week basic 
training program, after which they are either 
sent to a speciaUst school or directly to a 
duty assignment. A small number of recruits 
that have previously completed a military 
specialist preparation course are sent directly 
to sea duty from basic training. Those judged 
physically or intellectually substandard are 
assigned to shore duty (as librarians, clerks, 
and so on). Approximately 75 percent of the 
personnel entering the navy undergo specialist 
training, after which they receive their first ship- 
board assignment. 



Soviet technical training lasts from 4 to 6 
months. SpeciaHsts graduate with an apparent 
understanding of the theoretical complexities of 
their own specialty but with little practical train- 
ing. Consequently, enlisted personnel receive the 
more significant and practical training after they 
arrive on board ship. 

Once aboard, these personnel are assigned to 
the more senior sailors who, along with the 
officers and warrant officers in their department, 
train them as replacements. The new specialists 
then begin their study for a class specialist rating 
of Master 1, 2, or 3. If a sailor passes the Master 
3 speciahst test, fulfills certain requirements of 
the Party Youth Organization (Komsomof), and 
has no disciplinary violations, he will be rated 
"outstanding" by the ship's captain. The number 
and class of specialists and the number rated 
outstanding are used as a measure in evaluating 
a ship's performance. Over 90 percent of all 
seamen are rated Master 3 speciahsts by the end 
of their first tour of duty. 

The ability of the Soviet specialist is limited 
by inadequate school instruction and testing and 
the lack of facilities for intensive shipboard on- 
the-job training. Because of these shortcomings, 
the specialist is only able to perform routine 
maintenance and general operation of a limited 
range of equipment. The Soviets have alleviated 
some of these shortcomings by assembUng most 
shipboard equipment using standard components 
and modules. 



Officer Personnel 

The Soviet navy faces a chronic shortage 
of senior enlisted personnel. The reenhstment 
rate averages under 10 percent, in part be- 
cause of the national requirement that all 
males must serve on active duty in the Soviet 
armed forces. In an effort to overcome this 
shortage and to upgrade the status of a career 
serviceman, the Soviet navy introduced the 
rank of warrant officer (michman) in 1971. 
At cpmpletion of compulsory service, the Soviet 
sailor, if considered capable, is offered additional 
specialist and mihtary training in a 2-year 
warrant officer school. In return he must reenlist 
for a 5-year period, which includes the time spent 
in schooHng. 



1-18 



The warrant officer serves as the principal 
interface between officer and enlisted personnel. 
In this capacity the warrant officer has more 
responsibilities than a senior petty officer. As a 
result of more extensive training and experience, 
the warrant officer can relieve the officers of some 
of the more technical duties the enlisted 
person is not qualified to perform. Benefits in- 
crease considerably because pay, privileges, and 
leave offered to the warrant officer approach 
those of an officer. In addition, the warrant 
officer has the opportunity to achieve promotion 
to an officer rank after a number of years in 
service. 

The regular sea-going Soviet naval officer is 
a career volunteer who has been carefully selected 
and is well trained and highly specialized. More 
often than not, the Soviet naval officer is a relative 
of a party official or another naval officer. 

A majority of regular naval officers are now 
drawn from specialized naval schools. A small 
number begin as reservists after graduation 
from civihan universities, and a few others are 
promoted from the warrant officer ranks. A youth 
normally starts a naval career after a vigorous 
selection program as a cadet at one of 1 1 higher 
naval schools. The course of study is intense and 
lasts 5 years, with the graduates receiving a 
national engineering diploma and the rank of 
lieutenant. 

Some Soviet officers begin their naval careers 
at about the age of 15 upon entering the 
Nakhimov naval school system. They then go into 
a higher naval educational institution upon 
graduation from the Nakhimov school. Upon 
graduation, regular officers are assigned to a ship 
for duty in the department that corresponds to 
their specialties (navigation, engineering, ASW, 
and so on). New officers usually spend the first 
3 to 6 years of their career in the same depart- 
ment aboard the same ship, or at least in the same 
class of ship. During this period new officers earn 
a classification as a speciahst in a technical 
pursuit. They must pass examinations to perform 
in various capacities as they progress through 
positions equivalent to assistant division officers, 
assistant department heads, and department 
heads. 



able to do virtually everything their subordinates 
can do. In addition the navy expects its officers 
to instruct subordinates in their duties and to 
take care of their "ideological well being." 
Because of the general low level of technical com- 
petence of enlisted personnel, the Soviet 
officer tends "to do everything," even the most 
routine maintenance. Loyal party members give 
junior officers quite a heavy work load. 
Complaints are frequent; yet, in spite of the 
complaints, the typical Soviet officer appears to 
fulfill these duties adequately. 

Several major deficiencies may be clearly 
discerned about the education and experience of 
Soviet naval officers. They spend the first part 
of their career as a specialist in a very narrow field, 
restricted to one department in one class of ship. 
As a result, junior officers lack the needed broad 
experience and versatility to function outside 
their specific field. Often only upon selection 
as executive officer do they begin to develop 
the broader experience necessary for more 
senior posts. The Soviet navy places strong 
emphasis on collective thinking and party- 
enforced discipHne. Because of this emphasis, 
Soviet junior officers often lack personal 
initiative, independent ideas, and the wilHngness 
to take responsibility — leadership characteristics 
that are necessary for command. However, by 
virtue of their varied positions, education, 
and training from midcareer onward, officers 
finally selected for flag rank are both educated 
and experienced. 

The base pay for Soviet officers initially 
appears nominal. Taken in combination with the 
total allowances and benefits that a Soviet military 
officer accrues, the real income is substantial. For 
example, naval officers are given significant 
additional pay for service in northern areas, for 
service in submarines and aircraft, for sea duty, 
and for command. The prestigious and privileged 
class of Soviet military officers receive extensive 
benefits, according to rank, well beyond those of 
the average citizen. 



INTERNATIONAL TIES 



Soviet naval officers are managers as well as 
technical specialists. The navy expects them to be 



The United States and the Soviet Union are 
without doubt the major sea powers of the world 



1-19 



today. Even so, direct conflict between these two 
nations may not be necessary to start world 
conflict. Either nation's involvement in a major 
conflict may depend on its international ties with 
other less powerful nations. 

The United States has over a period of many 
years established pacts and treaties with several 
nations. During and after World War II, the 
United States became part of an elaborate alliance 
system, committed to the defense of half the land 
areas of the world (fig. 1-6). 

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(NATO), estabUshed in 1949, is the best known 
of several treaties drawn up in the interest of 
mutual security. The terms of the treaty specify 
that "the parties agree that an armed attack 



against one or more of them in Europe or North 
America shall be considered an attack against 
them all, and . . . each of them . . . will assist the 
other by taking, in concert with the other parties, 
such action as it deems necessary including the 
use of armed forces." 

A corresponding agreement similar to NATO 
called the ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, 
and United States) Treaty was established 
in 1952. 

The earlier Rio Treaty (1947) had already com- 
mitted the United States and the 20 independent 
Latin American nations to mutual defense. In 
addition, America made bilateral treaties with the 
Philippines, NationaUst China, South Korea, and 
Japan. By 1960 the United States was committed 



NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 


RIO TREATY 


ORGANIZATION (NATO) 












Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assist- | 


Signed at 


Washington 


April 4, 1949; entered 


ance. Done at Rio 


de Janeiro September 


into force for the United States August 24, 1949. 


2, 1947; entered into force for the United | 


States which are parties: 


States December 3, 


1948. States which are 








parties: 




Belgium 




Luxembourg 






Canada 




Netherlands 


Argentina 


Haiti 


Denmark 




Norway 


Bolivia 


Honduras 


France 




Portugal 


Brazil 


Mexico 


Germany, 


Fed. Rep. 


Spain 


Chile 


Nicaragua 


Greece 




Turkey 


Colombia 


Panama 


Iceland 




United Kingdom 


Costa Rica 


Paraguay 


Italy 




United States 


Cuba 

Dominican Rep. 
Ecuador 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 


Peru 

Trinidad & Tobago 

United States 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 






ANZUS (SECURITY TREATY) 








Signed at San Francisco September 1, 1951; 








entered into force for the United States April 








29, 1952. States which 


are parties: 








AustraUa 


/ 








New Zealand 










United States 







Figure 1-6.— Treaties and pacts of which the United States is a member. 



1-20 



to the defense of some 45 sovereign nations 
besides its own territories. Even this total does not 
completely reflect the magnitude of the total 
defense problem for the United States armed 
forces. 

Although NATO is still our number one 
alliance, our national strategy no longer focuses 
on the central front of Europe to the exclusion 
of other areas. Our strategy now recognizes with 
greater clarity the importance of the Norwegian 
northern flank. Likewise, it appreciates the 
importance of the Greek and Turkish southern 
flanks. It recognizes the importance of the Indian 
Ocean to our interests and the interests of 
our friends and allies around the globe. 
Finally, our new national strategy has begun to 
appreciate how critical the Far East is to our well- 
being. 

Equally worthy of our concern is the 
long-term security of seaborne trade in the 
western Pacific. United States trade with Asian 
countries approximates its trade with Western 
Europe and is expected to continue to expand. The 
Asia-Pacific region has become an important 
strategic center, equaling that of Western 
Europe. 

The United States and its allies, not the 
Soviets, are the nations who must exercise sea 
control in any conflict. We must also control the 
North Atlantic and beyond the Greenland- 
Iceland-United Kingdom Gap into the Norwegian 
Sea. The Soviets must never rest comforted in the 
behef that their northern bases and forces are 
invulnerable to attack from the sea. They are 
vulnerable, and we must keep them so. 



SUMMARY 

The two major navies in the world today are 
those of the United States and the USSR. The 
mission of our Navy is to be prepared to conduct 
prompt, sustained combat operations at sea in 
support of the national interests of the United 
States. 

The peacetime mission of the U.S. Navy is to 
deter the outbreak of armed conflict in which our 
nation could become involved. The Navy deters 
such conflict through strategic nuclear deterrence 
and naval presence. 



The wartime mission of the Navy has two 
basic functions: first, the Navy must be able to 
perform in a hostile environment; and second, it 
must exercise sea control and power projection. 

The Soviet navy's policy is based on a Soviet 
drive to extend its national influence through the 
use of maritime activities. To support the Soviet 
objectives, the USSR has significantly improved 
its warship, aircraft, and weapons capabiHties. 
The Soviets have made their presence felt through 
show-the-flag operations that include large in- 
creases in at-sea and distant deployment opera- 
tions. They have committed themselves to 
developing and maintaining a navy "second to 
none." 

This chapter has presented an interesting 
parallel between the life of Soviet sailors as 
compared to that of the American sailors. It has 
also presented some of the differences of the 
military efforts and forces of the United States 
and the USSR. 

The Soviets have achieved significant advan- 
tages in strategic, nuclear, and conventional 
capabilities. This achievement is a result of two 
decades of steadily increasing Soviet military 
expenditures, coupled with a long period of 
Western restraint. These advantages have led 
directly to increased risks to free- world security. 
Strong U.S. leadership and the sustained support 
of U.S. defense programs and coalition measures 
are essential for the United States to meet the 
challenges ahead. 

International ties between the United States 
and its allies have resulted in the United States 
being committed to the defense of many sovereign 
nations throughout the world. The purpose of 
these elaborate alliance systems is to pre- 
vent armed aggression against allied nations. 
An armed attack against one or more of these 
allied nations shall be considered an attack against 
them all. 



REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 12043, 
Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 
Fla., 1992. 



1-21 



Military Requirements for Chief Petty Officer, 
NAVEDTRA 12047, Naval Education and 
Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 

Navy Fact File, 8th ed.. Office of Information, 
Washington, D.C., 1988. 

U.S. Department of Defense, Soviet Military 
Power: An Assessment of the Threat 1988, 
Washington, D.C., 1988. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed., Naval Institute Press, 
Annapolis, Md., 1983. 

Miller, N., The U.S. Navy: An Illustrated 
History, Bonanza Books, New York, N.Y., 

1977. 

Polmar, N., Guide to the Soviet Navy, Fourth 
Edition, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 
Md., 1986. 




SHOW A LEG 



MANY OF OUR NAVY'S COLORFUL EXPRESSIONS ORIGINATED AS PRACTICAL MEANS 
OF COMMUNICATING VITAL INFORMATION. ONE SUCH EXPRESSION IS "SHOW A LEG.' 

IN THE BRITISH NAVY OF KING GEORGE III AND EARLIER, MANY SAILORS' 
WIVES ACCOMPANIED THEM ON LONG VOYAGES. THIS PRACTICE CAUSED A MULTI- 
TUDE OF PROBLEMS BUT SOME INGENIOUS BOSUN SOLVED ONE THAT TENDED TO MAKE 
REVEILLE A HAZARDOUS EVENT: THAT OF DISTINGUISHING WHICH BUNKS HELD 
MALES AND WHICH HELD FEMALES. 

TO AVOID DRAGGING THE WRONG "MATES" OUT OF THE RACK, THE BOSUN ASKED 
ALL TO "SHOW A LEG." IF THE LEG SHOWN WAS ADORNED WITH SILK, THE OWNER 
WAS ALLOWED TO CONTINUE SLEEPING. IF THE LEG WAS HAIRY AND TATTOOED, 
THE OWNER WAS FORCED TO "TURN TO." 

IN TODAY'S NAVY, SHOWING A LEG IS A SIGNAL TO THE REVEILLE PETTY 
OFFICER THAT YOU HAVE HEARD HIS CALL AND ARE AWAKE. 



X 



1-22 



CHAPTER 2 



MAKERS OF NAVAL TRADITION 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this ciiapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1. Describe the importance of the Navy's first 
submarine. 

2. Describe the events leading to the quasi-war 
with France. 

3. Identify the effect of the Union blockade in 
the Civil War. 

4. Recognize the importance of ironclad ships in 
the development of the naval warship. 

5. Recognize the events of the Spanish-American 
War. 



6. Describe the use of convoys in combating 
German submarines. 

7. Identify the makers of naval tradition in 
World War II. 

8. Identify the makers of naval tradition in the 
Korean conflict. 

9. Identify the makers of naval tradition during 
the Vietnam conflict. 

10. Describe the operations of the Persian Gulf. 

11. Trace the role of women in the Navy. 



MAKERS OF NAVAL TRADITION 

A visitor to the Naval Academy at Annapolis 
is impressed by the innumerable reminders of our 
naval heritage. Here is found the memorial to 
John Paul Jones, which keeps alive his memory 
so that those who follow may go on with lasting 
inspiration. In Bancroft Hall hangs Oliver Hazard 
Perry's flag of blue, bearing in rough, white 
muslin letters James Lawrence's famous slogan, 
"Don't give up the ship." On all sides appear 
monuments and buildings commemorating the 
names and deeds of great American naval heroes. 
The wide brick walk, called Decatur Walk, leads 
to the Tripoli Monument. The gymnasium is 
known as MacDonough Hall, and the massive 
armory is named Dahlgren Hall. Other buildings 
bear names such as Luce Hall, Mahan Hall, 
Maury Hall, and Sampson Hall. All those for 
whom these monuments and buildings were 
named were makers of naval tradition. 



AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

13 Oct. 1775 American navy is formed. 

5 Nov. 1779 John Paul Jones takes command 
of Bonhomme Richard in 
France. 

4 Feb. 1779 Congress appoints Esek Hopkins 
as commander-in-chief of the 
fleet. 

18 Jul. 1792 The "Father of the American 
navy," John Paul Jones, dies in 
Paris, France. 

The revolutionary war was the only period in 
our history in which the United States lacked 
imported strategic materials. However, the 



2-1 



resourcefulness of the small American navy and 
other Yankee mariners enabled General 
Washington to make up for this lack. The Royal 
Navy's low state of efficiency at that time 
contributed to the Americans' ability to 
compensate. 

France, sympathetic with the rebelHous 
colonies, entered the war on our side in 1778. 
Spain and Holland soon followed. The powerful 
French forces attacked British possessions in every 
part of the world. As a result, Britain's internal 
struggle against its colonies transformed into a 
world war that involved all the great maritime 
powers. The West Indies became the chief theater 
of naval activity, where British interests clashed 
with those of its enemies — France, Spain, and 
Holland. 

The Continental navy that fought America's 
war for independence was small and weak 
compared with the hundreds of ships of the Royal 
Navy. Since fighting had already begun before the 



small navy was officially authorized, it was 
handicapped from the beginning. Converted 
merchantmen made up two-thirds of the ships of 
this makeshift force. The crews were drawn from 
merchant vessels, fishing craft, and even from the 
army. The country also had state navies, but they 
were made up of small vessels designed for river 
and harbor defense. Swarms of American 
privateers (privately owned craft outfitted for war) 
also engaged in the fight against the British. 
The multiple forces involved made coordinating 
fleet and squadron maneuvers difficult. The 
men leading these forces helped to overcome 
great obstacles. Some of these men and their 
accomplishments are described in the following 
paragraphs. 

DAVID BUSHNELL 

For almost 4 years, a young American named 
David Bushnell worked on the design of a 



I 

TO ATTACH S 
MINE 



CONNING 






TOWER" 


MINE 




Ofk 


( 1 50 LBS. 




OF POWDER) 






SECURING/ 


"2^==ss!<4^fes^ 


^="^::r>v 


ARMING 


■■■i^^^^!!*"^^^ ~ 


^ BOLT 



PROPELLERS 




BALLAST 
TANK 



Figure 2-1. — The first submarine. 

2-2 



subsurface craft before finally completing it in 
1775. Bushnell, a Yale medical student, hoped the 
craft would help drive the British away from 
American shores for good. 

Bushnell described this first warfare submarine 
(fig. 2-1), named the Turtle, as having "some 
resemblance to two upper tortoise shells of equal 
size, joined together. ..." It was 7.5 feet deep 
and, under ideal conditions, had a maximum 
speed of 3 knots. A single operator could stay 
submerged in the craft for 30 minutes. 

The Turtle was armed with an oak casing filled 
with 150 pounds of explosives. This charge could 
be attached to the bottom of an enemy ship where 
it would remain until detonated by a simple 
clockwork mechanism. 

After completing the submarine, Bushnell 
took it for several dives to prove its seaworthiness. 
Finally, on 6 September 1776, he was ready 
to use it against the British in New York 



harbor. Sergeant Ezra Lee, a volunteer from the 
Connecticut militia, maneuvered the Turtle by 
using hand-operated screw propellers. The plan 
was for Sergeant Lee to use screws to attach a 
time-fuse charge of gunpowder to a ship's hull. 
The mission was aborted when the auger could 
not penetrate the copper sheathing on the hull of 
Admiral Howe's flagship, the HMS Eagle. 

Bushnell made a couple of more attempts to 
use the Turtle against the British in the Delaware 
River. These times he tried attaching mines to the 
Turtle and floating them against the enemy ships. 
These attempts failed, and the British finally sunk 
the submarine in New York harbor (the first 
recorded instance of an antisubmarine attack). 

JOHN PAUL JONES 

Emerging from the revolutionary war was one 
of the Navy's greatest heroes and tradition 
makers, John Paul Jones (fig. 2-2). Jones 




134.4 
Figure 2-2. — John Paul Jones, father of our highest naval traditions, represents the seaman, leader, officer, and gentleman 

at their best. 



2-3 



portrayed many of the traits a nation commonly 
attributes to a great leader. 

This sailor of fortune was born in Scotland 
in 1747. As a youth he served several years 
as a midshipman in the Royal Navy and studied 
both seamanship and English by the forecastle 
lamp. His concept of what an American naval 
officer should be is evident in his statement, 
"None other than a gentleman as well as a 
seaman both in theory and practice is quahfied 
to support the character of a commissioned officer 
in the Navy nor is any man fit to command a ship 
of war who is not also capable of communicating 
his ideas on paper, in language that becomes 
his rank." His attitude on peace and war 
appears frequently in his writings: "In time 
of peace it is necessary to prepare, and be 
always prepared, for war at sea." He added, 
however, "I have always regarded war as 
the scourge of the human race." 

Of Jones' many contributions to the Navy's 
great traditions, none stands out more than 
his refusal to acknowledge defeat. After the 
classic action between Jones' ship, the Bonhomme 
Richard, and the British frigate, Serapis, Jones 
reported he faced an enemy of greatly superior 
force. Bonhomme Richard was an old, converted 
merchant hull mounting about 40 guns, of 
which only 6 were 18 pounders. James Fenimore 
Cooper, in his History of the Navy of the 
United States of America, compared the ship's 
gun capacity to that of a 32-gun frigate. The 
Serapis, rated as a 44-gun frigate, mounted 50 
guns and was new and superior in maneuverability 
to the Bonhomme Richard. 

When the first broadside was fired, two 
of Jones' 18 pounders burst, causing the crew 
to abandon the rest of these guns. The battle 
then became a contest between a battery of 
12 pounders and a battery of 18 pounders. 
Several more broadsides, dehvered at close 
range, soon reduced Bonhomme Richard 
to a critical state. The ship's hold was flooded 
with 3 feet of water, the heavy guns were out 
of commission, and half the crew had been 
killed or wounded. In addition, the rudder 
and rigging had been shot away and fires 
were fast approaching the magazine. At that point 
Captain Richard Pearson of the Serapis called to 
Jones, asking whether he had struck his colors. 
Though barely able to keep afloat, Jones 
thundered back his famous answer, "I have not 



yet begun to fight." These fighting words inspired 
his men with the determination to win. 

After fighting for nearly 4 hours, the British 
surrendered; since no one else dared venture on 
deck, Captain Pearson himself hauled down the 
colors on his battered ship. The spirit of the 
offensive and the will to gain victory were never 
better demonstrated than by John Paul Jones. His 
immortal words "I have not yet begun to fight" 
inspire Americans today as they did over 200 years 
ago. 

Jones' victories were not accidents. In 
moments of stress, he mingled with his crew, 
cheering them on. A shipmate once said of Jones, 
"He was in everybody's watch and everybody's 
mess [deck] all the time. In fact, I may say that 
any ship John Paul Jones commanded was full 
of himself all of the time." 

After losing the Serapis, Captain Pearson 
at his court-martial made an amazing and 
illuminating statement about Jones: 

Although more than half the crew were 
French — at any rate not Americans — 
long before the close of the action it 
became apparent that the American ship 
was dominated by a commanding will 
of the most unalterable resolution, and 
there could be no doubt that the intention 
of her commander was, if he could 
not conquer, to sink alongside. And 
this desperate resolve was fully shared 
and fiercely seconded by every one of 
his ship's company. And if the Honorable 
Court may be pleased to enter an ex- 
pression of opinion, I will venture to 
say that if French seamen can ever be 
induced by their own officers to fight in 
their own ships as Captain Jones induced 
them to fight in his American one, the 
future burdens of His Majesty's Navy 
will be heavier than they have heretofore 
been. 

Lord Sandwich, first Lord of the British 
Admiralty, wrote to one of his commanders, 
"For God's sake get to sea immediately. If 
you take Paul Jones, you will be as high in 
the estimation of the public as if you had beat 
the combined fleets." Such was the British evalua- 
tion of the American navy's greatest combat 
leader. 



2-4 



WAR WITH FRANCE 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 
14 Jul. 1813 



LT John M. Gamble, USMC, 
becomes first Marine officer to 
command a ship in battle. 



10 Sep. 1813 Oliver Hazard Perry, in Battle 
of Lake Erie, defeats a British 
naval squadron for the first time 
in history. 

8 Jan. 1815 United States wins Battle of 
New Orleans. 

22 Mar. 1820 Commodores Stephen Decatur 
and James Barron duel near 
Washington, D.C., resulting in 
Decatur's death. Dueling in the 
Navy is outlawed following that 
incident. 

16 Dec. 1835 Greatest fire in history of New 
York City occurs; firemen are 
aided by the Navy and Marines. 

14 Feb. 1840 Several officers and mascot dog 
from USS Vincennes relax on 
floating ice after arriving in 
Antarctic regions; they are first 
Americans to enter that region. 

After the revolutionary war, the fortunes of 
the navy declined, and by 1785 its last ship had 
been sold. Little remained except fighting tradi- 
tions. When the U.S. Constitution went into 
effect in 1789, the War Department was charged 
with directing both the army and the navy. At that 
time these forces consisted of only a few hundred 
soldiers and no ships or marines. 

This absence of naval strength soon proved 
disastrous because Barbary pirates began cap- 
turing our merchant ships and imprisoning their 
crews. In 1794 public sentiment moved Congress 
to authorize the building of six frigates to 
protect our interests. Thus, the United States 
Navy was permanently established under the 
Constitution. 

The makers of naval tradition during this 
period were responsible for some vast improve- 
ments in our conventional Navy. These improve- 
ments, which helped to make the Navy more 
powerful, included more advanced ship designs 
and better leadership. 



JOSHUA HUMPHREYS 

President Washington appointed Joshua 
Humphreys, a Philadelphia Quaker, to design the 
first six frigates of the new U.S. Navy. He thus 
became our first naval constructor. A technical 
genius, Humphreys was also a farseeing student 
of naval history who exerted a tremendous 
influence upon the U.S. Navy. He believed our 
"vessels should combine such qualities of 
strength, durabihty, and swiftness of sailing, and 
force as to render them superior to any frigate 
belonging to the European Powers." Departing 
from conventional standards, he designed the best 
frigates that sailed the seas— frigates that could 
run or fight at will and fight on their own terms. 
His chief innovations provided for heavier 
batteries; thicker timber; finer lines; and longer, 
stouter spars than those of frigates of other 
powers. Several years later the Royal Navy paid 
a compliment to Humphreys' skill by constructing 
frigates according to his designs. 

Humphreys drew up plans for the six famous 
frigates, the United States, Constitution (fig. 2-3), 




134.5 
Figure 2-3. — The new and radical USS Constitution , built 
for speed and firepower, helped to rid the Mediterranean 
of the Barbary pirates. 



2-5 



Constellation, President, Chesapeake, and 
Congress. Two of these ships, the Constitution 
and the Constellation, are still afloat! In building 
them, Humphreys broke sharply with current 
naval ideas. He displayed virtues of great value 
to any nation — a friendliness to innovation and 
a wiUingness to experiment. 

OPENING HOSTILITIES 

Enemies other than the Barbary pirates soon 
harassed the defenseless United States. Both 
France and England, then engaged in a war, began 
to plunder American merchantmen. While a treaty 
with Great Britain relieved the conflict with that 
country, our relations grew worse with France, 
who charged us with treaty violations. The capture 
of men and ships continued as French privateers 
began operating near American harbors. 

The actions of the French privateers aroused 
Congress to take immediate and vigorous action. 
In 1798 Congress estabUshed the Navy Depart- 
ment and appointed Benjamin Stoddert of 
Georgetown, Maryland, as the first Secretary of 
the Navy. Again, as had happened during the 
revolutionary war, a fleet had to be created with 
war already in progress. Our small Navy, 
therefore, was immediately expanded as numerous 
naval officers were appointed for active duty. 
Recruiting officers in the main ports along the 
Atlantic coast began a drive to enlist seamen. 

Although no official war was declared. 
Congress authorized the Navy to retaliate. The 
Navy was ordered to seize any armed French 
vessels within the jurisdictional Umits of the 
United States or on the high seas. The quasi- war 
with France had begun. 

This naval war, waged mainly in the 
Caribbean, was so costly to France that the French 
Directory was ready to sue for peace by 1801. 
Thomas Truxtun, another naval leader who 
endowed the Navy with great traditions, was 
largely responsible for this American victory. 

THOMAS TRUXTUN 



Care for your men; see that each 
understands his duties; exact instant 
obedience; superintend everything; practice 
daily with the guns. 

— Thomas Truxtun 



Captain Truxtun (fig. 2-4), an expert seaman 
and a strict disciplinarian, devised this simple 
philosophy for attaining victory over an enemy. 
The fame of this outstanding officer is derived 
principally from his defeat of the French ships 
Insurgente and Vengeance. However, he is best 
remembered for his basic philosophy about the 
relationship between officers and their men, as 
shown by the example he set. 

Enlisted men, looked upon during this time 
as fighting mechanisms rather than as human 
beings, were often punished savagely and without 
justice. Captain Truxtun began to change that 
image. He insisted his officers treat their men 
courteously but firmly and that the men respect 
and obey their officers. Concerned officers and 
respectful enlisted personnel in today's Navy still 
follow Captain Truxtun's example. 

In language that could not be misunderstood. 
Captain Truxtun wrote the following to his 
officers: 

It is not to be expected that the 
Lieutenants of Ships are to remain idle and 
indifferent spectators of what is going on, 
but on the contrary it is absolutely 
necessary that they overlook the duty of 
every department on board. 

An officer in carrying on his duty 
should be civil and polite to everyone, for 
civility does not interfere with discipline. 

An officer is never to lose sight of the 
humanity and care that is due to those who 
may really be sick or otherwise stand in 
need of his assistance. 

Truxtun's attitude toward his men resulted 
from his experience during the revolutionary war 
as a successful privateer captain working closely 
with the Navy. He could not help noticing and 
regretting that many naval officers, slack and 
indolent, cared too little about a taut ship. As a 
captain of the Constellation during the war with 
France in 1799, he found an opportunity to 
instill his own mihary spirit in his crews. 

A dramatic act of bravery during Captain 
Truxtun's command of the Constellation showed 
the respect and loyalty he had earned from his 
men. The battle against the Vengeance began at 
2000 and lasted until 0100. During that battle, a 
teenaged midshipman lived up to what the Navy 
calls "the highest traditions of the naval service." 
When a sailor told Midshipman James Jarvis that 



2-6 




134.6 
Figure 2-4.— "Take care of your men." Captain Truxtun 
insisted on justice and consideration for enlisted men. 



the mainmast was tottering and that he should 
come down before he was killed, Jarvis rephed, 
"If the mast goes, we go with it. Our post is 
here." 

The next roll of the ship sent the mast crashing 
and sphntering over the side, throwing Jarvis far 
out into the black water to his death. In tribute 
to this boy's courage and discipline, Congress 
passed the following resolution: "The conduct of 
James Jarvis, a midshipman of the Constellation, 
who gloriously preferred certain death to the 
abandoning of his post, deserves the highest 
praise; and the loss of so promising an officer is 
a subject of national regret." 

Good leadership produces good foUowership. 
The leadership Truxtun displayed through con- 
cern for his men in turn produced good follower- 
ship in those under his command. 



WAR WITH TRIPOLI 

The terms of a treaty with Tripoli required the 
United States to pay small tributes to that country. 
Dissatisfied with the amount of tribute paid and 
lured by the unprotected American commerce, the 



Bashaw of Tripoli declared war on the United 
States in 1801. 

In answer to this challenge, Commodore 
Edward Preble, in his flagship, the Constitution, 
was sent to the Mediterranean in command of a 
squadron. One of the men under his command 
was a young lieutenant named Stephen Decatur 
who, inspired by Preble, helped to establish a 
different type of naval tradition. 



STEPHEN DECATUR 

During the United States' war with the pirates 
in the Mediterranean, a dramatic incident in- 
fluenced the molding of our Navy traditions. The 
frigate Philadelphia had fallen into the hands of 
Tripolitans and become an important addition to 
their harbor defenses. A young lieutenant named 
Stephen Decatur, who was under the command 
of Commodore Preble, volunteered to destroy this 
captive frigate. The Philadelphia had been built 
in Decatur's home city and was originally 
commanded by his father. 

Decatur, with 74 comrades, including Charles 
Morris, James Lawrence, and Thomas Mac- 
Donough, sneaked into the harbor at night in a 
small ketch. They were guided by Salvadore 
Catalano, a Sicilian pilot who knew the harbor 
of Tripoli and could speak Arabic. Within 
minutes they captured the ship, the foe having 
been cut down or driven into the sea. Com- 
bustibles were passed aboard, and soon the ship 
was burning fiercely. Several minutes later the 
boarders, with only one man wounded, were back 
in their ketch. Under fire from shore batteries, 
they left the illuminated harbor. Three of today's 
modern warships honor these makers of naval 
tradition by carrying the names USS Morris, 
Lawrence, and MacDonough. 

Perhaps no act in the first half of the 19th 
century thrilled Americans more than the destruc- 
tion of the Philadelphia. That spectacular feat 
made Decatur the most striking figure of the time 
and prompted Lord Nelson to call it "the most 
daring act of the age." Spectacular exploits were 
commonplace in Decatur's career, but they were 
not the feats of a reckless warrior. He was a 
thoughtful strategist and an expert tactician. He 
was, as well, an adept diplomat and a skilled 
administrator. Like Paul Jones (who could turn 
an excellent phrase) and Truxtun (who wrote a 
book on navigation), Decatur was not one-sided. 
Versatility, too, is a Navy tradition. 



2-7 



PREBLE AND "HIS BOYS" 

Commodore Edward Preble (fig. 2-5) fought 
as a lieutenant in the American Revolution and 
later in the war with France. He believed in 
Truxtun's ideas and expanded them. Having 
served during the Revolution, he also realized the 
need for justly administered discipHne. Like 
Truxtun, he was keenly interested in his blue- 
jackets; their care and fair treatment absorbed his 
attention. Preble also shared responsibility with 
his officers and encouraged them to offer new 
ideas. He was generous in giving his subordinates 
credit for their achievements in the squadron and 
in urging promotions and honors for those who 
had earned them. The mutual regard between the 
commodore and his young officers (all the 
captains and lieutenants were under 30 years of 
age) united the fleet in spirit. 

Preble taught his subordinates the necessity 
for absolute obedience, unyielding courage, and 




134.8 
Figure 2-5. — "Take care of your officers." Commodore 
Edward Preble commanded the American squadron that 
smashed the might of the Barbary pirates in the 
Mediterranean during 1803-1804. The training he gave 
his young subordinates (who came to be known as 
Preble's boys) at that time paid dividends in the War of 
1812, when they achieved 17 out of 18 naval victories. 



24-hour-a-day efficiency, which have continued 
to be standards of the U.S. Navy. Preble's 
exemplary leadership was proven in the War of 
1812, when his "boys" scored 17 of the 18 
victories won by the American navy in combat. 



WAR OF 1812 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

9 Mar. 1798 George Balfour appointed first 
surgeon in U.S. Navy. 

18 Mar. 1798 Benjamin Stoddert is appointed 
first Secretary of the Navy. 

The Navy was outnumbered 40 to 1 in the 
second war with Great Britain and by 1814 had 
suffered severe reverses. Our coast was tightly 
blockaded; our ships were driven from the high 
seas; and our nation's capitol had been burned. 
Nevertheless, the Navy won a series of frigate and 
sloop-of-war duels, which gained it a world 
reputation. These victories were the result of naval 
traditions set by some of our greatest leaders. We 
had the best frigates in the world — the tradition 
of Humphreys; we had, the best gunnery in the 
world — the tradition of Truxtun; our morale was 
high — the tradition of Preble; and our Navy had 
a great fighting spirit — the traditiqn of John Paul 
Jones. 

These brilliant frigate victories on the high seas 
had little effect on the course of the war itself. 
However, the naval leaders responsible for these 
victories contributed much to the building of 
traditions in our Navy. 

ISAAC HULL 

Before the turn of the century, Hull had 
already made his mark in history by capturing a 
French privateer. Although the French ship was 
larger and more heavily armed than the ship he 
commanded. Lieutenant Hull and his men 
captured the ship without the loss of a single man. 

Captain Hull's greatest role in naval his- 
tory was as the commanding officer of the 
Constitution in the battle against the Guerriere 
commanded by Captain Dacres. During that 
battle, Hull quietly moved among his officers and 
men, addressing them with words of confidence 
and encouragement such as "Men, now do your 
duty." And every man stood firm to his post. 



2-8 



Within 45 minutes the Guerriere had been 
reduced to a wreck — a feat that astonished both 
sides of the Atlantic. In that battle our most 
famous and historic ship, the Constitution, won 
its nickname "Old Ironsides" as enemy shot 
bounced harmlessly off its thick wooden hull. 



STEPHEN DECATUR 

As already pointed out, Decatur (fig. 2-6) 
received his training in Preble's "school" in the 
Mediterranean. Now in command of the United 
States, he faced the Macedonia, one of the finest 
ships of its class in the Royal Navy. Decatur, 
choosing his position well, decided to fight at long 
range and gradually wear down his opponent. 



Quickly analyzing the battle situation, Decatur 
saw that the greater range of his guns would 
enable him to outshoot and cripple the British. 
He cleverly maneuvered his ship and prevented 
the enemy from closing in. His gunners fired 
rapidly and accurately, and more than a hundred 
shots penetrated the Macedonia's hull. Down 
came its mizzenmast. Both the fore and main top- 
masts were shot off. After 2 hours of fighting, 
the battle was over. The victory was a great 
exhibition of leadership by Decatur, who had an 
exceptional ability to instill his own spirit into his 
men. He describes that spirit as follows: "The 
enthusiasm of every officer, seaman, and marine 
on board this ship, on discovering the enemy, their 
steady conduct in battle, and precision of their 
fire, could not be surpassed." 




134.9 
Figure 2-6. — Praise can be a motivating force. Captain Stephen Decatur substituted praise for oaths and flogging — and 
his gunners poured 100 shots at long range into the enemy Macedonia in the War of 1812. 



2-9 



Decatur was popular with his men. He 
deplored oaths and flogging — the customary 
methods of discipline used at that time. He often 
addressed his men directly, explaining the kind 
of conduct he expected of them. Decatur won 
respect not by demanding it, but by deserving it. 

OLIVER HAZARD PERRY 

Many fighting slogans were coined during the 
War of 1812. James Lawrence's dying words, 
"Don't give up the ship," uttered in the ill-fated 
Chesapeake, became the battle cry of the Navy. 
Oliver Hazard Perry carried them to Lake Erie 
where a flag containing the words "Don't give 
up the ship" was hoisted on his ship. 

During the Battle of Lake Erie, with four- 
fifths of the crew dead or wounded and his ship, 
the Lawrence, crippled, Perry faced defeat. He 
made a perilous passage in an open boat to 
another ship, the Niagara, under the guns of the 
enemy. Exhibiting extraordinary shrewdness and 
courage in a surprise maneuver, he sailed the 
Niagara (fig. 2-7) into battle and defeated the 
enemy within 15 minutes. 

DR. USHER PARSONS 

A hero and tradition maker seldom mentioned 
in descriptions of the Battle of Lake Erie was Dr. 
Usher Parsons. Dr. Parsons was the only surgeon 
aboard the Lawrence during that battle. 

Ships of this era were shallow-built with 
unprotected cockpits. (A cockpit was the junior 
officers quarters, usually located below the 
waterline.) During the Battle of Lake Erie, the 



doctor tended the wounded on the wardroom 
floor, which was nearly level with the surface of 
the water. Unprotected from enemy fire, this hot 
and crowded spot served as the operating room 
and hospital in which Parsons and his assistants 
carried on their work. 

When all able men were needed on deck to 
fight, the doctor carried on single-handed. During 
the battle, five cannon balls crashed through the 
wardroom, one of them kilhng two men lying on 
the operating table. In all. Dr. Parson amputated 
six limbs and dressed the wounds of many men 
before he finally transferred with Perry to the 
Niagara. 

Of the 96 men wounded in the battle, only 3 
died — a remarkable tribute to the skill of the 
25-year-old surgeon. In a letter to the Secretary 
of the Navy, Perry wrote, "Of Dr. Parsons, 
surgeon's mate, I cannot say too much." 
Dr. Parsons was only one of many doctors who 
made bravery a naval tradition. During the quasi- 
war with France and the War of 1812, the names 
of 34 medical officers were included in a 
resolution by a grateful Congress. 

THOMAS MACDONOUGH 

Of perhaps greater importance than Perry's 
victory was Thomas MacDonough's brilliant 
triumph over the British fleet on Lake Champlain. 
As the enemy ships closed in, "young Mac- 
Donough, who feared his foes not at all, but his 
God a great deal, knelt for a moment with his 
officers on the quarterdeck." 





134.10 
Figure 2-7.— A surprise maneuver turns defeat into victory. Leaving the crippled Lawrence, Perry boarded the Niagara , 
sailed through the British lines, and attained victory in 15 minutes. 



2-10 



MacDonough (fig. 2-8) was everywhere during 
the battle, trying to instill organization and 
fighting spirit into his crew. His calm determina- 
tion was remarkably contagious. The credit of this 
victory against a superior force belongs first and 
last to MacDonough himself. In choosing a 
position that imposed upon the British an 
approach under a raking fire, he won the opening 
gambit of the battle. Meantime, he was wise 
enough to hold several tactical tricks in reserve. 
With these he managed to rally when the enemy 
thought him beaten. 

MacDonough's Champlain victory was an 
example of the American naval effort in the War 
of 1812. Pitted against the greatest naval power 
in the world, our tiny Navy fought with great 
valor. In accomplishing much with little, the Navy 
began another tradition — one expressed by the 
Navy's slogan in World War II: "We must all do 
all that we can with what we have." 



THE CIVIL WAR 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

26 Jun. 1861 Commander James Harmon 
Ward killed by musket ball — 
first Union naval officer to 
become casualty in Civil War. 

16 Jul. 1862 Rank of rear admiral created; 
David G. Farragut appointed as 
first to hold rank. 

11 May 1865 Confederate navy surrenders to 
Captain Edward Simpson. 

25 Jul. 1866 David G. Farragut appointed 
first admiral in U.S. Navy. 

The naval history of the Civil War vividly 
portrays the use of sea forces against an enemy 
who was economically dependent on shipping. 
The Confederate States were a combined land 
power with the advantage of interior lines. The 
Confederates' many sea and river ports allowed 
them access to world commerce, which they vitally 
needed; but an effective Union blockade denied 
them war imports. The Confederates achieved 
their successes with shoestring resources, which 
were soon expended. 

The Union navy (U.S. Navy) simultaneously 
assumed three huge strategic tasks, largely 
amphibious in nature. It attempted to blockade 
the whole southern coast, force its way into 
various southern ports, and cooperate with the 
Union army on the Mississippi front. Union naval 
forces were also called upon to protect northern 




134.11 
Figure 2-8. — The greatest naval victory of the War of 1812, 
perhaps the most decisive of all battles fought on land 
or sea in that conflict, was won by Captain Thomas 
MacDonough, "the hero of Lake Champlain." The 
action halted a British invasion of New York that stood 
little chance of defeat at the hands of the American 
army. 



shipping from enemy raiders. The Union navy's 
ability to adjust to new conditions is shown in the 
way it met the complex demands of the Civil War 
both afloat and ashore. To complicate matters, 
naval warfare at that time was in a transitional 
period; that is, a total naval revolution was in 
progress. Although steam propulsion was in- 
troduced earlier, armor was just coming into use. 
In the field of ordnance, rifled guns and shell 
ammunition required new methods of fire control. 

Produced by this rapid transition was one 
of the oddest assortments of warships ever 
assembled. The Union fleet contained old wooden 
frigates like the Constitution, converted East" 
River ferryboats, scores of armed steamers, and 
a number of experimental ironclads. The South 
used armored vessels, steam commerce raiders, 
electrical mines, and even primitive submarines. 

Under the superior leadership of Secretary of 
the Navy Gideon Welles and Assistant Secretary 
Gustavus V. Fox, the Union navy used the war 
as a testing period for strategies and weaponry. 



2-11 



The nation's scientists and inventors contributed 
many innovations and, by war's end, the Navy 
was technically the equal of any on the sea. 

The most famous naval battle of the war 
served as a preview of things to come. This was 
the battle between the USS Monitor and CSS 
Virginia (ex-USS Merrimac). That naval conflict 
probably attracted more attention than any in our 
history. Fighting the first action of its kind in 
history, the ironclads conclusively demonstrated 
the superiority of metal over wood. The battle of 
the ironclads contrasted with the easy victories of 
the Virginia over the unarmored ships 
Cumberland and Congress on the previous day. 

Leaders in both the Union navy and the 
Confederate navy contributed to our naval 
traditions. From these vaUant leaders we learned 
the importance of attention to detail, a progressive 
outlook, a sense of humor, and persistence in the 
face of adversity. 

DAVID G. FARRAGUT 

Among the outstanding naval leaders of the 
Civil War was David G. Farragut (1801-1870). 
Like many others in the early days of the Navy, 
Farragut (fig. 2-9) entered the service as a 
youngster. He was a midshipman before he was 
10 years old. By the time he was 21, he was 
experienced at shiphandling and leadership. 

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, 
Farragut, then aged 60, had already served 49 
years in the Navy. At this time he was awaiting 
orders in Norfolk, where he and his wife had 
made their home for almost 17 years. Southern 
friends, urging him to espouse the Confederate 
cause, were left in no doubt as to his sympathies 
and convictions. "I would see every man of you 
damned before I would raise my hand against the 
flag." With that declaration of allegiance, he 
hurried north to serve with the United States 
Navy. 

Farragut's New Orleans campaign was one of 
the most briUiant of the war. Where logistics was 
concerned, Farragut displayed an impressive 
knowledge of the art of moving men and supplies. 
He is credited with being the first American 
officer who fully understood the strategic deploy- 
ment of a fleet and coordinated the operations 
of his vessels accordingly. 

Farragut is best remembered for the incident 
that occurred at Mobile Bay while he was 
stationed on the Hartford. During the critical 
phase of battle, mines (then called torpedoes) were 
reported ahead. Farragut knew that the monitor 




134.12 
Figure 2-9. — The statement of David G. Farragut, tactician 
and strategist, that "the best defense is a well-directed 
fire from your own guns" became a Navy axiom. 



Tecumseh, with almost all hands, had just gone 
down in that area. His response, would echo 
throughout history as a slogan for driving 
leadership — "Damn the torpedoes! Full speed 
ahead!" As Farragut suspected, most of the 
enemy's underwater weapons had deteriorated 
from long submersion, so the fleet got through. 
This engagement shows another example of 
Farragut's genius for planning. He had spent 2 
days making sure his ships were prepared for the 
run. Heavy anchor cables were fastened alongside 
the wooden sides to serve as "chain armor" for 
the engines and boilers. The ships were daubed 
with mud (primitive camouflage), and water 
buckets were readied for fire fighting. As a 
tactician and strategist, Farragut was unexcelled 
by any of his peers. His statement, "the best 
protection against the enemy's fire is a well- 
directed fire from your own guns," became a 
principle of naval warfare. However, Farragut 
gave the Navy much more than valiant slogans; 



2-12 



he left us a reminder that major plans are 
composed of minor details. Even a detail as 
minute as water buckets received Farragut's 
attention. Shortly after the battle of Mobile Bay, 
Congress created the rank of admiral, thereby 
making Farragut the first U.S. Navy admiral in 
July of 1866. 



DAVID D. PORTER 

David D. Porter (fig. 2-10) was the son of the 
famous David Porter who commanded the Essex 
during the War of 1812. David D. Porter saw 
more continuous fighting than any American 
naval officer of note during the Civil War — much 
of it on the Mississippi River. Competent, 
aggressive, and resourceful. Porter rose from the 
rank of lieutenant at the beginning of the 
conflict to rear admiral at its close. Through 
Porter's urging, the Navy chose Farragut to lead 
the New Orleans expedition. Porter devised and 



led the famous mortar flotilla that did much to 
crack the Delta defenses. 

Juniors were eager to serve under the dynamic 
Porter. Besides being a fine seaman and able 
administrator, he possessed many personal traits 
that contributed to the spectacular success of his 
naval career. He was impulsive, frank, honest, 
and endowed with a creative imagination. He 
detested disloyalty and valued performance above 
protocol. His sense of humor was unquenchable; 
no matter how desperate a situation became, 
he could find an opportunity for a jest. He 
could accurately estimate the potential of his 
subordinates and always praised them when they 
lived up to his expectations. Above all, he favored 
innovation and was open-minded toward anything 
that might be better. His progressive outlook kept 
him a step ahead of his colleagues. 

RAPHAEL SEMMES 

The distinguished Confederate naval leader 
Raphael Semmes (fig. 2-11) conveyed an 





134.128 
Figure 2-10. — Rear Admiral David D. Porter was the second 
admiral in the U.S. Navy, preceded only by Farragut. 
Porter commanded the Mississippi River flotilla in its 
campaign down the big waterway that climaxed at 
Vicksburg. Later he inflicted a brilliant and crushing 
defeat on the Confederates at Fort Fisher in 1865. 



134.129 

Figure 2-11. — Raphael Semmes, while skipper of the 

Confederate Alabama , ruthlessly burned ship after ship, 

virtually driving merchantmen flying the Stars and Stripes 

off the seas. 



2-13 



impression best described by the term knightly. 
Few warriors of that caUber ever existed outside 
the pages of fiction, but Semmes Hved the part 
in the best John Paul Jones' tradition. Captain- 
ing Sumter and Alabama, he left a record that 
reads like a saga of valor and daring actions. Like 
Jones, he refused to be defeated by adversity. 
Deprived of Sumter at Gibraltar, he wrote, "I 
could sweep the whole Mediterranean in from 15 
to 20 days if I had the means of locomotion," 
Eventually he acquired the means, and his raiding 
cruiser Alabama struck the North harder blows 
than any other Confederate vessel. 



SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

15 Jun. 1898 Fort destroyed and possession 
of outer bay taken at Guan- 
tanamo, Cuba, by U.S. ships. 

2 Mar. 1899 George F. Dewey appointed 
first and only Admiral of the 

Navy. 

24 Jul. 1905 Navy brings body of John Paul 
Jones to United States. 

6 Apr. 1909 North Pole reached by Com- 
mander Peary; first U.S. flag 
raised there. 

23 Dec. 1910 LT T. G. Ellyson, the Navy's 
first aviator, ordered to flight 
training. He was qualified on 12 
April 1911. 

1 Jul. 1914 Prohibition proclaimed for 

Navy. 

The Spanish-American War in 1898 was 
caused by a long series of incidents arising 
partially from unsettled conditions in Caribbean 
countries possessed by Spain. As evidenced from 
the first, the war would be primarily naval 
and would be decided in favor of the nation 
that established sea control. The naval strength 
of the two countries was about equal on 



paper. However, Spain's ships were poorly 
equipped, its personnel lacked training, and its 
officers displayed incredibly incompetent 
leadership. 

Perhaps the outstanding exploit of the 
Spanish-American War was Commodore George 
Dewey's seizure of Manila Bay. Knowing Dewey's 
fleet was somewhere in the vicinity of the bay, 
the Spanish were ready to receive him. However, 
the unsuspecting Spanish were taken by surprise 
by the American's audacity to steam past their 
forts to attack during the night (fig. 2-12). 

While laying his plans, Dewey tried to figure 
out what Farragut would have done when so 
confronted, for Farragut had been the inspiration 
of his life. Farragut's influence on this great leader 
is borne out in Dewey's statement, "Valuable as 
the training of Annapolis was, it was poor 
schooling beside that of serving under Farragut 
in time of war." Dewey's dramatic decision to 
force Manila Bay was inspired by his admiration 
for Farragut. 

Dewey's unexpected blow was half the victory. 
"We shall enter Manila Bay tonight," Dewey 
informed his subordinates, "and you will follow 
the motions and movements of the flagship, which 
will lead." 

At 0540 the Spanish were within a 2 1/2-mile 
range. Dewey, standing on the bridge of the 
Olympia, quietly gave the commanding officer of 
his flagship the order to "fire when you are ready, 
Gridley." By noon, every enemy ship was sunk, 
burned, or abandoned. In that one morning, 
Dewey eliminated the Spanish navy's strength in 
the Pacific without the loss of one American life. 
Even though the enemy defense was weak, 
Dewey's attack was nonetheless a significant 
victory. 

Dewey stressed preparedness. Before leaving 
the United States, he had obtained all the infor- 
mation available on the Spanish fleet. He secured 
charts and other data about the Philippines and 
made a detailed study of international law. Before 
the battle, he discussed with his officers every 
detail of tactics and strategy. Every ship captain 
knew each detail of how and when to act. "It was 
the ceaseless routine of hard work and prepara- 
tion in time of peace," wrote Dewey, "that won 
Manila and Santiago." 



2-14 





^4^^^ 



134.131 
Figure 2-12. — Commodore George Dewey and his squadron sailed past the shore batteries of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898 
to smash the Spanish Pacific squadron of Rear Admiral Montojo, opening the way for the American occupation of 
the Philippines. 



WORLD WAR I 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

24 Sept. 1918 Lieutenant (JG) David S. Ingalls 
becomes Navy's first flying ace. 
(The criterion for becoming an 
"ace" is to down five enemy 
planes.) 

28 Feb. 1919 Destroyer Osmond Ingram, 
first Navy ship named for an 
enlisted man, launched. 

27 Feb. 1928 Commander T. G. Ellyson, 

Navy's first aviator, killed in air 
crash. 

28 Nov. 1929 First flight over South Pole 

by Lieutenant Commander 
Richard E. Byrd, who became 
the first to fly over both poles. 

Several days after our declaration of war 
against Germany in April 1917, Rear Admiral 
William S. Sims arrived in London. Admiral 
Sims, who had been serving as President of the 
Naval War College in Newport, was sent to confer 
with British First Sea Lord, Admiral John 
Jellicoe. Explaining the status of the submarine 
war, Jellicoe revealed that available Allied 
shipping had been depleted by one-fourth and 
losses were mounting at an appalling rate. April 
losses alone threatened to reach the unprecedented 



figure of 900,000 tons. Sims realized at that rate 
England, with only a month's grain supply on 
hand, must starve or surrender within a few 
weeks' time. Germany was winning the war. 

Germany was building submarines, called 
U-boats, at the rate of three a week. Sims 
realized the submarine menace had to be reduced 
drastically if the Allies were to survive. He 
appealed to the Navy Department for immediate 
dispatch of all available destroyers and other 
antisubmarine craft, auxiharies, and merchant- 
men. Within a month after our entry into the war, 
the first American naval forces began to arrive 
in Britain ready for duty. 

From a naval point of view. World War I was 
a conflict of two blockades. The Allies maintained 
a long-distance blockade of German ports; the 
Germans, with the submarine, tried to blockade 
British and French ports by attacking Allied 
shipping. The unrestricted sinking of neutral 
American merchant ships was one reason for our 
entry into the war. The cruiser, the destroyer, 
and the newly constructed submarine chaser 
performed support service in that campaign- 
against German submarines. 

The Allied victory resulted in part from the 
Sims-inspired convoy system employed in 
transporting about 2 million American fighting 
men to France. Navy convoys also transported 
the munitions and supplies needed to sustain 
Pershing's armies and the Allies. 



2-15 



While these victories cost the lives of many of 
these American fighting men, many unselfish acts 
of bravery by men such as O. K. Ingram and 
Charles L. Ausburne saved the lives of others. 
Those who performed such acts throughout 
history gave us one of our most valuable naval 
traditions — heroism. 



Instead of saving himself, he deliberately rushed 
aft to throw the charges overboard. The torpedo 
found its mark — and the explosion killed Ingram 
and temporarily disabled the ship. But this blue- 
jacket's sacrifice saved his ship and the Hves of 
the officers and men on board. The destroyer 
Ingram, now decommissioned, bore his name. 



O. K. INGRAM 



CHARLES L. AUSBURNE 



In October 1917 the destroyer Cassin was 
patrolling off the Irish coast. Gunner's Mate 
O. K. Ingram suddenly sighted a German torpedo 
racing toward the stern of the Cassin. He realized 
if the "fish" struck the vessel where the depth 
charges were stowed, the ship would be blown up. 



Another incident that occurred in World War 
I contributed to our store of memorable naval 
traditions. The transport Antilles, bound for the 
United States from Europe in October 1917, was 
sunk by torpedo attack. Radio Electrician 
Ausburne was at the wireless station frantically 




134.132 

Figure 2-13.— By his brilliant leadership and skill as a strategist, Admiral Nimitz moved his forces In the Pacific, from 
a series of peripheral engagements to strategic encirclement of the enemy, to cut the enemy's lines of supply and isolate 
its land forces. 



2-16 



sending out distress signals. The ship was sinking 
rapidly; but Ausburne, disregarding his own 
safety, stuck to his post to the end, vainly 
attempting to obtain help. Ausburne's sacrifice, 
hke Ingram's, was in keeping with the highest 
traditions of naval service. The heroism of such 
men reminds us that the bluejackets are worthy 
of the best in leadership. 



WORLD WAR II 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

16 Oct. 1940 Registration under the Selective 
Service and Training Act begins; 
16 milHon register. 

7 Dec. 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. 

20 Dec. 1941 Admiral E. J. King assumes 
duties as Commander in Chief, 
U.S. Fleet. 

18 Jun. 1942 First black officer, Bernard W. 
Robinson, commissioned in 
Naval Reserve. 

Deeds of yesterday furnish the inspiration for 
today. In warfare the immediate stakes are death 
and life, and the long-term stakes are the survival 
of a way of life and of a civilization. During such 
crises people must work beyond their strength and 
hit harder and faster than their opponents. They 
must make split-second — and correct — decisions 
and risk their own lives to let others live. Their 
heroism lives on in traditions that become the 
motivating force of future generations: traditions 
of courage, hard work, lightning fast and shrewd 
judgment, and heroic self-sacrifice. The many 
Navy members that responded to such crises 
during World War II reenforced these valued 
naval traditions. 



CHESTER WILLIAM NIMITZ 

Admiral Chester William Nimitz hoisted his 
flag as Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet 
(CINCPAC), on 31 December 1941 aboard the 
submarine Grayling in a harbor littered with the 
wreckage of American warships. Admiral Nimitz 
(fig. 2-13) was faced with one of the most difficult 



tasks ever presented. The Japanese, on 7 
December 1941 , successfully rendered one of the 
most damaging air raids in history. Of eight 
battleships in Pearl Harbor, Arizona was 
wrecked, Oklahoma capsized, and six were 
damaged — three of which were resting on the 
bottom. All totaled, 19 American ships were hit. 
The Japanese practically eliminated the Navy's 
air-striking power by knocking out 150 of 202 
planes. The Navy and Marine Corps suffered 
2,117 dead plus 779 wounded. 

Despite a tragic shortage of ships, aircraft, and 
supplies, Admiral Nimitz organized his remaining 
forces to carry on defensive warfare. He tried to 
delay the enemy's advance until we could muster 
sufficient strength to put up any real resistance. 
As rapidly as ships, personnel, and material 
became available, however, he shifted to the 
offensive. 

His briUiant leadership and outstanding skill 
as a strategist enabled units under his command 
to defeat the enemy in the Coral Sea, off 
Midway, and in the Solomons. His strategy also 
enabled forces to conduct offensive raids on 
Japanese-held territories, such as the Gilbert and 
Marshall Islands. The first decisive defeat suffered 
by the Japanese navy in 350 years was achieved 
by forces under Admiral Nimitz' command during 
the Battle of Midway. It put an end to the long 
period of Japanese offensive action and restored 
the balance of naval power in the Pacific. 

Gradually, Admiral Nimitz' forces fought 
their way across the Pacific to the Japanese 
mainland. Initiating the final phase in the battle 
for victory, Admiral Nimitz launched an attack 
against the Marianas. His forces inflicted a 
decisive defeat in the Battle of the Philippine Sea 
and captured Guam and Tinian. Continuing 
onward, his forces isolated enemy-held bastions 
(the strategy of island hopping) in the Central and 
Eastern Carolines. An engagement with Japanese 
task forces then resulted in a historic victory in 
the Battle of Leyte Gulf. His long-range strategy 
peaked as his forces launched amphibious assaults - 
on Iwo Jima and Okinawa. 

Finally, Nimitz placed U.S. Navy forces in the 
harbor of Tokyo, which resulted in the surrender 
of the Japanese Imperial government. The formal 
surrender document was signed on 2 September 
1945 aboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay 



2-17 



(fig. 2-14). General of the Army Douglas 
MacArthur signed as Supreme Commander 
for the Allied powers; Fleet Admiral Nimitz 
signed as representative for the United States. 

On 1 1 December 1944, Congress had authorized 
the establishment of the grades of Fleet 
Admiral and General of the Army (the high- 
est grades ever). The establishment of these 
grades contained the proviso that four Navy 
and four Army officers could be elevated to 
those five-star grades. The President immediately 
recommended Admirals Nimitz; William D. 
Leahy, Chief of Staff to the President; and 
Ernest J. King, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet 
(CINCUS) for the grade of Fleet Admiral. 
(An interesting sidelight to this title was 



that King thought the original abbreviation — 
CINCUS — was hardly appropriate in view of the 
successful raid on Pearl Harbor. Consequently, 
he changed the acronym to COMINCH. During 
World War II, COMINCH was changed to the 
title of Chief of Naval Operations [CNO].) 
Congress approved the recommendations, and 
Nimitz took his oath of office on 19 December. 
Admiral Halsey, the fourth Navy recipient of the 
new grade, received his promotion the following 
year. 

Following the surrender of Japan, Fleet 
Admiral Nimitz took over the top naval post of 
Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). He relieved 
Fleet Admiral King of his post as CNO on 15 
December 1945. 




134.3 
Figure 2-14.— Day aboard the USS Missouri . Fleet Admiral Nimitz signs the Japanese surrender document on 2 September 1945. 



2-18 



Nimitz received some 15 decorations and 
awards from foreign governments. After his 
release from active duty, he served for 8 years as 
Regent for the University of California. He 
received honorary degrees from 19 universities and 
colleges, including Notre Dame, Columbia, 
Northwestern, Syracuse, Tulane, Harvard, and 
Princeton. 

WILLIAM FREDERICK HALSEY, JR 

Admiral Nimitz was fortunate to have under 
his command many extremely resourceful, 
intelligent, dedicated, and courageous officers. 
Among these were such commanders as Raymond 
A. Spruance, Thomas C. Kinkaid, Marc A. 
Mitscher, John S. McCain, and R. K. Turner. 
Probably the most famous leader, however, was 
Admiral WiUiam F. (Bill) Halsey (fig. 2-15). 
(Although reporters tagged him with the nickname 
"Bull," Halsey disliked it because it seemed 
flamboyant.) His determination to succeed earned 




134.133 
Figure 2-15. — Admiral Halsey was an exceptional com- 
mander. Although he had a flair for doing the spectacular 
in a dashing way, his valor and audacity were tempered 
by tactical discretion. Admiral Nimitz, then CINCPAC, 
once said of him, "He . . . can calculate to a cat's 
whisker the risk involved." 



him the designation of naval aviator at the age 
of 52, a prerequisite to being assigned a captain 
of an aircraft carrier. 

During the attack on Pearl Harbor, Halsey 
was about 200 miles at sea. He was returning to 
Pearl Harbor in his flagship Enterprise from 
Wake Island where he had delivered Marine 
Fighter Squadron 221. He took no part in the 
action except to launch aircraft in a fruitless 
search for the enemy. 

Early in 1942 Admiral Nimitz chose Halsey 
to conduct the first offensive raid in the central 
Pacific. Halsey's forces of 2 carriers, 5 cruisers, 
and 10 destroyers made a bold attack beginning 
1 February against the Japanese-held Gilbert and 
Marshall Islands. They bombed and bombarded 
enemy bases on nine separate islands. During the 
action, the heavy cruiser Chester iooV. one bomb 
hit, and the flagship Enterprise was grazed on the 
flight deck by a suicide pilot; no other ships 
were damaged during the entire operation. 
Among other benefits, the raid reestablished the 
offensive spirit within the Navy and answered a 
question being asked at home — "Where is the 
Navy?" 

Four months after the "Day of Infamy" 
(Pearl Harbor), Halsey's forces conducted a 
unique and dangerous carrier operation. They 
transported 16 B-25 Army bombers across 
an ocean and launched them 650 miles off 
enemy shores. The squadron of planes, led by 
Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle, took off 
from the Hornet to bomb Tokyo. That attack 
boosted American morale, which at that time was 
very low. 

Halsey's flagship, ihQ Enterprise, was the first 
carrier awarded a Presidential Unit Citation 
in World War II. The citation was presented 
for consistently outstanding performance and 
distinguished achievements during repeated action 
against Japanese forces. The Enterprise, under 
Halsey's leadership, took part in nearly every 
major carrier engagement in the first year of the 
war. Exclusive of the damage and destruction of 
hostile shore installations throughout the battle 
area, it sank or damaged 35 enemy ships and shot 
down 185 aircraft. The Enterprise was reported- 
sunk by the Japanese so many times it became 
known as "the galloping ghost of the Oahu 
coast." 

On 18 October 1942 Halsey was appointed 
Commander of the South Pacific Force and South 
Pacific area. Starting with the decisive American 
victory in November at Guadalcanal, Halsey's 
forces stopped the Japanese advance in the South 



2-19 



Pacific. (However, sporadic action on or near 
Guadalcanal continued into the following 
February.) Halsey conducted brilliantly planned 
and consistently sustained offensives through 
December 1943. Halsey's forces secured the South 
Pacific area by driving the enemy steadily 
northward while occupying strategic positions 
throughout the Solomons. 

After Halsey led his forces to victory at 
Guadalcanal, President Roosevelt nominated him 
for the unheard of fourth star. Having more than 
four full admirals on active duty in the Navy was 
unheard of, and we already had them — King, 
Nimitz, Stark, and Ingersoll. A grateful Congress 
approved the nomination anyhow. 

In June 1944 Halsey assumed command of the 
Third Fleet. Beginning in August, his forces left 
a trail of enemy ruin and destruction. Starting at 
Palau (a small group of islands north of New 
Guinea) and the south China Sea, they went up 
through the Philippines, Formosa, and Okinawa. 
They inflicted greater loss on the Japanese navy 
than had ever before been suffered by any fleet. 
In a magnificent sweep into enemy waters between 
August 1944 and January 1945, the Third Fleet 
destroyed 4,370 enemy aircraft and sank 82 
combatant ships and 327 auxiliaries. That was a 
sharp contrast to the United States' loss of 449 
aircraft and the light cruiser Princeton. 

After the Okinawa campaign, Halsey headed 
for Tokyo to conduct preinvasion operations. His 
fast carrier task force was the greatest mass of 
sea power ever assembled. It included three task 
groups, each consisting of five carriers and a 
battleship-cruiser-destroyer screen. Units of the 
British Pacific Fleet joined his forces in July, with 
Halsey in overall command. The ships and planes 
of Task Force 38 blasted every industry and 
resource that enabled Japan to make war. They 
knocked out remnants of the once mighty 
Japanese fleet, found hiding in camouflage nets 
throughout the length of the Honshu Island. 
When the "cease-fire" order was flashed on 15 
August 1945, Halsey's forces had destroyed or 
damaged nearly 3,000 aircraft and sunk or 
disabled 1,650 combatant and merchant ships. 

Halsey's actions were characteristically 
audacious and brilliantly planned, exemplifying 
his slogan to "Hit hard, hit fast, hit often!" 

In recognition of his exceptional war record. 
Admiral Halsey was nominated for the grade of 
Fleet Admiral in November 1945. After the Senate 
confirmed his nomination, he took the oath as 
Fleet Admiral on 11 December 1945. He became 
the fourth, and last, officer to hold that grade. 



After his return to the United States in 
October 1945, Halsey served as a goodwill 
ambassador on a 6-week trip through Central and 
South America. He was given numerous awards 
in the form of parades, reviews, gifts, and military 
decorations. 

At his own request, Halsey retired from the 
Navy on 1 March 1947. 

SEAMAN JOHNNIE HUTCHINS 

In 1943 Seaman Johnnie Hutchins took his 
place among the tradition makers of the United 
States Navy. At that time the LST 473, carrying 
men, tanks, and supplies, was part of a landing 
force heading for a Japanese position on New 
Guinea. The ship met stiff opposition as it 
advanced, with shells dropping in the water close 
aboard. Suddenly a Japanese torpedo plane dived 
low out of the sky and launched its torpedo 
directly at the LST. In the pilothouse the 
steersman saw the torpedo coming, as did Seaman 
Hutchins who stood at his battle station nearby. 
Before the steersman could swing the ship out of 
the torpedo's path, he was killed by a bomb that 
hit the pilot house. Although Hutchins was fatally 
wounded, he summoned enough strength to 
stagger to the wheel and turn the ship clear of the 
torpedo. The ship was saved, but Hutchins died 
a short time later. In the face of death, this man's 
last thought was not of himself, but of others. 

GUNNER'S MATE THIRD CLASS 
PAUL HENRY CARR 

On 25 October 1944 USS Samuel B. Roberts 
(DE-413) was surrounded on three sides by 
Japanese battleships, cruisers, and destroyers. The 
men aboard the Roberts were unaware the battle 
off Samar had begun. The thin-skinned destroyer 
escort, with its 5-inch guns, was no match for the 
18-inch guns of these Japanese heavyweights. 
Even so, on it sailed, closing to within 4,000 yards 
of a heavy cruiser and unleashing a spread of 
torpedoes. 

Serving as a gun captain on Robert's aft 
5"/38-caliber gun mount was a farm boy from 
eastern Oklahoma. Carr, who was only 20 years 
old, had never seen the ocean before he joined 
the Navy in 1943. Now he was in the middle of 
one of the most important naval battles of World 
War II. 

The only son in a family of nine children, Carr 
grew up on a farm in Checotah, Oklahoma. Paul 
learned responsibility at an early age. He always 



2-20 



had chores to do, from feeding the livestock 
and cleaning the hen house to milking the cows 
and hauhng water from the well. Carr's work 
never seemed to end. His chores controlled 
where he went and how long he stayed. Perhaps 
this informal education in self-discipline and 
responsibility was what later made Carr a leader 
among his shipmates. 

Paul Carr and his crew fired over 300 rounds 
during the battle off Samar. They scored at close 
range and severely damaged a Japanese heavy 
cruiser, knocking out an 8-inch turret, 
demolishing its bridge, and starting fires 
aft. 

His crew had inspired every man on the ship, 
a ship that was now in grave danger of sinking. 
The massive blows by the Japanese had taken their 
toll. The Roberts was without power, compressed 
air, hydraulics, and communications. The crippled 
ship was barely afloat and taking on water 
through a gaping hole left by a 14-inch shell fired 
from the Japanese battleship Kongo. 

Even though the safety device of the gas- 
ejection system was inoperative, Carr's close-knit 
gun crew loaded, rammed, and fired six charges 
by hand. When the crew attempted to fire a 
seventh round, the powder charge "cooked off" 
before the breech was closed. The charge wrecked 
the gun and killed or wounded all but three men 
in the gun house. 

After the order to abandon ship had been 
given, a petty officer entered the gun mount to 
find Carr literally torn open from neck to thigh. 
Carr, ignoring his injuries, was holding a 
54-pound projectile, trying, unassisted, to load 
and ram the only shell available. Carr begged the 
petty officer to help him get off the last round. 
But the man, seeing the gun had been destroyed 
and its breech rendered a mass of twisted steel, 
took the projectile from Carr's hands. 

After helping one of the other wounded men 
to the main deck, the petty officer returned to the 
gun mount. There he found Carr, although 
horribly wounded, again attempting to place the 
projectile on the loading tray of the inoperable 
gun. A few minutes later this brave man died. 
About an hour later USS Samuel B. Roberts sank. 

Paul Henry Carr's memory will continue to 
live. On 27 July 1985 the Navy commissioned the 



USS Carr (FFG-52), honoring a man who gave 
his life for his shipmates and his country. 



COMMANDER HOWARD W. GILMORE 

The unrelaxed vigilance, skill, and daring 
of the submarine service furnished many 
tradition makers in World War II. The story of 
Commander Howard W. Gilmore is classic. 

Commander Gilmore was in command of the 
submarine Growler in the South Pacific. He had 
just sunk one Japanese freighter and damaged 
another when he found himself fighting a surface 
engagement with a Japanese gunboat. 

Gunfire had severely wounded Gilmore and 
had seriously damaged his submarine. To save 
his ship, he calmly gave the order to clear 
the bridge, knowing his own life would be 
sacrificed. Time did not permit even the few 
seconds' delay needed for him to go below. He 
did not hesitate as he voiced the order, "Take her 
down." The well-trained crew, inspired by 
Gilmore's fighting spirit, brought the damaged 
submarine to port. 



THE MARINES ON IWO JIMA 

Iwo Jima goes down in history as one of the 
most costly and frightful battles ever waged. The 
Japanese prepared for the battle by hiding in caves 
and camouflaged blockhouses on the beach armed 
with plenty of ammunition. Besides ammunition, 
the Japanese had plenty of courage because their 
attack strategy provided them with protection 
while the American soldiers would be open 
targets. 

Meanwhile, 800 invasion ships carrying U.S. 
Marines anchored offshore and began to deliver 
troops to the beach. The Japanese, sheltered in 
their concrete pillboxes and underground caves, 
slaughtered battalion after battalion of men as 
they landed on the beach and dug forward. The 
grueling battle continued for days before the 
Americans finally defeated the enemy to make the 
first capture of Japanese territory during the 
war. 

As a symbol of victory, a group of six men — 
five marines and a Pharmacist's Mate (Hospital 
Corpsman) — then raised an American flag atop 



2-21 



Mount Suribachi (fig. 2-16). The date was 23 
February 1945. These six men were Sergeant 
Michael Strank of Pennsylvania; Corporal Harlan 
H. Block of Texas; Privates First Class Franklin 
R. Sousley of Kentucky, Rene A, Gagnon of New 
Hampshire, and Ira H. Hayes of Arizona; and 
Pharmacist's Mate Second Class John H. Bradley 
of Wisconsin. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz singled 
out these men as representatives of the "un- 
common valor" shown by the Marines on Iwo 
Jima at a cost of 5,017 dead and 17,145 wounded. 
The sacrifices made by these men live on in 
the minds and hearts of Americans. A monument 
and flagstaff were dedicated to those heroes on 
top of Mount Suribachi. The United States 
Marine Corps War Memorial (a bronze statue 
with 32-foot figures), immortalizing the deed, 
stands just outside Arlington National Cemetery 
in Arlington, Virginia. 



the Navy and Marine Corps who gave their lives 
in that conflict. 

Representative of these men was Private First 
Class Walter C. Monegan, Jr. When his battalion 
encountered six T-34 medium tanks, he destroyed 
one and halted the advance of the other five tanks 
with his rocket launcher. A few days later. North 
Korean tanks again menaced his battalion. 
Monegan snatched up his rocket launcher and 
started toward the enemy. He spotted three T-34s. 
He sent a round slamming into the nearest tank, 
piercing its armored hull and spraying the crew 
with fragments of steel. Turning quickly, he fired 
on the second, causing it to erupt into flames. 
Caught in the light of this roaring fire, he raised 
his weapon and advanced upon the third vehicle. 
Just as he was about to pull the trigger, he was 
killed by fire from an enemy machine gun. 



THE KOREAN CONFLICT 

The Korean conflict had its acts of heroism 
also. We have innumerable accounts of men of 




134.18 
Figure 2-16. — Raising the colors under fire after the charge 
up Mount Suribachi. 



THE VIETNAM CONFLICT 

Most heroes are very much like the boy next 
door — nice guys, but not particularly unusual 
until, in a time of crisis, they do something 
extraordinary. 

This section describes the actions of five men 
who distinguished themselves in combat in Viet- 
nam by risking their lives above and beyond the 
call of duty. All five were awarded the nation's 
highest award — the Medal of Honor; however, 
only one, James E. Williams, lived to receive the 
award personally. 

MARVIN G. SHIELDS 

Marvin G. Shields, a Construction Mechanic 
Third Class, was a Seabee attached to Mobile 
Construction BattaUon 11 at Dong Xoai. Near 
midnight on 9 June 1965, the Vietcong (VC) 
lobbed a mortar shell (or perhaps it was a rocket) 
over the compound. Everyone immediately 
grabbed weapons and manned the defenses. 

Although the attack was a heavy one and 
Shields was wounded early in the action, these 
obstacles didn't seem to slow down his fighting 
ability. When ammunition ran low, it was Shields 
wKo made several resupply trips to the ammo 
trailer, crossing 150 feet of ground exposed to 
mortar fire. When the VC came pouring in, the 
defenders fell back to new positions. Shields and 
another man took the time to move an officer with 
broken legs through a hail of bullets to the 
relatively safe headquarters building. 



2-22 



The attack continued through the night. 
Shields, although now wounded three times, 
stayed in the action, repeatedly exposing himself 
to the enemy while tossing grenades. During the 
morning hours a lieutenant asked for one 
volunteer to help him knock out a machine gun 
that was spraying the building with lethal effect. 
Shields, the boy next door, immediately offered 
his services. Although the two men accomplished 
what they set out to do, both men were hit and 
Shields was killed. 

JAMES E. WILLIAMS 

Boatswain's Mate First Class James E. 
Williams spent much of his tour of duty in Viet- 
nam as part of the river patrol force. He directed 
the operations of a group of four river patrol 
boats (PBRs) along the Mekong River. 

On 31 October 1966 two Vietcong sampans 
suddenly fired on WiUiams' patrol. The patrol's 
return fire killed the entire crew of one sampan. 
Pursuing the other, the patrol maneuvered the 
PBRs through heavy small arms fire from VC 
forces hidden along the riverbank. Williams' 
patrol was then confronted in a nearby inlet by 
two junks and eight more sampans. The patrols 
immediately came under savage attack supported 
by fire from heavy automatic weapons ashore. 

To make matters worse, when WiUiams 
deployed his group to await reinforcements in the 
form of armed helicopters, he and his men ran 
into a much larger force of enemy craft. Since the 
PBRs obviously were not going to be permitted 
the luxury of waiting around for help, Williams 
led his group in a counterattack. During the 
ensuing action, he exposed himself to enemy fire 
with complete disregard for his own safety. 
Leading his patrol through intense fire, Williams 
and his men damaged or destroyed 50 sampans 
and 7 junks before the helicopter arrived. 
Williams then directed an attack against the 
remaining craft and the enemy ashore. 

Demonstrating unyielding courage through the 
3-hour battle, Williams was responsible for the 
loss or destruction of no less than 65 enemy boats 
and numerous VC casualties. 

During Williams' 8-month tour of duty, the 
57 men serving on the four boats he directed 
earned a total of 131 combat decorations plus 80 
Purple Heart awards. 

FRANK S. REASONER 

On 12 July 1965 company commander First 
Lieutenant Frank S. Reasoner, U.S. Marine 



Corps, led a reconnaissance patrol deep into 
heavily controlled enemy territory. Suddenly the 
patrol came under fire from 50 to 100 VC 
insurgents in concealed positions. Reasoner, 
at the time, was with the advance party and 
point. The slashing fury of the VC machine-gun 
and automatic-weapons fire made moving up 
impossible for the main body of the party. To 
provide covering fire, Reasoner repeatedly 
exposed himself to the devastating attack. 
Shouting encouragement to his men, he organized 
a base of fire for an assault on enemy positions. 
He killed two VC and silenced an automatic 
weapons position in an attempt to evacuate a 
wounded man. 

When his radio operator was hit. Lieutenant 
Reasoner himself tended his wounds. The radio 
operator then tried to reach a covered position 
but was hit again. In the face of almost certain 
death, Reasoner left cover to help him a second 
time and was cut down by machine-gun fire. 

The first Navy ship to be named after a Marine 
Corps Medal of Honor recipient in Vietnam, USS 
Frank S. Reasoner {F¥-\063), was commissioned 
in 1971. 

DOUGLAS E. DICKEY 

PFC Douglas E. Dickey of the U.S. Marine 
Corps was a member of a platoon taking part in 
Operation Beacon Hill. On 26 March 1967 his 
platoon engaged in fierce battle with the Vietcong 
at close range in dense jungle foliage. Dickey had 
come forward to replace a wounded radio 
operator. Without warning, an enemy grenade fell 
in the middle of the group of men, which included 
the immobihzed radio operator, the corpsman 
treating him, Dickey, and several other marines. 
Fully realizing he would be killed, Dickey threw 
himself on the grenade and absorbed the complete 
force of the explosion. PFC Dickey's personal 
heroism, extraordinary valor, and selfless courage 
saved his comrades from certain injury and 
possible death. 

Another boy from next door had done 
something extraordinary. 

CHAPLAIN VINCENT R. CAPODANNO 

At midafternoon on 4 September 1967, 
Company M, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, made 
contact with forces of the North Vietnamese 
Army in Quang Tin Province, Republic of Viet- 
nam. The 5th Marines' Regimental Chaplain, 
Vincent R. Capodanno, LT, CHC, USNR, who 



2-23 



was accompanying this element of his regiment, 
was positioned with the command group. When 
word was received that one of the platoons had 
made contact and was in danger of being over- 
run, Chaplain Capodanno ran directly to the 
beleaguered marines. He proceeded to assist the 
corpsmen, provide comfort and reassurance to the 
wounded, and administer last rites to the dying. 
In the midst of heavy mortar and automatic- 
weapons fire, he ministered to his men calmly and 
without faltering. Although wounded, he refused 
treatment for himself. When conditions required 
the use of gas masks, he gave his own to a marine. 
At a point of particulary heavy attack, he placed 
himself directly in the Hne of fire to save a 
wounded Navy corpsman. By that act he gallantly 
gave his life in the service of his fellow man, his 
God, and his country. For his selfless courage. 
Chaplain Capodanno was posthumously awarded 
the Medal of Honor. USS Capodanno (FF-1093) 
was named in his honor. 



THE PERSIAN GULF 

As with other wars, conflicts, or areas of 
mihtary aggression where U.S. naval forces were 
present, the Persian Gulf has had its share of 
heroes and tradition makers. The presence of 
naval units showing the flag in any hostile 
environment is a dangerous situation. This danger 
can become real, as was the case with two U.S. 
Navy ships in the late 1980s. The following 
accounts explain the roles of several heroes from 
these ships. 

USS STARK 

The job of USS Stark (FFG-31) in the 
Persian Gulf was to remain in international waters 
of the gulf. Its mission was to monitor the 
movements of ships and aircraft of other nations 
and to show the American flag. 

About 2100, 17 May 1987, a U.S. Air Force 
plane reported two Mirage jet fighters had taken 
off from an Iraqi air base. The Stark was still 
hundreds of miles away conducting engineering 
drills. One of the jets climbed to an altitude of 
5,000 feet and turned toward the Stark at a range 
of about 200 miles. Both Iranian and Iraqi air- 
craft maneuvered in that manner on a regular 
basis, so no real sense of danger was felt. At 2208 
the Stark issued a warning to the approaching 
Mirage to stand off. The jet did not respond to 
the warning, so a second warning was issued. The 
Iraqi pilot did not respond to that warning either. 
Approximately 3 minutes later, a lookout reported 



an inbound missile. The report, however, came 
too late. General Quarters was sounded. The first 
of two Exocet missiles punched through the port 
side of the ship above the waterline in an enlisted 
berthing compartment. It failed to detonate but 
spread hundreds of pounds of burning soHd 
rocket fuel, creating an immediate inferno. Less 
than 15 seconds later, the second missile hit the 
ship slightly forward of the first and detonated 
about 5 feet inside the hull. The fire that ensued 
was so hot (in excess of 1800 degrees fahrenheit) 
that the main deck and starboard side of the ship 
glowed cherry red. Figure 2-17 shows the extent 
of damage to the Stark. 

The extraordinary and heroic damage control 
that followed probably kept the Stark from 
sinking. The crew performed in an outstanding 
manner to control the initial fires and flooding. 
Afterwards, personnel from five commands 
joined in the 16-hour battle to save the ship. Axes 
were used to cut holes in the bulkhead to drain 
the fire-fighting water, which was 2 to 3 feet deep 
and boiling hot. Fire fighters who knelt down, as 
trained, found themselves with boots full of 
scalding water. The deck was so hot their feet were 
burned through the soles of their boots. In 
addition, temporary communications lines melted, 
and some decks collapsed from the heat. Reflash 
fires continued for 3 more days. 

Once conditions stabilized 37 sailors had 
perished. Those men who fought the fires are 
credited with keeping the ship afloat. President 
Ronald Reagan, during a memorial service, 
praised the men who died during the attack on 
the Stark as "ordinary men who did extraordinary 
things. Yes, they were heroes." 

USS SAMUEL B. ROBERTS 

The USS Samuel B. Roberts that steamed in 
the Persian Gulf was the third ship named in 
honor of Coxswain Samuel Booker Roberts, Jr., 
U.S. Naval Reserve. He was posthumously 
awarded the Navy Cross for extraordinary 
heroism during World War II. Roberts was a 
landing craft boat coxswain, who despite intense 
enemy fire, rescued stranded marines from 
Guadalcanal. 

Since the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 
had been steaming the Persian Gulf for nearly 3 
months, 14 April 1988 seemed pretty routine. The 
ship's crew felt the Roberts was the best. Roberts 
had won the Battle Efficiency award and earned 
the highest grades any ship had ever attained in 
damage control training at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba, before deployment. The ship's preparedness 
would soon pay off. 



2-24 




134.2 



Figure 2-17.— Damage to the USS Stark . 



Enjoying a break from tanker escort duty, the 
Roberts was headed to the southern part of the 
Persian Gulf for a scheduled replenishment. At 
1639 Boatswain's Mate Seaman Bobby F. Gibson, 
standing the bow watch, saw what he thought 
were three dolphins off the starboard bow. 
Dolphins had been spotted earlier in the day and 
were commonplace in the gulf. Only this time the 
"dolphins" weren't going back under water. He 
grabbed his binoculars, spotted the spikes on the 
floating objects, and immediately notified the 
bridge. The officer of the deck (OOD), Lt. Robert 
L. Firehammer, Jr., then called the commanding 
officer (CO), Commander Paul X. Rinn, who was 
on the bridge in a matter of seconds. Rinn ordered 
the ship to "all stop." 

Normally, mines found in the gulf were old 
and encrusted with sea growth. Looking through 
the "big eyes," a powerful set of binoculars, 
Quartermaster Second Class (Enlisted Surface 
Warfare Specialist [SW]) Dan J. Nicholson's heart 



sank at his first glimpse of the floating objects. They 
were shiny and the sun glared off them. QM2 
Nicholson thought. Whoa, this is real— big time! 

Over the ship's general announcing circuit, the 
IMC, the captain told his crew their ship had 
entered a minefield. He called all hands to general 
quarters (GQ) and told them to check that con- 
dition Zebra was set throughout the ship. Within 
3 minutes the GQ stations were manned and Zebra 
was set. 

Back on the fantail, the chocks and chains 
were removed from the ship's heUcopter. Boat- 
swain's Mate Second Class Kim T. Sandle 
prepared to launch the helo to drop floats, flares, 
and smoke near the spotted mines. 

Rinn went to the starboard bridge wing, looking 
back at the ship's wake. He knew if he kept the 
ship in the wake, it would be safe. He ordered 
the lowering of the auxiliary propulsion units 
(APUs), built in the forward part of the ship to 
maneuver in tight quarters at low speed. Rinn then 



2-25 



began to back the ship away from the mines. For 
a time the CO's attempt to tiptoe backward out 
of the minefield looked like it would work. But 
21 minutes after the first sighting, the ship 
bumped into a submerged mine. It struck Robert's 
port side aft, near the keel. At 1700 the ship with 
the motto "No higher honor" was rocked by the 
exploding force of hundreds of pounds of 
explosives. 

Engineman First Class (SW) Mark T. Dejno 
had set Zebra at his GQ station in auxiliary 
machinery room 3 (AMR3). The engineering 
officer of the watch, Chief Petty Officer Alex 
Perez, had ordered all watch standers on the lower 
levels of the engineering spaces to move to the 
upper level before the mine hit. Dejno was 
standing on the upper level of AMR3 when he 
heard the "BOOM!" and saw a wall of flame and 
water exploding toward him. Although he was 
severely burned on his face and one arm, Dejno 
did not lose consciousness. His first thought was 
to get out of AMR3 — he had to make a report. 
He climbed through an escape trunk. By the time 
he got through the hatch, water was up to the deck 
plates. 

Hospital Corpsman First Class James E. 
("Doc") Lambert wasn't particularly worried 
about being in a minefield before Roberts struck 
the mine. He never thought the ship would 
actually hit a mine. As he said later, "You see 
an ice patch — you know it's dangerous but you 
never think you're the one who is going to fall 
on the ice. It happens to the other guy." 

On the bow BMSN Gibson had turned around 
and saw everyone on the 02 and 03 levels looking 
at the mines. He was turning forward when the 
mine exploded. Suddenly he was airborne; looking 
down, all he could see was forecastle and water 
as he came flipping out of his dive. He landed 
heavily on his neck and shoulders. Head spinn- 
ing, Gibson stumbled aft to help break out a fire 
hose. He was only starting to feel the pain in his 
back. 

On the bridge wings, the reaction to the 
explosion was disbelief. Some thought at first the 
hehcopter had crashed, but a quick look at the 
bridge monitor showed the spinning rotor blades 
of the helo on the fantail. 

The mine Roberts had hit contained 250 
pounds of TNT equivalent. It struck at frame 276 
on the port side, 4 feet from the keel. The 
explosion blew a 15- by 20-foot hole, in the hull, 
knocking the ship's two main gas turbine engines 
off their mounts (fig. 2-18). The port engine had 
been operating at the time. The fuel released by 



the explosion ignited and shot up through one of 
the main exhaust stacks, hurling a fireball into 
the air 150 feet above the ship. Fiery debris rained 
down on the deck. 

In the main engine room, seawater rushed in 
through the gaping hole. Within 15 seconds water 
was just 2 feet below the upper deck plates. The 
blast rendered the main shaft inoperative and 
ruptured the shaft seal, which allowed the water 
from the engine room to completely flood AMR3 
in 5 minutes. 

Below decks, lights flickered and then went 
out. The emergency diesel generators supplying 
the electrical power stopped. Repair party 
members searching through the darkness quickly 
isolated and repaired a ruptured air line, allowing 
the diesels to be restarted. 

The situation in AMR2 was critical. Everyone 
in the space knew if the battered connecting 
bulkhead to the main engine room gave way, the 
whole crew would be killed. Chief petty officer 
Kevin J. Ford and the others now working in 
AMR2 had been through damage control "wet" 
trainers to learn plugging and shoring techniques. 
However, this damage was worse than anything 
they had ever fixed in a drill, and they would have 
no opportunity to try again. Failure would mean 
the loss of lives and the ship — their lives, their 
ship. The thought of failure caused them to work 
harder. 

After escaping AMR3, ENl Dejno put a quick 
dressing on his arm. Then he found a friend — 
Petty Officer Second Class Larry Welch — who 
was badly injured. He took him into the supply 
office to treat his wounds. Dejno was burned; but 
Welch was much worse, with charred, dead skin 
hanging from his arms, hands, and fingers. 
Dejno tried to trim away Welch's uniform with 
a knife, but it wouldn't cut through the fuel- 
soaked clothes. Getting a pair of scissors out of 
a first aid kit, he cut away the clothes and dangling 
burned skin. He carefully wiped the fuel oil from 
Welch's face, wrapped him in a sheet, and headed 
with him to the 02 level triage area. 

Doc Lambert and his assistants grabbed their 
portable medical bags and headed for the mess 
decks when the blast occurred. The water on the 
deck caused Lambert to shp and fall. He became 
that "other guy" who always slips on the ice 
patch. The ship had too many wounded sailors 
and not enough room on the mess decks, so a 
triage area was set up on the 02 level. 

Leaving the executive officer (XO), Lieutenant 
Commander John Eckelberry, to direct operations 
on the bridge, the CO left to tour the ship. He 



2-26 




134.2.1 



Figure 2-18. — Damage to the main engine room of the USS Samuel B. Roberts . 



entered the main engine room and stepped into 
ankle-deep water. The CO checked that space and 
then headed for AMR2, where the key problem 
was the rising water. Seawater was close to 
reaching the fire pumps and was already splashing 
on the diesels. Despite the desperate situation in 
the engineering spaces, the CO felt a tremendous 
sense of confidence as he watched his men work. 
Chief Ford's team was confident too. "We can 
win this one, captain," one sailor said. "We 
can do it," another echoed. As he surveyed the 
situation, he made the decision that they were 
going to save the ship. At the hatchway the 
captain looked back and said, "I'll see you again. 
I'll be back." 

The captain recalled the lessons learned about 
putting water inside the skin of the ship from the 
Stark incident. As the fire fighters put water down 



the stack, it flowed into the ship. He realized, 
We're sinking ourselves! 

From the triage area on the 02 level. Doc had 
moved all his patients aft to the hangar bay for 
evacuation. When BMSN Gibson left the bow 
immediately after the explosion, he didn't get the 
chance to break out much fire hose. The pain 
from his back injury had quickly stopped him in 
his tracks — now he was pinned to a stretcher. 

The worst case so far was the EOOW, Chief 
Perez. He had serious injuries to his head and 
back. Having been trapped under the deck grating 
in the main engine room after the mine exploded, 
Perez had a close brush with death. Shipmates 
worked feverishly to rescue him. He escaped by 
swimming under oily water for 15 feet through 
mangled equipment to where a crewman was 
shining a battle lantern into the water to show him 
the way. 



2-27 



Back on the bridge Rinn ordered the damage 
control party to stop putting water on the fire. 
The XO asked the CO if he was crazy. Com- 
mander Rinn explained, "No, we don't have to 
worry about the fire. In a little while we're going 
to be underwater and the fire won't matter 
anymore. We've got to quit putting water into the 
skin of the ship. We've got to hold back on that 
until we can get control of the flooding." 

Meanwhile, the bulkheads of the ammunition 
magazine were getting hot — up to 134 degrees. 
The CO immediately gave the crew permission to 
remove the ammunition from the magazine. At 
first, they threw the 76-mm ammunition over the 
side. Then they began to move the shells to the 
forecastle. Each round weighed about 25 pounds. 
They moved 700 rounds in 90 minutes. 

From the first moments of the crisis, the 
captain reahzed the way he presented himself to 
his men would never be more important. The crew 
watched every move he made. It was time to earn 
his pay — time to do his job as he'd been training 
to do it for years. It was time to lead this brave 
group of men in one of the most dangerous situa- 
tions any of them would ever face. 

In communications to Rear Admiral Anthony 
Less, Commander, Joint Task Force Middle East, 
Rinn said, "We are determined to save the ship, 
period. That is our intention. We can save our 
ship. I intend to stay here and do just that." Rear 
Admiral Less informed Commander Rinn that 
other units were standing by to assist. However, 
Rinn explained, "We never saw the mine that hit 
us. Recommend you don't send other ships. We'll 
get out on our own." 

The captain then spoke to the crew over the 
IMC. He explained the ship's status, and then said 
again, "1 think we can save the ship — there is no 
doubt in my mind." 

Captain Rinn had very few good alternatives 
to saving the ship. Going into the water meant 
swimming with poisonous sea snakes and hungry 
sharks. Roberts was at least 80 miles from 
anyone — except maybe the Iranians. Asking for 
assistance meant putting another U.S. ship in the 
minefield. Therefore, Rinn knew the men of 
Roberts would have to find their way out of this 
predicament alone. Safe water was anywhere from 
4 to 7 hours away. Rinn thought, I hope we make 
it till morning; I hope we get to see the dawn. 

On the flight deck. Doc got his last patient 
off — 10 casualties transported in less than 
2 1/2 hours. ENl Dejno was not evacuated; he 
volunteered to stay. His expertise was needed to 
keep the diesels running. If they lost the diesels. 



they'd lose everything. They wouldn't be able to 
pump water out of the ship or fight fires. The ship 
wouldn't be able to communicate, maneuver, or 
defend itself. 

A daring investigation by the Chief Engineer, 
Lt. Gordon Van Hook, and BM3 Eduardo 
Segovia had pinpointed the source of the fire. An 
access plate on the 02 level had to be removed to 
get to the space where fuel oil had collected. Both 
Rinn and Van Hook watched as crew members 
SMl(SW) Charles Dumas, HTl Gary Gawor, and 
HT2(SW) Tom Regan, led by Lieutenant Dave 
Lewellyn, removed the bolts and then pried the 
cover away with crowbars. Flames roared up in 
their faces, as a column of fire shot 15 feet into 
the air. Van Hook tried to maintain his sense of 
humor as he turned to the CO and said, "Maybe 
this wasn't such a good idea." Fully aware that 
his men had to react in seconds to control the 
blaze, Van Hook added, "Maybe we should do 
this tomorrow." But his men immediately applied 
foam to the fire with applicators stuck into the 
access. The smoke changed color, from black to 
white. That was the first good indication they were 
winning the battle of the fires. By midnight, 
conditions were stable aboard Roberts. Shoring 
watches and fire reflash watches were set. 

A crack amidships ran all the way across the 
ship, threatening to break it in half. Senior Chief 
Boatswain's Mate (SW) George E. Frost came up 
with an idea to keep the front half of the ship 
attached to the back half. The ship's Boatswain's 
Mates began stringing steel cables across the huge 
cracks in the deck and superstructure, attaching 
them fore to aft wherever possible. The work was 
hard, but soon they were showing the bystanders 
gathered around how it was done. Under the stars, 
the ingenious sailors lashed their ship together to 
prevent the crack from growing larger. 

By 0300 the ship was quiet. Fires were out, 
leaks were plugged, and flooding was under 
control. USS Roberts was slowly, carefully sailing 
to safety. As Rinn walked the decks, he looked 
at his crew, exhausted, collapsed, some sleeping, 
some talking quietly. He reflected on what they 
had done in the last 10 hours. His men fought for 
their lives and their ship — a ship that was burning 
and sinking. They fought and won. He felt a 
powerful bond with them. They were Samuel B. 
Roberts. Their survival made all the tough work 
and long, boring drills, exercises, and training 
worthwhile. 

At 0507 QM2 Nicholson made the entry 
"Observed sunrise" in the ship's deck log. 



2-28 



WOMEN IN THE NAVY 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

1811 Navy surgeon recommends nurses be 

included among personnel at Navy 
hospitals. 

1862 Civilian nurses serve on board the 
Navy's first hospital ship, USS Red 
Rover. 

1908 On 13 May U.S. Navy Nurse Corps 
established. The first 20 nurses (in 
reality, the first women in the Navy) 
report to Washington, D.C., that 
October. 

1913 Navy nurses serve aboard the transports 
USS Mayflower and USS Dolphin. 

1917 On 19 March the Navy authorizes 
enlistment of women as volunteers. 
Designated as Yeomen (F), they un- 
officially became known as yeomen- 
ettes. 

1918 On 1 1 November when the armistice is 
signed, 11,275 yeomenettes are in the 
naval service, with some 300 marinettes 
in the U.S. Marine Corps. 

1920 Navy nurses serve aboard the first ship 
built as a floating hospital, USS Relief 
(AH 1). 

1942 Naval Reserve Act of 1938 amended 30 
July to include the Women's AuxiHary 
Reserve, later known as the WAVES 
(women accepted for voluntary emer- 
gency service). Wellesley College presi- 
dent Mildred McAfee, selected to lead 
the new Women's Auxiliary Reserve, is 
sworn in as a lieutenant commander on 
3 August. 

1943 By 30 July more than 27,000 women 
are on active duty in the Navy. 
Authorization is passed for a woman 
to hold the rank of captain, and 
Mildred McAfee is promoted into that 
rank. Navy Hospital Corps accepts 
women enlistees. 



1945 Approximately 86,000 women on active 
duty in the naval service, 8,000 officers 
and 78,000 enUsted, constituting 18 
percent of the total naval personnel 
assigned to shore establishments in the 
continental United States. Accession of 
women into the Navy discontinued by 
17 August. 

1945 On 26 July Captain Joy Bright 
Hancock, a former World War I 
yeomanette, becomes director of the 
WAVES. The women's ranks decrease 
to some 8,800 by that time. 

1947 Army-Navy Nurses Act estabhshes the 
Nurse Corps as a permanent staff corps 
of the Navy. It also authorizes perma- 
nent commissioned rank for nurses. 

1948 On 12 June President Harry Truman 
signs Public Law 625, the Women's 
Armed Services Integration Act, 
aboHshing the Women's Auxiliary 
Reserve and permitting women to enter 
the U.S. Navy in Regular or Reserve 
status. 

1950 Women in the Naval Reserve recalled 
along with their male counterparts for 
duty during the Korean conflict. 

1952 Navy women accepted for commission 
in the Medical Service Corps. 

1953 Women in the Hospital Corps begin 
serving on board hospital ships and 
transports carrying dependents. 

1972 Navy nurse Alene Duerk, director of 
the Navy Nurse Corps since 1968, 
achieves flag rank; she is the first 
woman in Navy history to do so. The 
term WAVES is dropped as an official 
title. 

1973 The Secretary of the Navy announces 
authorization of aviation training for 
women. 

1976 U.S. Naval Academy admits women. 

1978 The law prohibiting assignment of 

women to fill sea duty billets on support 
and noncombatant ships is amended in 
October, putting into force the Women 
in Ships Program. 



2-29 



1980 U.S. Naval Academy graduates its first 
women officers. 

1982 By June, 193 women officers are on 
board 30 ships, and 2,185 enlisted 
women are aboard 37 ships. 

Today More than 7,200 women serve as Navy 
officers (10 percent of the Navy's 
officer strength). More than 45,000 
enlisted women make up 9 percent of 
the Navy's enHsted ranks. Because of 
their combat relationship, only two 
officer communities — submarines and 
special warfare — and 18 of 103 enlisted 
ratings remain closed to women. 

Although women did not become an official 
part of the Navy until 1948, they made naval 
tradition by serving in the Navy as early as 1811. 
At that time a Navy surgeon recommended 
women be assigned to hospitals to care for the 
Navy's sick and wounded. However, our nation 
did not act upon that recommendation until the 
Civil War, when women served aboard the 
hospital ship USS Red Rover in the Medical 
Department. Although an unofficial unit, the first 
trained nurses in the Navy were stationed at the 
Norfolk Naval Hospital to care for the injured 
during the Spanish-American war in 1898. A 
decade later (in 1908), the Navy Nurse Corps was 
officially born. 

In addition to the Navy nurses, some 12,000 
women served on active duty as "yeomenettes" 
in WWI. This resulted from a need for more 
Yeomen and personnel to handle the growing 
demands of the services as the nation readied itself 
for World War I. Josephus Daniels, then 
Secretary of the Navy, was responsible for this 
turn of events. "Is there any law that says a 
yeoman must be a man?" Daniels' legal advisers 
answered that there was not, but that up to this 
time only men had been enlisted. "Then enroll 
women in the Naval Reserve as yeomen," the 
secretary said. In such jobs, he added, they would 
offer the best "assistance that the country can 
provide." 

Immediately after the United States entered 
World War I, women were taken into the Navy 
on a large scale "in order to release enlisted men 
for active service at sea." As a result, the Navy 
had a total of 1 1 ,275 women Yeomen by the time 
the armistice was signed. They were handling most 
of the immense volume of clerical work at the 



Navy Department, in addition to many highly 
important special duties. 

Women Yeomen were stationed in Guam, the 
Panama Canal Zone, and Hawaii, in addition to 
the United States and France. About 300 
"marinettes," as the enHsted women of the 
Marine Corps were designated, were on duty 
during the war. Most of them were stationed at 
Marine Corps Headquarters at the Navy Depart- 
ment, although a number were assigned with 
Marine Corps recruiting units. 

All women Yeomen were released from active 
duty by 31 July 1919. Secretary Daniels sent the 
following message to the women Yeomen: "It is 
with deep gratitude for the splendid service 
rendered by the yeomen (F) during our national 
emergency that I convey to them the sincere 
appreciation of the Navy Department for their 
patriotic cooperation." 

Twenty-one years after the yeomanette era, 
women were needed to fill an acute shortage of 
personnel caused by rapid expansion of the Navy 
for World War II. On 30 July 1942 Congress 
authorized establishment of the Women's 
Reserve, with an estimated goal of 10,000 
enhsted and 1,000 officers. However, certain 
congressional hmitations were placed on the new 
organization. Women could not serve at sea or 
outside the continental United States, and they 
could not go beyond lieutenant commander on 
the promotion ladder. On 4 August 1942 Mildred 
Helen McAfee was sworn in as a heutenant 
commander of the U.S. Naval Reserve to become 
Commander of Women's Reserve. 

A boot camp for women accepted for 
volunteer emergency service (WAVES) was 
established at Hunter College in New York 
City — it was promptly dubbed the USS Hunter. 
Basic training lasted from 6 to 8 weeks, and every 
other week about 1,680 Wave seamen had to be 
housed, fed, and uniformed. The Navy took over 
17 apartment buildings near the college to use as 
housing. 

At about the same time, three other schools 
were commissioned in the Midwest to train 
enlisted women as Yeomen, Storekeepers, and 
Radiomen. In July 1943 the Navy Japanese 
language School in Boulder, Colorado, opened 
to women. 

Navy women came to work the same hours 
as Navy men, standing both day and night 
watches. They stayed in uniform at all times 
except in the barracks or when engaged in active 
sports. They were called upon to meet the same 



2-30 



standards of neatness and good behavior as those 
required of men in uniform. 

In short, they were fitted into the Navy 
as an integral part of the service. They sHpped 
into the same spot in the chain of command 
as the men they replaced and performed the 
same duties. This system gave Navy women — or 
WAVES, as they were popularly called— the 
same status, responsibilities, and restrictions as 
men. 

Use of the term WAVES had begun when 
women were given the Reserve classification of 
W-V(S), meaning Women- Volunteer (Specialist). 
Since the initials WR and the term Women's 
Reserve were official, some women preferred 
these terms to the equally official, but less formal, 
use of WAVES. 

As the Women's Reserve observed its second 
anniversary on 30 July 1944, it could look back 
upon a brief but glowing record of expansion and 
achievement. During its 2 years of existence, the 
Women's Reserve had freed enough officers and 
men to crew a fleet of 10 battleships, 10 aircraft 
carriers, 28 cruisers, and 50 destroyers. 

In World War II, WAVES were considered 
directly eligible for 34 different ratings and were 
performing nearly every conceivable type of duty 
at 500 naval shore estabhshments. 

Since the WAVES had proved their worth 
during the war, the Navy was reluctant to give 
up its programs for women. A number of Navy 
women were retained in service; but by the fourth 
anniversary of the program, only 9,800 remained 
on active duty. 

The Women's Armed Services Integration 
Act, Public Law 625, marked the most significant 
milestone to that date in the history of women 
service members. This act, passed by the Senate 
and the House and signed by President Truman 
on 12 June 1948, gave women full partnership on 
the Navy team. The Women's Reserve was 
abolished and, for the first time, women became 
a part of the Regular Navy. 

In February 1976 the Navy promoted Fran 
McKee (fig. 2 19) to rear admiral. She made her 
mark in naval history as the first woman 
unrestricted line officer to be selected for flag 
rank. 




134.215 

Figure 2-19. — Rear Admiral Fran McKee is the first woman 

unrestricted line officer promoted to flag rank in the 

U.S. Navy. 



At the same time the Regular Navy opened to 
women, the Reserve established a program for 
women service members. The new laws aboHshed 
the Women's Reserve and authorized the transfer 
of all members to appropriate components of the 
permanent Naval Reserve. 



SUMMARY 

All of the men, women, ships, and battles you 
have just studied were of value to our Navy. They 
have all created traditions and set examples for 
us to follow. Although we may never have the 
chance to create history of the magnitude they did, 
we still hold fast to the same principles and goals 
they sought. Our Navy is steeped with tradition. 
Many present-day Navy policies have carried over 
through years of tradition. This chapter is a 
tribute to the many great tradition makers who 
have served before us. 



2-31 



REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 
12043, Naval Education and Training 
Program Management Support Activity, 
Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 



Morris, Chuck, PHI, "To See the Dawn," All 
Hands 857 (August 1988): 4-10. 



Sharp, Victoria, "Saving the 5awwe/ 5. Roberts,'' 
Fathom 19 (Spring 1988): 2-7. 



DEAD HORSE 

BRITISH SEAMEN, APT TO BE ASHORE AND UNEMPLOYED FOR CONSIDERABLE PERIODS 
BETWEEN VOYAGES, GENERALLY PREFERRED TO LIVE IN BOARDING HOUSES NEAR THE 
PIERS WHILE WAITING FOR SAILING SHIPS TO TAKE ON CREWS. DURING THESE PER- 
IODS OF UNRESTRICTED LIBERTY, MANY RAN OUT OF MONEY, SO THE INNKEEPERS 
CARRIED THEM ON CREDIT UNTIL THEY WERE HIRED FOR ANOTHER VOYAGE. 

WHEN A SEAMAN WAS BOOKED ON A SHIP, HE WAS CUSTOMARILY ADVANCED A MONTH'S 
WAGES. IF NEEDED. TO PAY OFF HIS BOARDING HOUSE DEBT. THEN. WHILE PAYING 

BACK THE SHIP'S MASTER, HE WORKED FOR NOTHING BUT "SALT HORSE" THE FIRST 
OF SEVERAL WEEKS ABOARD. 

SALT HORSE WAS THE STAPLE DIET OF EARLY SAILORS AND IT WASN'T EXACTLY 
TASTY CUISINE. CONSISTING OF A LOW QUALITY BEEF THAT HAD BEEN HEAVILY 
SALTED, THE SALT HORSE WAS TOUGH TO CHEW AND EVEN HARDER TO DIGEST. 

WHEN THE DEBT HAD BEEN REPAID, THE SALT HORSE WAS SAID TO BE DEAD AND 
IT WAS TIME FOR GREAT CELEBRATION AMONG THE CREW. USUALLY, AN EFFIGY OF 
A HORSE WAS CONSTRUCTED FROM ODDS AND ENDS, SET AFIRE, AND THEN CAST 
AFLOAT TO THE CHEERS AND HILARITY OF THE EX-DEBTERS. 



TODAY, JUST AS IN THE DAYS OF SAIL, "DEAD HORSE" REFERS TO A DEBT TO 
THE GOVERNMENT FOR ADVANCE PAY. SAILORS TODAY DON'T BURN EFFIGIES WHEN 
THE DEBT IS PAID, BUT THEY ARE NO LESS JUBILIANT THAN THEIR COUNTERPARTS 
OF OLD. 







■•■"'.■*: 



2-32 



CHAPTER 3 



THE NAVAL OFFICER'S CAREER 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this cliapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the procurement sources for commis- 
sioned officers. 

2. Describe the sources for commissioning 
opportunities of enlisted personnel. 

3. Explain the purpose, use, and content of the 
microfiche record. 

4. Identify the purpose, use, and content of the 
officer's service record. 

5. Explain the purpose, use, and content of the 
officer's fitness report. 



6. Describe the typical development paths for 
surface warfare officers, surface warfare 
nuclear officers, submarine officers, aviation 
officers, supply officers, and general un- 
restricted hne officers. 

7. Describe the selection board process for 
promoting officers. 

8. Explain the difference between pay and 
allowances. 

9. Explain the various benefits and services 
available to military personnel and their 
dependents. 

10. Identify the three types of retirement. 



What motivates a person to become a naval 
officer? Different motives make people decide 
they want to become a naval officer, including 
patriotism, dedication, and a desire to serve. 
Rarely is anyone impelled to any action by a single 
force. Just as people are complicated, so are the 
things that influence them. 

The responsibility accorded a naval officer 
motivates many people to choose a naval career. 
Their dedication to that responsibility corresponds 
to their understanding of the authority vested in 
them. 

Many newly commissioned officers are not 
certain of the total implications of their new 
responsibilities. However, career officers are 
of necessity aware of their tremendous respon- 
sibilities. 

Each person entering the Navy takes an oath 
to uphold and defend the Constitution against all 
enemies, to bear true faith and allegiance, and to 
faithfully discharge the duties of his or her 



office. That oath leaves little doubt as to what 
the Navy expects of its people. 

That a naval officer must have dedication is 
obvious. That a naval officer is a professional in 
the truest sense of the word is equally clear. 
Dedication will smooth the rough spots that 
invariably lie in the path of any endeavor. 
Professional knowledge and competence will help 
resolve the complex problems that a naval officer 
faces. 

The President has "special trust and con- 
fidence" in the abilities of officers and has granted 
them extensive authority. When officers are 
commissioned, they reaffirm the basic oath; but 
their commission places an even greater respon- 
sibility on them. Their commission is a contract 
with the nation to do all in their power to render 
themselves fully capable of leading men and 
women in war. The terms in the commissioning 
oath have been previously spelled out. The nation 



3-1 



will keep its bond to the oath; it expects no less 
from its officers. 

Our nation never seeks war; but by staying 
prepared and vigilant, our enemies know we will 
retaliate to any act of aggression. As a result, 
naval officers' responsibilities in the uneasy times 
in which we live are impressive. Naval officers are 
charged with doing everything in their power to 
maintain and increase national strength. They 
accomplish that by being proficient in professional 
skills, properly training and guiding their 
subordinates, and developing improved devices 
and methods. Our nation relies on its naval 
officers to exercise the most exacting and diligent 
care of the men, women, and materials placed in 
their trust. 

In considering the demands of the nation, 
military officers are entitled to ask what benefits 
they will reap from a naval career. First, career 
officers may expect the gratitude of their nation. 
That gratitude is expressed in tangible ways. Their 
pay and allowances are established and main- 
tained by law. In the event of sickness or 



disablement, their welfare is ensured. By virtue 
of their status as officers, they are held in respect 
by their fellow citizens and have an inherent 
prestige that few other professions can equal. 

Second, officers will find in their tours of duty 
a varied and challenging way of life. Their active 
duty often takes them to many parts of the world. 
Regardless of their position as a Hne or staff 
officer, they will be called upon to perform a great 
number of different tasks. Their educational 
opportunities enhance their naval career as well 
as any future career they might have upon their 
return to civilian Hfe. They serve and become 
comrades of an almost infinite variety of men 
and women. They encounter a minimum of 
personal favoritism. That provides a continuing 
opportunity for them to advance based on their 
own merits and abiUties. In short, their lives are 
seldom routine and never dull. They do not live 
a haphazard existence, despite its intriguing 
variety. Their Ufestyle is balanced by their 
membership in a competently administered, well- 
organized professional Navy. 



CIVILIANS 



> NROTC 



•^USN 



CIVILIANS 



QUALIFIED 
ENLISTED 



^ USNA 



-►USN 



USNR 

OFFICER PROGRAMS 
OCS, AOC, NFOC 
NROTCCCONTRACT) 
NAVCAD 



AUGMENTATION 

SELECTION BOARDS 
CHOOSE THOSE BEST 
QUALIFIED FOR USN 



►USN 



USNA 



ECP 



^ NAVCAD 



WARRANT 

r 



LOO (T) 




-►USN 



Figure 3-1. — A number of programs serve as the Navy's source for procuring trained officers. 



3-2 



OFFICER PROCUREMENT 



NAVAL AVIATION CADET 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

22 Dec. 1775 Commissions are approved for 
first Regular officers of the 

Navy. 

25 Jul. 1777 Subsistence of naval officers 
while in foreign ports is autho- 
rized by Congress. 

17 Dec. 1810 Future Admiral David G. Far- 
ragut is appointed to the rank of 
midshipman. 

11 Jul. 1846 First Naval Academy graduate, 
Richmond Aulicks, commis- 
sioned a passed midshipman. 

26 Jun. 1884 Commissioning of Naval 
Academy graduates as ensigns 
authorized by Congress. 

2 May 1955 Navy announces the Aviation 
Officer Candidate Program. 

The current requirement for naval officers on 
active duty is about 71,000. Approximately 6,200 
persons are commissioned as Regular or Reserve 
officers and ordered to active duty each year. The 
Navy's active-duty officer programs are aimed at 
the fulfillment of established goals based on 
projected requirements. The Regular officer 
procurement programs do not provide sufficient 
officers to maintain the USN structure. Therefore, 
qualified Reserve officers who apply are selected 
for USN status as needed to maintain the career 
officer cadre of the Navy. 

Our naval officers are procured from several 
different sources (fig. 3-1). A career as a naval 
officer is open to civilians through the Naval 
Academy or a college NROTC program (NROTC 
programs are the largest source). Selected civilian 
college graduates who are qualified in appropriate 
specialties may receive a direct appointment. 
Officer Candidate School (OCS) and Aviation 
Officer Candidate School (AOCS) are open to 
civihans and military personnel who have earned 
a degree. For enlisted personnel already serving 
in the Navy, other routes are discussed in the 
following paragraphs. 



The Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) 
Program provides naval aviation training to 
qualified men and women with 2 or more years 
of approved college courses. 

When NAVCADs successfully complete 
aviation training, they are appointed as officers 
in the Naval Reserve and designated as Navy 
pilots. 

The NAVCAD Program is open to qualified 
civilians and enlisted personnel who have not 
previously been disenrolled from any flight 
program. 

Eligibility Requirements: 

1. Age— At least 19, but not have reached 
25th birthday before reporting to AOCS. 

2. Citizenship — United States citizen only. 

3. Marital Status — Single with no dependents; 
must remain single until commissioning. 
There are no exceptions to this rule. 

4. Additionally, they must meet all physical 
requirements, including 20/20 uncorrected 
vision and height limitations. 

NAVCAD applicants must complete AOCS 
and attend basic and advanced flight training. The 
NAVCAD is obligated for 6 years of active 
commissioned service after becoming a naval 
aviator. 

CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER 
(CWO) PROGRAM 

The mounting sophistication of ships, aircraft, 
and weapons systems requires commissioned 
officer specialists. These officers must be able to 
closely supervise complicated machinery and 
weapons as well as the enlisted technicians who 
maintain and operate them. 

A chief warrant officer, although commis- 
sioned from the enlisted ranks, bridges the gap 
between the enlisted and commissioned structures. 
The CWO structure provides flexibility in two 
separate areas. A chief warrant officer grows in 
competence during his or her progression through 
the enlisted and warrant fields, while remaining 
within a specific technical field or job skill. The 
CWO can also be assigned repeatedly to similar 
billets largely irrespective of grade within the 
structure. 

The CWO Program is open to both men and 
women. It provides a path of advancement to 
warrant status for chief petty officers of the 



3-3 



Regular Navy and Naval Reserve. To qualify for 
the program, they must have demonstrated 
outstanding performance in the technical fields 
indicated by their enlisted ratings. They must be 
on active duty to be considered by the selection 
board and, if selected, remain on active duty 
until their appointments are tendered. Selectees 
normally receive 6 or 8 weeks of training at 
an officer indoctrination school, followed by 
technical training as appropriate. (Supply Corps 
personnel, however, receive 6 months of training.) 
The appointment of each chief and senior 
chief petty officer will be to the grade of chief 
warrant officer, CWO-2. Master chief petty 
officers could also be appointed to CWO-2 but 
may be recommended for appointment for 
CWO-3 if they fulfill the following requirements: 

1. Must have performed duties equating to 
those of a chief warrant officer, CWO-2, 
for a minimum of 2 years during their 20th 
to 24th years of service. 

2. Must have performed such duties in the 
warrant technical specialty for which 
application is made. 

LIMITED DUTY OFFICER 
(LDO) PROGRAM 

The LDO Program is somewhat like the CWO 
Program in that it permits officers to continue 
working in the broad technical fields associated 
with their rating. Inputs are limited to selected 
chief warrant officers and senior enlisted person- 
nel. Each selected commissioned warrant appli- 
cant will be appointed to the temporary grade 
of Ueutenant junior grade). Selected enlisted 
appUcants will be appointed to the temporary 
grade of ensign. 

ENLISTED COMMISSIONING 
PROGRAM (ECP) 

The Enlisted Commissioning Program (ECP) 
provides enlisted personnel with an associate 
degree the opportunity to earn a baccalaureate 
degree and a commission as an unrestricted hne 
officer. Candidates are enrolled full time at an 
NROTC host university. Upon completion of 
ECP, the candidate attends OCS. 

Eligibility requirements: 

1. Be a U.S. citizen 

2. Be serving on active duty 

3. Have time in service of between 4 and 1 1 
years 



4. Be at least 22 years of age but not have 
passed the 31st birthday 

5. Be physically qualified for appointment to 
the unrestricted line 

6. Have no record of conviction by court- 
martial or civil court, other than minor 
traffic violations 

7. Meet high standards of personal conduct, 
character, patriotism, sense of duty, and 
financial responsibility 

8. Have a cumulative grade-point average 
(GPA) of not less than 2.3 on the 4.0 scale 
for all college-level courses completed 

9. Be recommended by the commanding 
officer 

While undergoing training at the participating 
college/university under the ECP, the ECP officer 
candidate will receive full pay and allowances. 
However, the ECP officer candidate will be 
responsible for paying all educational expenses. 

Service obligation: 

1 . Six years of active enUsted service will be 
incurred from the date of enrollment in the 
ECP. 

2. Four years of active commissioned service 
will be incurred upon commissioning. 



OFFICER'S RECORD 

An officer's record is maintained for Regular 
Navy and Naval Reserve officers at the Bureau 
of Naval Personnel (BUPERS). The record 
is intended to reflect the official history 
of the officer's career in the Navy. It is the 
property of the government and not of the officer 
concerned. This official record contains any 
document that bears or reflects on the character, 
performance, professional qualifications, and 
fitness of the officer. This record shall not be used 
as a depository for documents of a personal 
nature that have no bearing on personnel 
functions. The record is reviewed when any 
change in status is contemplated, such as assign- 
ment to duty, promotion, court-martial, or 
disciplinary action by the Chief of Naval Person- 
nel. The record is of particular importance in 
selection for promotion. 

MICROFICHE 

All officer personnel records held in BUPERS 
have been converted from paper to microfiche 
files. As shown in figures 3-2 and 3-3, the officer's 



3-4 



INDIVIDUAL'S SSN 
PHOTO - 



SMITH JOHN Q , 



1 eiTseSS REPORT FORMS CdR-»*tiU*TlONS 
AMC ATTACHED MATERIAL 



C0MMENC4TORV DATA MEDALS 'AWAROS/CtTATIONS 
ETC I I 



-FICHE TYPE NUMBER 



-INDIVIDUAL'S NAME 



ONE DOCUMENT IMAGE 



OFFICEr - CHE \ FITNESS AND AWARDS 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 


121 IJ 4444 SM.TM JOHN Q J 


1 


, 1 1 1 1 1 

EDUCATIONAL DATA 


















is| 1 1 1 1 

QUALIFICATIONS OAT 


A 
















2»| 1 1 1 1 

APPOINTMENTS PROMOTI 


3NS 










































57 


esE 


RVE 


STfl 


TUS 




















'• 


SERVICE DETERMiN/ 
AND RETIREMENT 


VTIC 


N SS 


:paf 


ATI 


ON 








65 


1 1 1 

ISCELLANEOUS 






















J 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 


III )J a4*4 SMITH JOHN 3 


\ 


1 SECURITY INVESTIGATIONS. CLEARANCES 
PERSONAL HISTORY STATEMENT 1 j 




































29 1 1 
EMERGENCY 


i 

DATA 


















.]| 1 1 1 
RECORD CHANGES 


















S7l 1 1 1 1 1 ' 
PERSONAL BACKCROUNODATA 








































"III 
MISCELLANEOUS 
























/ 



OFFICER FICHE 2 PROFESSIONAL HISTORY 



OFFICER FICHE 3 PERSONAL DATA 



Figure 3-2. — Officer fiche formats. 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 


I2t 1) 4444 SMITH jC-N ' 4 




■ 1 1 

OROERS 








1 














































































1 




















































i 
i 














A 












i 


_ 






_ 







OFFICER FICHE 4 OROERS 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 


m 11 4444 SMtTH jOmN Q S 


'M 1 1 M 

PRWILEGED INTORMATION 

























































































































































































A 
B 

D 
E 
F 
G 


121 31 4444 SM.TM JOHN O 6 


'Mill 

ENLISTED RECORD 












1 


1 
























1 
















































































































































^ 


J 



OFFICER FICHE 5 PRIVILEGED INFORMATION 



OFFICER FICHE 6 ENLISTED RECORD 



Figure 3-3. — Officer fiche formats. 

3-5 



record may contain up to six categories of 
microfiche information and documents. Some of 
the information and documents that may be filed 
under the six categories are as follows: 

1. Fiche No. 1 — Fitness and Awards 

• Current photograph 

• Fitness reports 

• Medals/awards/citations 

2. Fiche No. 2 — Professional History 

• Education 

• Qualifications 

• Appointments/promotions 

• Reserve status 

• Service determination, separation, and 
retirement 

3. Fiche No. 3 — Personal Data 

• Security data 

• Record of emergency data 

• Record changes 

• Personal background data (citizenship, 
casualty, death, biography) 

• Miscellaneous information — For ex- 
ample, physical examination report 

4. Fiche No. 4 — Orders 

• First duty 

• Training duty 

• Separation 

5. Fiche No. 5 — Privileged Information 
(Prepared only as correspondence 
warrants) 

• Adverse information (Based on Navy 
Regulations, adverse matter shall not 
be placed in an officer's record without 
the knowledge of the officer. In all 
cases, it shall be referred to the officer 
on which the matter is being reported 
for such official statement as may be 
desired. If the officer who is being 
reported chooses to make no statement, 
that intention must be so indicated in 
writing. The Chief of Naval Personnel 
interprets what constitutes adverse 
matter.) 

• Extracts from the findings and rec- 
ommendations of courts and boards 



concerning the officer (These include 
statements of disciplinary action and 
court-martial orders or promulgating 
letters of general court-martial when a 
finding of guilty has been found. A trial 
may result in an acquittal of all charges 
and specifications, or the final review 
of a conviction may result in action 
equivalent to an acquittal of all charges 
and specifications. In such cases court- 
martial orders or the promulgating 
letters of court-martial shall not be 
included in the officer's record. No 
entry whatever regarding the acquittal 
shall appear in the officer's official 
record, neither the fact that the person 
has been tried nor any mention of 
the offense. Complete records of pro- 
ceedings of court-martial inquiries, 
investigations, and so forth, are filed 
in the Office of the Judge Advocate 
General.) 

6. Fiche No. 6 — Enlisted Record 

• The information included in this fiche 
shows schools attended, quahfications 
achieved, awards received, and other 
information pertinent to a naval 
officer's career. This record is prepared 
for officers who have served as enlisted 
members for 2 or more years and 
whose officer microform record was 
established during the initial conversion 
process from paper to microfiche. 
Enlisted documents for officers who 
completed less than 2 years of enlisted 
service are distributed in the ap- 
propriate subject matter field on fiche 
1 through 5. 

The official officer record presented to selec- 
tion boards contains fiche numbers 1; 2; and, if 
it exists, 5 for active-duty officers. It contains 
fiche numbers 1; 2; 4; and, if it exists, 5 for Naval 
Reserve (inactive and TAR) officers. Fiche 
numbers 3 and 6 are normally maintained for 
administrative purposes only. However, upon 
request, boards may be provided with fiche 
number 3 to determine an officer's medical status. 

Commendatory correspondence may not be 
filed in the officer's official record. The report- 
ing senior should consider any commendatory 
correspondence or recognition for performance 
beyond that normally expected when evaluating 
overall performance in preparing the officer's 
fitness report. If considered appropriate, an entry 



3-6 



should be made in the remarks section of the 
fitness report reflecting the commendatory 
material received and any other pertinent related 
facts. 

Access to the record of an officer is normally 
limited to the following persons: 

• The officer concerned 

• An agent or representative of the officer 
specifically authorized in writing 

• The Chief of Naval Personnel and 
authorized assistants in the conduct of 
their official duties 

• Members of boards convened by the 

Navy 

Members of a courts-martial board 






The clerk of the court of competent 
jurisdiction in response to a vaHd order 
from that court 



Any matter rightfully placed in the official 
record of an officer may not be removed except 
by special authorization of the Secretary of the 
Navy (SECNAV). The record is permanent. Once 
submitted to BUPERS, a fitness report becomes 
the property of the Navy Department and is not 
subject to change. A report may be amended or 
supplemented by correspondence forwarded 
through official channels. In such cases the for- 
warding correspondence will be microfilmed and 
made a part of the fitness report being amended 
or supplemented. 

Anonymous communications are not made 
part of an officer's official record. 

OFFICER SERVICE RECORD 

An officer service record (fig. 3-4) is main- 
tained for every officer in addition to the officer's 
record in BUPERS. The officer service record is a 



y^ 



CHRfSTMAS 



MARY 



(N) 



LAST 



FIRST 



MIDDLE 



SERVICE NO 



SSN USNR' 



NAME, 



U. S. Navy 

Officer Service Record 



CAUTION 

The inviolability of naval personnel records and the 
tnformatjon conlained therein has lonn been recoKm^^'l 
by the Deparlmenl of the Navy in view of the confiden - 
lial nature of such records. Accofdinglv. the release of 
informaiion must be sharply restricted and ngidlv con- 
trolled, except that information \^hich each of ft cer ha •; 
specifically approved for release for publicity purposes 
which IS contained on the Officer Biograph\ Sheet 
(Fonn NAVPERS-979) Otherwise, information may 
noi be div-ulRed from the Officer Service Record, nor 
may access to the record be granted, excepi lo persons 
properly and directly concemed. 



NA VPERS 1070/66 



Figure 3-4. — Cover for officer service record. 
3-7 



brown manila file folder containing information 
in a format similar to that in the enlisted service 
record. 

For the active-duty officer, the service record 
is maintained by the activity to which the person 
is attached. 

For inactive-duty officers and retired officers, 
the responsibility for maintenance of service 
records depends on whether the officers are partic- 
ipating in inactive-duty training. For those not par- 
ticipating (that is, not having orders for any type 
of inactive-duty training), the records are main- 
tained by the Commanding Officer, Naval Re- 
serve Personnel Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

The officer service record is designed to pro- 
vide a ready file of documents that may be used 
for billet assignment and other administrative pur- 
poses. It may also be used to establish facts, when 
necessary, regarding an officer's naval service. 

The right side of the record is reserved for 
documents affecting utilization and assignment 
of the officer concerned. The left side is used for 
information primarily related to the officer's 
present tour of active duty. Accordingly, some 
items filed on the left side are removed from 
the folder when the officer is transferred. 
Miscellaneous documents not pertaining to 
either of the above categories, but estabUshing 
significant facts relating to the officer's service, 
are also filed on the left side. 

The Naval Military Personnel Command 
Manual (MILPERSMAN) gives a list of the 
documents to be filed on each side and the order 
of fihng. 

OFFICER FITNESS REPORTS 

Fitness reports form one of the most impor- 
tant documents of an officer's record. They 
provide a record of the duty performed and the 
manner of performance as well as the officer's 
professional qualifications and commendations. 
These reports provide a record of censorious 
matter, disciplinary action, and any special 
qualifications and personal characteristics of the 
officer. The fitness report also records an officer's 
general state of health and endurance as it affects 
the officer's value to the naval service. 

Fitness reports are the primary instrument by 
which the best qualified officers are promoted. 
They are also the primary instrument by which 
officers with the particular qualifications required 
are chosen to fill responsible positions in the 
military establishment. In addition, they are 
used as evidence before courts-martial and in 
connection with disciplinary action of a lesser 



degree. Each report should be a frank, accurate, 
and comprehensive evaluation of the officer's 
characteristics and performance. 

Because of the importance of these reports, 
all officers should become familiar with both the 
form and the instructions concerning its use. 
NAVPERS 1611/1 (fig. 3-5) is the optical 
character recognition (OCR) form on which 
fitness reports are submitted. Specific instructions 
for completing the form are issued by BUPERS. 

We mentioned earher that access to an 
officer's record in BUPERS may be granted to the 
officer concerned or to a representative designated 
by the officer. When in Washington, D.C., all 
officers should take advantage of the opportunity 
to visit the Records Review Room in BUPERS. 
They can then review their record to ensure no 
fitness reports are missing. If reports are missing, 
officers can request that those fitness reports be 
submitted before the next selection board. By 
reviewing their record, officers can also determine 
whether, in the opinion of successive reporting 
seniors, some aspect of their professional ability 
or qualifications has decUned. Officers may then 
have the opportunity to take remedial action 
(engage in self-improvement). 

All superiors exercising command functions 
are responsible for completing fitness reports on 
all officers who have reported to them for duty. 
This must be done based on orders issued by the 
Secretary of the Navy, the Chief of Naval 
Personnel, or others authorized to issue such 
orders. 

Reports of fitness on Regular and Reserve 
officers on active duty are submitted at least 
annually based on a schedule published by the 
Chief of Naval Personnel. Reserve officers 
involved in training and administration of 
Reserves (TARs) on extended duty, who compete 
among themselves for promotion, have a different 
submission schedule. 

Reports of fitness on Reserve officers who 
perform active-duty for training are submitted on 
NAVPERS 1611/1 directly to the Chief of Naval 
Personnel. The commanding officer of the ship 
or station where the officer performs the active 
duty is responsible for submitting the report. The 
occasion for such reports is "detachment of 
officer." 

Most scheduled submission dates are approx- 
imately 3 months before the usual convening dates 
of applicable selection boards. This schedule 
provides each board with the latest performance 
evaluations. The more frequent submission of 
reports for junior officers is required to speed up 



3-8 



;WGN fl«ST CHARACtiB IN THIS BOX 



rifl THt WOKO AlIGN TO HiGISTill Htai- 



■ALIg.NI 



euP€Bs use only 



I I Plbll^ I I 



REPORT ON THE FITNESS OF OFFICERS 



SUPERS USE ONLY 



1 NAME (LAST. FIRST MIOOLEI 



W 



OCCASION FOn BE 'ORT 

□ « PER- I 1 10 
IODIC 1 I 



7 SMIP/STATtON 



TYPE OF REPORT 



ml 1 11 DETACHMENT I 

I I OF OFFICER I 

I I BASIS 



( — iMREG- rpii — ^iscoN- rrir— iiosPE- rpii ^uops i i iib |( ihfre- rni — i 

I I ULAR I I I cuoneNI I I CIAL I I I con I I I CLOSE I I OUENT | | | 



PEBiSb 6f ft£*eBT 
12 FROM 



« DATE REPORTED 



BASIS FOR OBSEavArnST 



m: 



21 EMPLOYMENT OF COMMAND (CONTINUED ON REVERSE SIDE OF RECORD COPY) 



73 REPORTING SENIOR (LAST NAME, Fl. Ml) 



28 DUTIES ASSIGNED (CONTINUED ON REVERSE SIDE OF RECORD COPY) 



SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF PERF ORM ANCE [TYPE IN OCR CODE LETTEHFROM WORK SHEET) 



WARFA 
' 36 SEA 



32 EQUIP 4 WATER 



m 



34 RESPONSE IN 
STRESSFUL 
SITUATIONS 



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Figure 3-5.— Report on the Fitness of Officers (NAVPERS 1611/1) (front). 



3-9 



the collection of information in their records. It 
is also needed to help supervise those officers more 
closely and to establish a basis on which they may 
be considered for postgraduate schooling and 
other training. 

In addition to the foregoing, regular detach- 
ment reports on all officers are submitted 
upon their permanent detachment or upon the 
permanent detachment of their regular reporting 
seniors. 

Submission of fitness reports for brief periods 
isn't needed. The intent is for fitness reports to 
cover all time in a duty status. Therefore, to help 
administer the reports and avoid their needless 
submission, the person filing the report may 
modify the prescribed reporting periods as 
follows: 

A reporting senior may extend a 
periodic report for a maximum of 60 days 
on either end of the period involved when 
either the officer on which the report is 
being filed or the reporting senior reports 
for duty before or is detached after the 
period to be extended. For example, a 
commander who reports for duty on 12 
May 1990 and whose regular reporting 
senior is detached on 21 June 1990 could 
properly receive only one report of fitness 
for the entire period beginning 12 May 
1990. A reporting senior who is being 
detached, however, must submit a fitness 
report on every officer who is aboard as 
of the day of the reporting senior's detach- 
ment, regardless of how brief a period may 
be involved. 

When an officer reports on board for 
temporary duty for purposes of brief- 
ings, training, indoctrination, or awaiting 
further transportation for a period not to 
exceed 30 days, the period involved and 
nature of assigned duties often prevent a 
meaningful evaluation. In such instances, 
the temporary duty reporting senior need 
not submit a fitness report. However, the 
temporary duty reporting senior must 
ensure that both the officer concerned and 
the ultimate command are advised that no 
report has been or will be submitted for 
such period. Additionally, the ultimate 
command must be provided all training 
information to record in the next regular 
report. The ultimate command must cover 
the temporary duty, as well as other 
transient time, in the next regular report. 



Preparation of Fitness Reports 

The importance of keeping the records of 
officers continuously complete in all respects 
requires prompt submission of the report. 

Officers' fitness report files should contain a 
complete and continuous record of all the time 
spent in an active-duty status. The period of the 
report should begin with the day after the terminal 
date of the last report or the date officers were 
detached from their last duty station. Time 
between stations spent in transit, on leave, in the 
hospital, or on inactive duty should be shown in 
the report. The reporting senior's marks and 
remarks are limited to the period during which 
officers were under the senior's command. 

Commanding officers frequently require their 
executive officers and department heads to report 
to them on the performance of officers serving 
under their supervision. Commanding officers use 
these reports in making reports on the fitness of 
officers under their command. They do not for- 
ward these reports to the Chief of Naval 
Personnel. 

After a naval action or campaign and after 
service on shore with an expeditionary force or 
force of occupation, an entry is made on each 
participating officer's next fitness report. The 
entry states the kinds of services performed and 
gives the dates and names of any engagements in 
which the officer took part. 

Officers in the grades of chief warrant officer 
(CWO-2) and ensign through lieutenant must, 
except in unusual circumstances, sign the record 
copy regardless of the report content. The report 
must be signed in ink by both the officer being 
evaluated and the reporting senior. 

Officers in the grades of CWO-3 and CWO-4 
and lieutenant commander through captain may 
be given counseling about the report upon request. 
However, reports shall not be shown to them as 
a matter of routine. When the report has been 
discussed but not shown to the officer, the words 
REPORT DISCUSSED are typed in section 82 
of both the OCR form and record copies of the 
report. 

^ Reporting seniors will show fitness reports to 
officers in the grades of CWO-2 and ensign 
through lieutenant. This action will be accom- 
panied by personal counseling. A frank and 
meaningful discussion and explanation of the 
report must be conducted so that the officers may 
fully understand their performance. 



3-10 



Special Fitness Reports 

Special reports of fitness may be submitted on 
officers whenever they conduct themselves in any 
of the following manners: 

1. Distinguish themselves in battle 

2. Perform an outstanding act of valor or 
devotion to duty 

3. Display extraordinary courage, ability, or 
resource in time of peril or great respon- 
sibility 

4. Are guilty of serious misconduct or marked 
inefficiency 

Adverse Reports 

Adverse matter is not placed in the records of 
officers without their knowledge. A fitness report 
containing adverse matter is referred officially in 
writing to the officer on which the report is 
being submitted. If desired, the officer may then 
make an official statement in reply. If the officer 
desires to make no statement, that choice must 
be stated officially in writing. The statement (or 
nonstatement) is endorsed by the reporting senior 
and forwarded to the Chief of Naval Personnel 
together with the fitness report. When the adverse 
report is not returned within a reasonable time, 
the reporting senior must prepare an explanation 
of the circumstances. A signed duplicate report 
is then sent with the explanation to the Chief of 
Naval Personnel. The officer being reported is 
informed when that is done. 



Submission of Report 

When the report of fitness is completed, the 
regular reporting senior forwards it directly to the 
Chief of Naval Personnel. 

Any reports concerning the actions or per- 
formance of the officer during a transit period 
between stations are addressed to the superior to 
whom the officer is reporting for duty. The 
superior normally attaches these reports to the 
next regular report of fitness. When the nature 
of such reports requires early action by the Chief 
of Naval Personnel, they are forwarded to him 
immediately. 

The reports of fitness of officers are con- 
sidered and treated as private and official. The 
reports are forwarded in double envelopes. If 
classified information is mentioned in a fitness 
report, the instructions issued in the Department 



of the Navy Information and Personnel Security 
Program Regulation apply. 

Officers may, upon request, obtain copies of 
the five most recent reports in their record. A 
written request may be submitted directly to 
BUPERS. 



PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
PATH 

In the assignment of officer personnel, the 
Navy is influenced by the needs of the service, the 
current composition of the officer corps, and the 
professional development of each officer. Every 
effort is made to place officers in billets of their 
choice, while the service needs and the person's 
qualifications are also considered. 

A service need is simply the day-to-day re- 
quirement of Navy activities for specific grades 
with certain talents. Professional development has 
a dual nature. First, in ordering officers to varied 
types of duties and schools, the Navy furthers its 
own mission of preparing these officers for future 
command responsibilities. Second, the Navy 
performs a genuine service for these officers by 
filling out their experience and thus increasing 
their promotional prospects. The desires of the 
officers are also considered because they have an 
obvious bearing on morale. Marital and depen- 
dent status, geographical and fleet preference, 
school requests, and other personal considerations 
play an important part in the final determination 
of duty assignment. 

We will limit this discussion of assignments 
to rotational patterns of the unrestricted line 
(surface, submarine, aviation) and supply. These 
patterns, as well as those not mentioned, contain 
a common element. They should provide officers 
the opportunity to gain the proficiency to handle 
the responsibilities and challenges of command. 
Officers can only gain that proficiency through 
a concentrated and continuing effort to develop 
their knowledge and experience. Both the officers 
and their succession of detailing officers must be 
aware of that element. With few exceptions, 
orders involving a permanent change of station 
for officers are originated by the Chief of Naval 
Personnel. The Naval Military Personnel Manual 
(MILPERSMAN) contains basic policy pertain- 
ing to officer rotation. This policy concerns the 
varied types of duty assignments required for 
officers to develop their capabilities and to achieve 
a fulfilling career. Deviations from basic policy 
are provided as needed to meet problems that 



3-11 



arise. At the present time, these deviations are 
required because of the increasing size of the shore 
establishment and the shortage of career officers. 
In addition to the requirements for rotation, 
assignment patterns reflect the need for the 
following considerations: 

1. Educational opportunities for overall 
career value or for a particular billet 

2. A progression of responsibility 

3. Assignment to duty with Reserve 
components 

4. Assignment of duty with joint or allied 
staffs or with the Office of the Secretary 
of Defense (SECDEF) 

5. Use of specialized training 

Officers should realize they are primarily 
responsible for planning their own career and 
should therefore indicate their assignment 
preferences to the Bureau of Naval Personnel. 

All commissioned officers complete an Officer 
Preference and Personal Information Card 
(NAVPERS 1301/1) on initial appointment and 
upon recall to active duty. Additionally, they 
should submit a new card 12 months before their 
projected rotation date (PRD) and whenever 
significant changes occur. 

This card contains a wealth of information 
that is very useful to the detailing officer. It is 
construed as a current reflection of the officer's 
preferences, and its timely and accurate submis- 
sion is extremely important. 

Personal letters may be submitted if special 
circumstances not appropriate for inclusion on the 
preference card arise. The information is made 
a part of the detailing record and is acted upon 
if practicable. These letters to the detailer 
do not become a part of the officers's permanent 
record. 

Officers desiring special courses of instruction, 
changes of duty, clarification of orders, date of 
release from active duty, extensions, retention in 
the Navy, and so forth, should indicate this by 
a letter forwarded through the chain of command. 
Such letters become a permanent part of an 
officer's record. 

Figure 3-6, A, shows a typical professional 
development pattern for a surface warfare officer, 
and figure 3-6, B, shows the pattern for a surface 
nuclear officer. Officers do not normally perform 
the types of duties in the exact sequence shown; 
rather, they should gain experience in the type of 
tour related to the phase of development through 
which they are passing. For instance, if you select 



a career as a surface warfare officer, you may stay 
at sea the first 5 years because of operational re- 
quirements or personal choice or both. During this 
time you will strive to attain qualifications as 
division officer, officer of the deck, department 
head, and surface warfare officer. Then you may 
rotate ashore to staff duty or to attend the Naval 
Postgraduate School. Although you did not 
follow the development plan exactly, you will have 
obtained the experience and qualifications 
necessary to make you competitive with your year- 
group peers. 

Figure 3-6, C and D, show an example of the 
professional development patterns for a sub- 
marine officer and an aviation officer. The typical 
professional development paths for supply corps 
officers and general unrestricted line (URL) 
officers are depicted in figure 3-6, E and F. 

The career path for female officers in the 
restricted line and staff corps parallels that of the 
male officers except as constrained by law. The 
career progression for female aviators and 
surface warfare officers parallels that for their 
male counterparts but is restricted to the force 
support subcommunity. 

A relatively new and important role for naval 
officers is a joint-duty tour. A joint-duty tour is 
a tour served with other branches of the armed 
forces. It provides the officer with a first-hand 
perspective of how the Navy interacts with other 
branches of the service. 

Many billets are available for joint-duty tours 
in places such as the Office of the Secretary of 
Defense, the White House, the U.S. Space 
Command, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Every 
effort possible is made by detailers to send our 
best performers to a joint-duty tour. 

Increased emphasis is being placed on the 
importance of such tours. All officers aspiring to 
flag rank should seek a joint-duty tour. Tours are 
usually assigned at the lieutenant commander level 
or above for a length of 3 years. 



OFFICER PROMOTIONS 

The Navy's officer corps is structured like a 
pTyramid. Starting with a wide base of junior 
officers at the bottom, it rises to a relatively few 
flag officers near the pinnacle and ends with one 
officer, the Chief of Naval Operations, at the 
top. The officer corps structure consists of 21 
competitive categories, or groups, of officers 
possessing similar skills, education, and training. 



3-12 



By law, the Navy's promotion system is 
vacancy-driven. Annually, promotion planners on 
the CNO's staff develop plans to determine the 
projected need (or vacancies) for officers in each 
grade within each of the competitive categories. 
The development of these plans starts the promo- 
tion system cycle, within which are three major 
elements: promotion opportunity, selection for 
promotion, and promotion. 

PROMOTION OPPORTUNITY 

Obviously, all officers can't reach the 
top of the pyramid. However, they all have 
the same promotion opportunity as their 
contemporaries in their competitive category. 
Promotion opportunity is the product of three 
factors: authorized officer strength, promotion 
flow point, and promotion percentage. 

The Navy's authorized officer strength is the 
total number of officers authorized to be in the 
Navy at the end of each fiscal year. Since the 
authorized officer strength sets a limit on how 
many officers the Navy may have each year, it 
affects the number of promotions that can be 
made. 

Promotion flow point is a predetermined 
number of years of commissioned service at 
which most officers would be promoted to the 
next higher grade. The first step in promotion 
opportunity is based on how many vacancies are 
expected in each grade in each competitive 
category. This step determines the size of the selec- 
tion zone, commonly referred to as "in zone." 
If the CNO's promotion planners foresee a need 
to fill 300 captain vacancies in the unrestricted line 
(URL) and a promotion opportunity of 50 per- 
cent is desired, then the zone must include 600 
URL commanders. 



not promoted, by the President of the United 
States to the grade of admiral and vice admiral. 

Selection boards are composed of officers 
characterized by their high quality of perform- 
ance, maturity, judgment, naval background, and 
experience. SECNAV normally assigns the senior 
member as president of the board. Each member 
subscribes to an oath to consider all eligible 
officers without partiality and to recommend for 
promotion only those officers who are best 
qualified. 

The board cannot exceed the number of selec- 
tions provided for in SECNAV's precept. For 
example, if 100 officers are in zone and SECNAV 
requires a 70 percent promotion percentage, the 
board cannot select more than 70 officers for 
promotion. It may reach "below zone" and 
choose for early promotion up to 10 percent (or 
15 percent with SECDEF approval) of the total 
number of officers selected. If, in the above 
example, the board selects 10 officers from below 
zone, it can select only 60 officers from in zone. 
(Each officer normally gets two "looks" from 
below zone before entering in zone.) The board 
also may select "above zone" officers; that is, 
those who were considered by a promotion board 
in a previous year but weren't selected. 



PROMOTION 

Once the board concludes its deliberations and 
assembles its promotion list, several events must 
occur in the following order before an officer 
actually gets promoted to the next higher grade: 

• Chief of Naval Personnel, Judge Advocate 
General, and Chief of Naval Operations 
review the list. 



SELECTION FOR PROMOTION 



SECNAV reviews the list. 



Annually, SECNAV convenes promotion 
boards for each competitive category to select 
active-duty officers and inactive-duty Reserve 
officers for promotion. They are selected for 
promotions to the grades of chief warrant 
officer (CWO-3), chief warrant officer (CWO-4), 
lieutenant, lieutenant commander, commander, 
captain, rear admiral (lower), and rear admiral 
(upper). Chief warrant officer (CWO-2) and 
ensign are commissioning grades; commanding 
officers determine the promotion of officers 
under their command to lieutenant junior grade. 
Officers above the grade of captain are appointed. 



• SECNAV pubhshes the list for chief 
warrant officer, lieutenant, lieutenant 
commander, commander, and captain in 
an ALNAV (all Navy) message. The 
ALNAV message lists the names of 
selectees in alphabetical order and shows 
an officer's relative seniority among 
selectees within each competitive category. 
Officers in the same competitive category 
maintain relative seniority throughout their 
careers. Changes occur only if an officer 
is selected for early promotion or fails to 
be selected for promotion. 



3-13 




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• Increasing Specialization or Depth 
Depending on the Need of the Service 


MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT 

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• Operational Experience 

• Proficiency Growth 

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in function 

• Management Skill Development— 
iwo related functions to develop depth 
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3-15 



• Secretary of Defense signs the list. 

• President of the United States signs the list. 

• SECNAV publishes the list for rear 
admiral (lower) and rear admiral (upper) 
in an ALNAV message. 

• U.S. Senate confirms the Hst. Lieutenant 
(active Reserve), lieutenant commander 
(Reserve), and chief warrant officer 
selectees do not require Senate confirma- 
tion. 



• SECNAV authorizes promotions through 
ALNAV messages as vacancies occur. This 
event normally occurs at monthly intervals 
in the fiscal year following the fiscal year 
of selection. Assuming officers maintain 
all qualifications, they will receive the first 
paycheck for the next higher grade soon 
after their name appears on this ALNAV 
message. 



PAY AND ALLOWANCES 

Two general statements can safely be made 
about military pay. Few, if any, people become 
wealthy on the basis of their military pay alone. 
On the other hand, if budgeted wisely, military 
pay provides a comfortable standard of living. 

From a career standpoint, you should keep 
certain factors in mind when making dollar-for- 
doUar comparisons of military and civilian pay. 
Military pay is guaranteed and predictable. The 
current trend in military pay is upward. Periods 
of business recession do not adversely affect 
military pay. A portion of the total military pay 
is not taxable, and provisions are made for 
additional pay for various forms of special or 
hazardous duty. 

Many publications contain descriptions of the 
entire matter of military pay. Our purpose here 
is to give an overview and to define and briefly 
discuss elements that compose the total pay 
structure. 

Commissioned officers and warrant officers 
are assigned by law to paygrades on the basis of 
the grades in which they are serving, whether 
under temporary or permanent appointment. 
Enlisted personnel, on the other hand, are 
assigned to paygrades by the Secretary of the 
Navy. 



BASIC, SPECIAL, AND 
INCENTIVE PAY 

Basic pay, which accrues for all personnel on 
the basis of paygrade and cumulative years of 
service, is the major portion of a person's total 
pay. The cumulative years of service may have 
been in any branch of the armed services or a 
Reserve component. 

Special pay is added compensation received 
for performing special duties. For officers, 
"special duty" is limited to medical and dental 
billets and duties involving diving and coming 
under hostile fire. Special pay for doctors and 
dentists is prorated on the number of years they 
have been on active duty (although certain medical 
officers serving in critical specialties also receive 
a special continuation pay). Special pay for hostile 
fire and diving involves flat monthly sums 
regardless of grade or years of service. As a matter 
of interest, special pay for hostile fire is not 
payable in time of war declared by Congress. 

Incentive pay, prorated according to grade and 
years of service, is additional pay received for 
performing hazardous duty. Included in this 
category are flight pay for both crew and non- 
crew members; submarine pay; and extra pay 
received for parachute, aircraft carrier flight deck, 
explosive demolition, experimental stress, or 
leprosarium duty. 

ALLOWANCES 

An allowance is a contribution of money, or 
its equivalent "in kind," to help meet expenses 
incurred as the result of membership in the naval 
service. Allowances are not taxable. 

Basic Allowance for Quarters (BAQ) 

The purpose of basic allowance for quarters 
(BAQ) is to help members pay the cost of obtain- 
ing suitable hving quarters when government 
quarters are unavailable or not assigned. 

BAQ is divided into two categories: BAQ for 
members without dependents and BAQ for 
members with dependents. The rates payable vary 
according to your grade. 
-'" If you live in government quarters, you forfeit 
your BAQ in lieu of rent. 

Variable Housing Allowance (VHA) 

Variable housing allowance (VHA) is paid in 
addition to BAQ to help members defray the cost 



3-16 



of living in a particular area. VHA is based on 
your grade and geographic location. Surveys are 
conducted periodically to determine the amount 
of VHA for each geographic region of the United 
States. You forfeit VHA, as well as BAQ, if you 
reside in government quarters. 

Basic Allowance for Subsistence (BAS) 

Since all officers must pay their own mess bills, 
they are entitled to a monthly allowance for 
subsistence without regard to grade or dependency 
status. All officers, whether on board ship or 
ashore, whether married or single, receive a basic 
allowance for subsistence (BAS). 

Family Separation Allowance (FSA) 

Members assigned to a deployable unit are 
paid a family separation allowance (FSA) of $2 
per day when they have been away from their 
home port in excess of 30 days. That allowance 
continues until the member's unit returns to the 
home port. 

Dislocation Allowance (DLA) 

Personnel with dependents are entitled to a 
dislocation allowance (DLA) upon a permanent 
change of station. It is paid to help defray the 
abnormal expenses incurred in such a move. The 
amount is equal to one month's basic allowance 
for quarters to which the person is entitled. 

Miscellaneous 

Additional allowances are paid for things such 
as initial uniform allowance, mileage expenses for 
travel under orders, and per diem payments for 
temporary additional duty. Their specifications 
differ, but the basic idea is the same: a temporary 
payment to help defray expenses of an unusual 
nature arising from official duty. 



BENEFITS 

From the time naval officers begin active duty, 
they are entitled to many valuable benefits. 
Those benefits considered traditional include 
commissary privileges, various assistance pro- 
grams, and retirement. Benefits are estimated to 
add about 15 percent to a an officer's pay. 



MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE 

Medical and dental care are available to all 
members of the armed services on active duty. 
Regardless of where members are stationed, they 
have immediate access to full and complete care 
through the facilities of all the armed forces and 
the Public Health Service. 

The Navy naturally is vitally concerned with 
the health of its members. It estabhshes physical 
qualifications for procurement and ensures the 
maintenance of these standards throughout 
the member's entire period of active service. 
Additional physical qualifications are required for 
aviation, submarine duty, and other special 
programs. The rigors of a career in the Navy can- 
not be withstood by a person who is not in good 
physical condition. Should a person become 
injured or ill while on active duty, however, 
restoring the person to health as soon as possible 
is obviously in the person's best interest as well 
as the Navy's. 

Regulations governing medical care for retirees 
and dependents are contained in SECNAV 
Instruction 6320. 8D, which represents a joint 
statement by the armed forces. Coast Guard, and 
Public Health Service. The regulations prescribe 
policies and procedures for administering the 
Uniformed Services Health Benefits Program 
(previously known as Medicare) as authorized by 
Title 10, U.S. Code, for all the uniformed services. 

The law provides a uniform level of care, 
through either military or civilian facilities, for 
(1) retired personnel, (2) dependents of both 
active-duty and retired members, and (3) 
dependents of deceased members who died while 
on active duty or retired. Retired persons are 
entitled to the same health benefits in uniformed 
services facilities as active-duty members, except 
retirees are subject to space availability and staff 
capabilities. (The Veterans Administration, 
however, is responsible for the hospitalization of 
persons retired because of a physical disability 
or of a service-connected disease or injury.) 
Exceptions to entitlement of medical care for 
dependents, which are few, include dental care, 
domiciliary or custodial care, prosthetic devices, 
hearing aids, spectacles, and orthopedic footwear. 
Medical services at uniformed services facilities 
may be provided to dependents subject to space 
availability and the capabilities of the professional 
staff. 

In general, retirees and all dependents should 
use uniformed services medical facilities if they 
are adequate and available. An integral part of 



3-17 



the Health Benefits Program, however, is the 
CiviHan Health and Medical Program of the 
Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS). This aspect of 
medical care is of particular benefit to eligible 
beneficiaries residing in areas where service 
medical facilities are unavailable or unable to 
accommodate them. CHAMPUS authorizes a 
wide range of civiHan health care services, with 
a significant share of the cost being paid by the 
government. 

Participation in CHAMPUS by sources of 
care is entirely voluntary. Beneficiaries desiring 
treatment or hospitalization under CHAMPUS 
must locate a "participating" physician or 
another source of health care willing to provide 
authorized care to the beneficiary. The source 
must be willing, after payment of a stipulated 
amount by the beneficiary, to submit a claim to 
the proper government fiscal agent for payment 
of the remainder of the fee. The source must also 
be willing to accept the amount the government 
determines to be allowable for the services. 

Inherent in CHAMPUS is a "reasonable fee" 
concept, meaning the government will pay only 
those charges it determines to be reasonable. If 
a fee charged is considered unreasonable, the 
difference between the fee for treatment and the 
amount paid under CHAMPUS will have to be 
paid by the beneficiary. The reasonable fee 
concept can be costly if not understood. Some 
beneficiaries erroneously think the government 
will pay the full charge made by any civilian 
source for authorized health care. If treated by 
a nonparticipating medical caretaker, the patient 
must pay the bill for any extra money charged. 
The patient should always ask at the time of the 
initial visit whether the physician or hospital 
participates in CHAMPUS and will accept (after 
the patient's contribution) the government fee as 
payment in full. Claims submitted to the govern- 
ment by participating parties include an agreement 
to accept as full payment the amount authorized 
as payable under the program. 

Except for emergency care, hospitals that 
practice discrimination in the admission or 
treatment of patients on the basis of race, 
color, or national origin may not participate in 
CHAMPUS. In other words, the government 
won't pay for their services, and beneficiaries 
receiving treatment at those institutions will foot 
the entire bill. 

Dental care is provided to all military person- 
nel and in some cases to their dependents as 
well. Most dental care for dependents is not 
provided by the mihtary. Dental insurance may 



be purchased by military personnel for their 
dependents through a group policy called Delta 
Dental Plan (DDP). DDP is a voluntary program 
of preventive services and basic dental care. The 
cost of that insurance is presently under $10 per 
month and provides coverage for all your 
dependents. 

COMMISSARY AND EXCHANGE 
PRIVILEGES 

One feature of Navy life a service dependent 
will especially appreciate is the privilege of 
purchasing food, household goods, and personal 
items at a reasonable cost through commissaries 
and service exchanges. These government facilities 
permit service personnel and their dependents to 
purchase basic commodities at fair prices. 

In overseas branches of those activities, 
personnel and their famiUes may buy foodstuffs 
and exchange items that otherwise might not 
be available. Many commodities ordinarily 
obtainable overseas through other means carry a 
much higher price tag. In addition, particularly 
for foreign goods or unfamiliar brands, exchanges 
and commissaries ensure good quality. Their 
buyers are experts; most of us are not. Exchanges 
and commissaries base their prices on the same 
price scale used by their stateside counterparts. 

DEPENDENT SCHOOLING 

Elementary and secondary schooling are 
available overseas at government expense for 
eligible minor dependents of Department of 
Defense (military and civilian) personnel. To be 
eligible, a dependent must be between the ages of 
5 and 20; must be authorized by competent 
authority to be in the overseas area; and must be 
the unmarried child, stepchild, legally adopted 
child, or legal ward of the Department of Defense 
(DOD) member stationed overseas. 

Schooling may be provided by DOD schools; 
tuition-fee schools (schools under local govern- 
ment, private, church, or cooperative administra- 
tion); and correspondence courses. The type of 
schooling provided depends on the number of 
eligible dependents in an area and the availability 
of private schools that use English as the language 
of instruction. 

Schools operated by DOD are designed to 
meet the special problems created by a change of 
duty station in midyear. Teachers for these schools 
must meet U.S. quaUfications, must be U.S. 
citizens, and usually are recruited from the United 



3-18 



States. Spouses who meet necessary qualifications 
may be hired locally for employment in service- 
operated schools. 

Above the high school level, children of naval 
personnel are eligible for scholarship assistance 
at a number of colleges and universities in the 
United States. 

OFFICERS' MESS 

A commissioned officers' mess provides social 
and recreational facilities, meals, and 
refreshments to commissioned and chief warrant 
officers. Where facihties permit, privileges of the 
mess frequently are extended to officers of the 
other armed services and Reserve officers, as well 
as to officers' dependents. At large activities a 
mess may consist of dining rooms; snack bars; 
cocktail lounges; lounge areas; rooms for private 
parties; and in some cases swimming pools, golf 
courses, and tennis courts. 

ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 

To promote and preserve peace of mind for 
its officers and their dependents, the Navy offers 
a number of special assistance programs, some 
of which have substantial cash value. 

Family Services Centers 

At many Navy shore installations in the United 
States, particularly in areas of fleet concentration, 
Family Services Centers are established to assist 
new arrivals in obtaining personal services they 
may need. 

The centers ensure newcomers to the area 
receive a personal welcome, either by a home call 
or at the center. The new arrival is usually issued 
a brochure that includes information such as the 
following: 

1 . A map of the area 

2. A letter of welcome 

3. An area directory 

4. A base information guide 

5. Data on available medical care. Navy 
Relief, Red Cross, churches, commissaries 
and exchanges, educational facilities, base 
facilities, and so on 

In addition, centers will refer members and 
their dependents to the proper facility to obtain 
needed information on, among other things, 
passport applications, voting, insurance, career 



counseling, base and off-base housing, and finan- 
cial assistance. They may provide hospitality kits 
containing necessary items of household items 
new arrivals can borrow until their household 
goods are delivered. 

For the benefit of attached personnel receiving 
orders, centers maintain an inventory of brochures 
containing information on many overseas and 
continental United States Navy installations. 

Legal Assistance 

Personnel may obtain confidential guidance, 
without cost, from legal assistance officers at most 
duty stations. Advice rendered generally is on 
legal, personal, and property problems, or the 
drafting of legal documents. Assistance does not 
include representation in civil court. 

Casualty Assistance Calls Program 

If a Navy person dies on active duty, the 
family is visited promptly by a casualty assistance 
calls officer (CACO). The CACO offers the 
dependents help in obtaining rights, benefits, and 
privileges to which they are entitled and advises 
on funeral arrangements and financial assistance, 
if needed. The visit by the CACO is automatic; 
the deceased's family need not initiate the action. 

Navy Relief Society 

Known as the "Navy's own organization to 
take care of its own," the Navy Relief Society 
is privately supported, primarily by means 
of annual requests for contributions. At the 
service of Navy and Marine personnel and 
dependents who need emergency help, it limits 
itself, generally, to nonrecurring situations of 
distress involving clothing, medical care, burial, 
and the like. It cannot underwrite permanent 
need. The society may make interest-free loans, 
outright grants, or a combination of the two. 

Navy Mutual Aid Association 

The aim of the nonprofit Mutual Aid Associa- 
tion is to provide life insurance at cost and 
immediate aid to dependents of deceased officers. 
Upon notice of a member's death, this associa- 
tion wires or cables a $2,000 cash payment to the 
dependents of the deceased member anywhere in 
the world. The total life insurance coverage is 
$400,000 available in $20,000 increments to 
association members. Membership is available to 



3-19 



active-duty and Reserve officer and enlisted 
personnel under 62 years of age of the Navy, 
Marine Corps, Public Health Service, and 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion. Other services include quick loans, central 
depository for documents, and assistance to the 
family in obtaining all rights and benefits to which 
entitled. For further information about the 
association benefits, you may call 1-800-628-6011 
or write to the following address: 

Navy Mutual Aid Association 
Arhngton Annex, Room G070 
Washington, DC 20370 

Navy Chaplains 

In addition to religious duties, the chaplain is 
available for personal, spiritual, and moral 
guidance, and for performance of marriages and 
funeral ceremonies. 

RECREATION AND 
SPORTS PROGRAMS 

Commanding officers make every attempt to 
provide recreation and sports programs designed 
to meet varied interests and desires and adapted 
to the needs of personnel and the facihties 
available. 

Recreation 

Most naval stations provide motion picture 
entertainment, well-stocked libraries, hobby craft 
shops, station newspapers, dances, parties, and 
shows. In larger metropolitan areas, theater, 
concert, and sporting event tickets may be offered 
to service personnel at reduced prices and in many 
cases free of charge. 

Sports 

Sports programs include organized competi- 
tions at intramural, intradistrict, intra-area, and 
intratype (or intertype) levels. Games and matches 
between fleet and shore activities are stressed, and 
interservice championships are held in many 
instances. All-Navy sports championships are a 
natural outgrowth of the extensive intra- 
intermural programs. 

Outstanding Navy athletes who beheve they 
possess the necessary capability and potential may 
apply to the Chief of Naval Personnel for 
permission to train for and participate in Pan 



American, Olympic, and other international 
sports competitions. 

RETIREMENT 

Retirement benefits available at the conclusion 
of a Navy career are, in many respects, superior 
to similar plans in civilian life. On a day-to- 
day basis, the most important factor is that 
the persons to whom the benefits accrue pay 
nothing toward their accumulation. Personnel are 
encouraged to accumulate personal savings or 
investments to supplement their retirement in- 
come. However, if they fail to do so, they may 
still look forward to having enough income during 
their remaining years from retirement pay and 
subsidiary benefits for the necessities of life. 

The Navy offers three types of retirement: 
voluntary, statutory, and retirement for physical 
disability. 

Voluntary Retirement 

Regular officers are eligible for voluntary 
retirement after completing 20 years of active 
service. Reserve officers (inactive duty) are entitled 
to retired pay benefits after reaching age 60 
provided they have completed 20 years of satisfac- 
tory federal service (of which the last 8 years were 
in a Reserve component). 

Application for retirement is normally in- 
stituted by the officer desiring retirement, but 
acceptance rests with the Secretary of the Navy, 
The full administrative process involved in retire- 
ment is too lengthy for the purposes of this discus- 
sion, but one aspect should be emphasized. A 
physical examination is a very important part of 
the retirement procedure. Discovery of any defects 
that will alter the retirement status will be acted 
upon. However, once the processing is completed, 
that retired status cannot be altered except by 
reason of disabihty incurred as a result of being 
called back to active duty. 

Statutory (Involuntary) Retirement 

To ensure youth and vigor in responsible 
positions and to prevent stagnation in grade, the 
Navy has laws that require the retirement of 
permanent officers and warrant officers at 
certain times. They are required to retire after 
reaching a certain age, after failing selection for 
promotion or continuation, after completion of 
a certain number of years of service, or a 
combination of these elements. A compilation of 



3-20 



statutory requirements for permanent Regular 
officers may be found in the Naval Military 
Personnel Manual, NAVPERS 15560A. Statutory 
requirements require no application from the 
officer concerned. 

Disability Retirement 

Members of the armed services who retire 
because of physical disability may receive certain 
tax benefits. If an officer retires for other than 
physical reasons, the entire amount of retired pay 
is taxable. If an officer is retired for physical 
reasons, however, and elects retired pay on the 
basis of percentage of disability, such pay is tax 
exempt. 

RETIREMENT BENEFITS 

In addition to retirement pay, many other 
benefits are offered upon retirement. The follow- 
ing section describes some of these added bonuses. 

Social Security Benefits 

Active-duty military personnel are placed 
under full Social Security coverage immediately 
upon entering service. Credits based on military 
service are not lost regardless of retirement or 
release from the service. A service person may 
receive retirement pay or any form of compensa- 
tion or pension from the Veterans Administration 
plus Social Security insurance payments at the age 
of 65 (or optionally at age 62). If totally disabled 
a person may apply for Social Security benefits 
immediately. 

Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) 

This program assures financial protection for 
survivors of retired uniformed service members. 
The Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) provides an 
income of up to 55 percent of a retiree's pay to 
the retiree's widow or widower and dependent 
children. 

In the past, surviving members of a retiree's 
family often found themselves with little or no 
income following the retiree's death. SBP fills that 
gap in the area of service benefits. Until passage 
of the SBP law, the retired pay of retired members 
of the uniformed services ended with their death, 
unless they had elected voluntarily to participate 
in the Retired Serviceman's Family Protection 
Plan (RSFPP) — known originally as the Con- 
tingency Option Act. 



Under the Survivor Benefit Plan, members are 
automatically enrolled in the plan with maximum 
coverage when they retire if they have spouses or 
dependent children, unless they elect a lesser 
coverage or decline participation before becoming 
entitled to retired pay. The retiree must elect the 
lesser coverage at least 30 days before the first day 
for which he or she can receive retired pay. 

Since the federal government pays a substan- 
tial part of the SBP cost, retirees give up only a 
small part of their retired pay to provide 
maximum coverage for their dependents. 

Miscellaneous Benefits of Retirement 

In time of peace retired officers may not be 
ordered to active duty without their consent. 
Although they may be ordered to active duty in 
time of war or national emergency, they are not 
required to hold themselves in readiness for 
active service. 

Officers may use their military title in 
commercial enterprises provided the use of that 
title does not bring discredit to the Navy Depart- 
ment or the Department of Defense. Retirees are 
entitled to wear the uniform of the grade held on 
the retired list when the wearing of the uniform 
is appropriate. 

Retired officers and their dependents are 
entitled for life to the same medical and dental 
services provided their active-duty counterparts, 
provided funding, staffing, and facilities are 
available. They are also entitled for life to the 
privilege of making purchases in commissaries, 
exchanges, and ship's service stores. 

Retired, as well as active-duty, personnel 
should remember they may have acquired veteran 
status and are thus entitled to many benefits 
available from the Veterans Administration (VA) 
and from the state in which they reside. These may 
include employment counseling, home and farm 
loans, unemployment compensation, burial rights, 
and VA benefits for veterans with disabilities. 

SURVIVOR'S BENEFITS 

Younger people usually are so busy living and 
making a living that they put off systematic 
planning for their families until they approach 
middle age and maximum earnings. Before that 
time, in most cases, they cannot afford adequate 
protection anyhow. If they choose a Navy career, 
that is one worry they can forget. Provision for 
their dependents begins the moment they enter the 
naval service and continues into retirement. 



3-21 



Financial security for dependents of deceased 
naval officers is guaranteed under the Service- 
man's and Veteran's Survivor Benefits Act, which 
places all members of the armed forces under 
Social Security. 

The Survivor Benefits Act is a package deal 
for long-range security of service families. It 
combines full and permanent Social Security 
eligibility with increased death and indemnity 
benefits paid by the VA to dependents of persons 
who die as a result of military service. The latter 
benefits are separate from Social Security and 
accrue whether death occurs during peace or war, 
as long as it results from a service-connected 
cause. When sums paid by both sources are 
added, they amount to a monthly income for your 
family that only those in the most fortunate 
financial circumstances could provide in civilian 
life. That income can be augmented by a retire- 
ment annuity made possible through the Survivor 
Benefit Plan. 

In addition to a liberal schedule of death 
gratuities and monthly compensation payments, 
the act provides for a considerable number 
of miscellaneous benefits. These include, for 
example, shipment of household effects, depen- 
dents' transportation, homestead privileges for 
establishing a home on government land, federal 
employment privileges, commissary and exchange 
privileges, and Medicare. 

If a naval officer dies while in active service 
or of service-connected causes within 120 days 
after release, the designated survivor also is 
entitled to the following benefits: 

1 . Navy death gratuity equal to one-half of 
a year's pay. The amount may not be less than 
$800. It is paid as promptly as possible and is not 
taxable. 

2. Payment up to $2,140 toward private 
funeral and burial expenses for services not 
provided by the government or for interment at 
no expense in any open national cemetery. A 
headstone for the deceased is furnished in either 
case. 

In addition to other survivor benefits, all 
persons on active duty in excess of 30 days are 
covered by a $50,000 Servicemen's Group Life 
Insurance policy at a cost to the service member 
of only $4 per month. Although service members 



will find this coverage is extremely inexpensive, 
they may reduce or terminate it if requested in 
writing. A life insurance program is an important 
factor for any officer to consider, especially if one 
has family responsibilities. 



SUMMARY 

Navy life is a demanding life. It calls for 
complete loyalty and dedication and for a great 
measure of selflessness. It involves pleasant 
assignments and those that are not so pleasant; 
but every billet you fill can be an opportunity for 
gain for the Navy, your shipmates, and yourself. 
A person must be mature and observant to always 
see these opportunities, but they are there. At 
times it can be a dangerous life. Danger is inherent 
in an armed service and particularly a service with 
worldwide commitments. But for the person with 
a desire to serve country and oneself in a variety 
of interesting and challenging ways, it is a 
stimulating, satisfying way of life. 

The family of the naval officer is a vital part 
of the Navy team. Far more so than in civilian 
life, a Navy spouse has the opportunity to 
further the officer's career. The spouse's patience, 
understanding, and acceptance of additional 
family responsibility contribute immeasurably to 
the officer's peace of mind. Because of the respon- 
sibilities of officers in the world's foremost Navy, 
their peace of mind is essential to their best 
performance of duty. Therefore, the welfare of 
their families, leading to happy home lives, plays 
a major role toward the success of the Navy. 

The Navy recognizes the importance of the 
role played by the officer's family. It also reahzes 
service families can best do their part only when 
they are taken care of and kept informed of the 
Navy's functions and missions to the fullest 
possible extent. Families should be encouraged, 
therefore, to learn about the great responsibility 
that falls upon naval officers and realize how 
much they can contribute toward achieving the 
Navy's goals. 

The very nature of naval officers' occupations 
gives their family a range of experience un- 
paralleled by their civilian counterparts in the 
world today. Inherently this range gives rise 
to equally unparalleled social and cultural 
opportunities for entire families. How people 
profit from these opportunities is up to them; the 
doorway is there and it is invitingly open. 

Because of their mutual importance to the 
Navy, officers and their famihes have every right 



3-22 



to expect the Navy to work for their benefit 
and interest — and the Navy will always do 
that. In return the Navy counts on every service 
family to do its part. A family does its part by 
taking advantage of the benefits offered and 
cooperating to contribute toward the betterment 
of the naval organization and the fulfillment of 
its mission. 



REFERENCES 

"Officer Promotions," All Hands Number 864 
(March 1989): 43-47. 

Useful Information for Newly Commissioned 
Officers, NAVEDTRA 10802-AL, Naval 
Education and Training Program Manage- 
ment Support Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1989. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Mack, W. P., and T. D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed., Naval Institute Press, 
AnnapoHs, 1983. 

Naval Military Personnel Manual (MILPERS- 
MAN), NAVPERS 15560A, Naval Military 
Personnel Command, Washington, D.C., 
1987. 

Navy Pay and Personnel Procedures Manual 
(PAYPERSMAN), NAVSO P-3050, Navy 
Department, Office of the Comptroller, Naval 
Mihtary Personnel Command, Washington, 
D.C., 1973. 

U.S. Department of Defense, The Armed Forces 
Officer, DOD Gen-36A, American Forces 
Information Services, Washington, D.C., 
1988. 



WARDROOM 

ABOARD THE 18TH CENTURY BRITISH SHIPS THERE WAS A COMPARTMENT 
CALLED THE WARDROBE, USED FOR STORING BOOTY TAKEN AT SEA. THE 
OFFICERS' MESS AND STATEROOMS WERE SITUATED NEARBY, SO WHEN THE 
WARDROBE WAS EMPTY THEY CONGREGATED THERE TO TAKE THEIR MEALS 
AND PASS THE TIME. 

WHEN THE DAYS OF SWASHBUCKLING AND PIRATING HAD ENDED, THE 
WARDROBE WAS USED EXCLUSIVELY AS AN OFFICERS' MESS AND LOUNGE. 
HAVING BEEN ELEVATED FROM A CLOSET TO A ROOM, IT WAS CALLED THE 
WARDROOM. 




3-23 



CHAPTER 4 



MILITARY DUTIES OF THE NAVAL OFFICER 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1. Describe the authority of naval officers. 

2. Identify the duties and responsibilities of the 
officer of the deck underway. 

3. Identify the duties and responsibihties of the 
combat information center watch officer. 

4. Identify the duties and responsibilities of the 
engineering officer of the watch. 



5. Identify the duties and responsibilities of the 
command duty officer. 

6. Identify the duties and responsibilities of the 
officer of the deck in port. 

7. Identify the duties and responsibilities of the 
division officer. 



The duties of the naval officer are many. They 
are often complex, dealing with technical areas 
or personnel problems. One of your challenges 
as a naval officer is to carry out successfully all 
the duties you are assigned in an efficient manner. 
To achieve this task requires much forethought. 
Although your duties remain somewhat consis- 
tent, the conditions vary on a day-to-day basis; 
sometimes they even change during the course of 
the day. 

After your entry-level training, your first duty 
assignment will probably be as a division officer. 
Division officers are assigned by the commanding 
officer to manage a division of the unit's organiza- 
tion. Standard Organization and Regulations of 
the U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32B, generally 
referred to as the SORN, outlines the division 
officer's duties. Note, don't confuse the SORN 
with the SORM. The SORM is the Standard 
Organization and Regulations Manual for your 
individual command. We will look at some of the 
division officer's duties later in this chapter, but 
first let's look at your authority and responsibility 
as a naval officer. 



AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY 

When you accept your commission as a naval 
officer, you assume many responsibilities. Your 
peers in the civilian sector would have to 
work several years into their careers before 
assuming such responsibilities. To handle these 
responsibilities, you need the authority to carry 
them out. Authority within the Navy means 
seniors have the legal right to require subordinates 
to obey their lawful orders. Your authority 
can be either general or organizational. You 
use general authority to fulfill the duties and 
responsibilities of your assignment or specific 
billet within an organization. By virtue of your 
commission, you are granted the organizational 
authority to perform your duties and respon- 
sibilities based on United States Navy Regulations, 
1990. 

NAVY REGULATIONS 

Navy Regulations outlines the authority of 
naval personnel in great detail. (Chapter 10 of 
Navy Regulations, which has several articles 



4-1 



dealing with authority, will be covered more 
thoroughly in chapter 6 of this text.) For the 
purpose of explanation and brevity, article 1012 
best describes the authority of naval officers as 
follows: 

All officers of the naval service, of 
whatever designation or corps, shall have 
all the necessary authority for the per- 
formance of their duties and shall be 
obeyed by all persons, of whatever designa- 
tion or corps, who are, in accordance 
with these regulations and orders from 
competent authority, subordinate to them. 

Chapter 1 1 of Navy Regulations explains some 
of your duties and responsibilities. SORNdlso ex- 
plains your duties and responsibilities, but it 
explains them more in detail than in general terms. 

STANDARD ORGANIZATION AND 
REGULATIONS OF THE U.S. NAVY 
(SORN) 

SORN applies to all members of the U.S. 
Navy. It lists the duties and responsibilities for- 
almost every billet and watch station in the Navy. 
It also gives us regulations on which to base our 
unit and watch organizations. 

No portion of the SORN is intended to 
contradict or supersede any portion of Navy 
Regulations. Many articles in the SORN and A'iarvy 
Regulations appear to say the same thing; but they 
are separate directives, and both apply to all 
members of the naval service. 

In addition to your primary duties, you may 
be assigned a number of collateral duties. 
Guidance on the performance of collateral duties 
can also be found in the SORN. 

Do not rely solely on Navy Regulations and 
SORN as your only sources for guidance in 
performing your duties. Use other directives and 
instructions that further amplify what you are 
required to do, such as those written by your 
command. 



WATCH STANDING 

As a naval officer, whether you are assigned 
ashore or afloat, a portion of your duties will 
involve watch standing. Although many watches 
are assigned to personnel assigned to shore duty, 
the primary scope of this text deals with the watch 
organization of an afloat command. 



SORN defines a watch as any period during 
which an individual is assigned specific, detailed 
responsibilities on a recurring basis. Watches on 
board ships are set both in port and underway. 
Commanding officers establish the watches re- 
quired for the safety, security, and proper opera- 
tion of their command. 

Although ships have numerous watches, those 
we discuss in the following paragraphs are the 
primary control watches for a ship underway. 

OFFICER OF THE DECK UNDERWAY 

One of the most important watches on a ship 
at sea is that of the officer of the deck (GOD). 
The commanding officer designates the assign- 
ment of the GOD in writing. The GOD takes 
charge of the safe and proper operation of the 
ship. 

The duties, responsibilities, and authority of 
the GGD include the following: 

• Being aware of the tactical situation and 
geographic factors that may affect safe 
navigation and taking action to avoid the 
danger of grounding or collision 

• Issuing necessary orders to the helm and 
main engine control to avoid danger, to 
take or keep an assigned station, and to 
change course and speed following the 
orders of proper authority 

• Making all required reports to the 
commanding officer 

• Supervising the personnel on watch on the 
bridge, ensuring all deck log entries are 
made, and signing the log at the end of the 
watch 

• Being aware of the status of the engineer- 
ing plant and keeping the engineering 
officer of the watch advised of power 
requirements 

• Carrying out the routine of the ship as 
published in the plan of the day and other 

'^ ship's directives 

• Supervising and conducting on-the-job 
training for the junior officer of the watch 
(JGGW), the junior officer of the deck 
(JGGD), and enlisted personnel of the 
bridge watch 



4-2 



Although we have listed only some of the 
OOD's duties and responsibilities, those Hsted 
show the enormous responsibility involved. When 
an individual is designated OOD (underway), the 
commanding officer has placed special trust and 
confidence in that person's capabilities. 

Although the OOD is responsible for the deck 
and the conn, the OOD normally delegates the 
conn to the JOOD. Just what are the deck and 
the conn? The deck refers to the OOD's watch; 
it means the OOD is in charge of all deck 
functions and supervises the maneuvers of the 
ship. The conn means the control, or direction 
by rudder and engine orders, of the movements 
of a ship. The JOOD is in training for OOD and 
must, therefore, learn how to conn the ship. Even 
when delegating the conn, the OOD still remains 
responsible for the actions of the conning officer. 

A matter of extreme importance is that the 
bridge watch team know who has the deck and 
the conn. Only one person at a time can conn the 
ship, and that person must be known by the watch 
team. For this reason, when one officer transfers 
the conn to another, that officer announces this 
transfer in the pilot house. Normally, the conning 
officer being relieved announces, "This is [Rank 
or Rate and name of the officer being relieved]. 
[Rank or rate and name of relieving officer] has 
the conn." The officer assuming the conn then 
announces, "This is [Rank or Rate and name]. 
I have the conn." Each member of the watch team 
acknowledges this report. Customarily the 
helmsman and lee helmsman report the course 
being steered, the magnetic-compass course, and 
the speed and rpm indicated. A similar announce- 
ment is also made for relief of the deck. 



• Keeping the OOD informed concerning all 
radars in operation and those under repair 

• Ensuring all CIC logs are properly main- 
tained for the duration of the watch 

• Supervising and evaluating the on-the-job 
training of enlisted CIC personnel on 
watch, including the ship's lookouts 

The CICWO normally makes reports to the 
OOD. If a tactical action officer (TAO) is assigned 
to the watch bill, the CICWO reports to the TAO 
on matters of tactical employment and defense. 

Tactical Action Officer (TAO) 

The tactical action officer (TAO) acts as the 
commanding officer's representative concerning 
the tactical employment and defense of the unit. 
The TAO is responsible for the safe and efficient 
operations of the combat systems and for any 
other duties prescribed by the commanding 
officer. The TAO, who is not assigned to the 
watch bill during normal peacetime steaming 
(Condition IV), stands watch in CIC. 

When so authorized by the commanding 
officer, the TAO may direct the OOD to take 
tactical actions required to fight or defend the 
unit. The TAO and the OOD have to work as a 
team. With the TAO in CIC and the OOD on the 
bridge, the TAO's direction could possibly place 
the ship in danger. In these cases the OOD should 
decline the direction and immediately advise the 
CO. 

Communications Watch Officer 



COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER 
WATCH OFFICER (CICWO) 

The officer who supervises the operation of 
the combat information center (CIC) is the CIC 
watch officer (CICWO). The CICWO acts as a 
representative of the CIC officer. The duties of 
the CICWO include the following: 

• Supervising personnel on watch in CIC, 
ensuring air, surface, and submarine 
contacts are detected and reported within 
the capabilities of the equipment 

• Keeping the OOD advised of recom- 
mended procedures for maintaining sta- 
tion, avoiding navigational hazards and 
collisions, and speed or course changes 
necessary to change or regain station 



Another important position in the underway 
watch organization is the communications watch 
officer. The communications watch officer is 
responsible for receiving all incoming message 
traffic and ensuring it is properly routed. The 
communications watch officer sends all opera- 
tional messages to the CIC watch officer. The 
communications watch officer is also responsible 
for transmitting the messages the unit needs to 
send and ensuring all radio frequencies are 
properly set. A ship must be able to communicate 
to accomplish its mission. 

ENGINEERING OFFICER OF 
THE WATCH (EOOW) 

The engineering officer of the watch (EOOW) 
is in charge of the safe and proper operation of 



4-3 



the ship's engineering plant. The EOOW has to 
be thoroughly familiar with the ship's engineering 
systems, including their capabilities and limita- 
tions. If a casualty occurs to any piece of equip- 
ment in the engineering plant, the EOOW must 
know the proper procedures to follow to control 
the casualty. Some of the duties and respon- 
sibilities of the EOOW are as follows: 

• Supervising personnel on watch in the 
Engineering Department to ensure they 
operate machinery according to instruc- 
tions; ensuring personnel maintain re- 
quired logs, properly man machinery and 
controls, and carry out all required 
inspections and safety precautions 

• Ensuring personnel promptly and properly 
execute all orders from the OOD concern- 
ing the speed and direction of rotation of 
the main engines 

• Immediately executing all emergency 
orders concerning the speed and direction 
of rotation of the screws 

• Immediately informing the OOD and the 
engineer officer of any casualty that would 
prevent the execution of engine speed 
orders or would affect the operational 
capability of the ship 

• Keeping informed of the power re- 
quirements for operations; ensuring the 
propulsion and auxiliary machinery com- 
bination effectively meets operational 
requirements 

• Supervising and coordinating on-the-job 
training for engineering personnel on 
watch 

The EOOW is the OOD's link to the engineer- 
ing plant. They work together and should keep 
each other informed. The OOD should inform the 
EOOW as soon as possible when changes in speed 
are anticipated. For example, to increase speed 
substantially to go to an assigned station, the 
OOD should notify the EOOW of the anticipated 
speed required. This gives the EOOW time to start 
additional machinery needed to meet the increased 
speed requirement. 

COMMAND DUTY OFFICER (CDC) 

The command duty officer (CDO) is the direct 
representative of the commanding officer. Some 



large ships have a CDO assigned underway, but 
in this text we will discuss the CDO in port. 

The commanding officer designates an officer, 
or in some cases a petty officer, as the CDO. The 
CDO carries out the routine of the unit in port 
and supervises the OOD (in port) in the safety and 
general duties of the unit. The CDO carries out 
the duties of the executive officer (XO) during the 
XO's temporary absence. Some of the duties and 
responsibilities of the CDO are as follows: 

• Advising and, if necessary, directing the 
OOD in the general duties of the unit 

• Keeping informed of the unit's position, 
mooring lines or ground tackle in use, 
status of the engineering plant, and all 
other matters affecting the safety and 
security of the unit 

• Relieving the OOD when necessary for the 
safety of the unit, and informing the com- 
manding officer when such action is taken 

• In the absence of the executive officer, 
receiving the eight-o'clock reports from the 
department duty officers and reporting the 
condition of the unit to the commanding 
officer 

• Mustering, drilling, and inspecting duty 
emergency parties 

Normally, the CDO stands a 24-hour watch. 
Most other watches are only for a 4-hour period. 
The CDO, being the direct representative of the 
commanding officer, has full and complete 
authority over the unit. All personnel, regardless 
of rate or rank, are subordinate to the CDO. 

OFFICER OF THE DECK (IN PORT) 

The OOD (in port) is the officer or petty 
officer on watch designated by the commanding 
officer to be in charge of the unit. The OOD's 
primary responsibility is the safety and proper 
operation of the unit. The OOD's other duties and 
responsibilities include the following: 

• Keeping continually informed of the unit's 
position, mooring lines or ground tackle 
in use, tide and weather information, the 
status of the engineering plant, the status 
of the unit's boats, and all other matter 
affecting the safety and security of the unit 



4-4 



• Ensuring all required entries are made in 
the deck log, and signing the log at the end 
of the watch 

• Carrying out the routine as published in 
the plan of the day, ensuring the executive 
officer, CDO, and department heads are 
informed of circumstances requiring 
changes in routine or other action on their 
part 

• Ensuring boats are operated safely and all 
boat safety regulations are observed 

• Supervising the operation of the general 
announcing system; the general and 
chemical alarms; and the whistle, gong, 
and bell 

• Displaying required absentee pennants, 
colors, and general information signals; 
and supervising the rendering of honors 

• Making all required reports to the CDO, 
executive officer, and commanding officer 
as directed by standing orders to the OOD 

• Supervising and conducting the on-the-job 
training for the JOOW, JOOD, and the 
enlisted personnel of the quarterdeck 
watch 

The duties of the OOD are far less complex 
in port than at sea, but the in-port watch is still 
a very demanding job. The OOD supervises the 
quarterdeck and gangway and greets all visitors. 
The OOD maintains the security of the unit, 
inspects packages and liberty parties, and carries 
out the ship's routine. While performing all these 
duties simuhaneously, the OOD sometimes finds 
the job overwhelming. Having complete authority 
over the ship, under the CDO, enables the OOD 
to control all the functions of the job. 



DIVISION OFFICERS 



of the duties and responsibilities of the division 
officer are as follows: 

• Assuming responsibility for the duties 
assigned to the division and for the 
conduct of subordinates 

• Promptly reporting to the department head 
repairs required or other defects needing 
correction that are beyond the capabiHties 
of the division 



• Ensuring optimum 
within the division 



material readiness 



• Directing the operation of the division 
through leading petty officers 

• Supervising the performance of the work 
centers within the division in carrying out 
the ship's maintenance and material man- 
agement 

• Ensuring damage control equipment, 
fittings, and checkoff lists in assigned 
spaces are in proper working condition and 
are properly labeled 

These duties and responsibilities represent only 
a portion of the division officer's tasks. Other 
responsibilities may be assigned by department 
heads, the executive officer, or the commanding 
officer. Many of the division officer's duties are 
performed daily, while others are performed less 
frequently. 

Sometimes you may feel you don't have 
enough hours in the day to perform all of your 
duties. This is where proper time management and 
the effective use of your division personnel come 
into play. To run your division effectively, you 
have to delegate some of your authority to your 
chiefs and leading petty officers. Keep in mind, 
however, that while you may delegate authority, 
you cannot delegate your responsibility or 
accountability. 

INSPECTIONS 



As mentioned earlier, your first assignment 
will probably be as a division officer. The size of 
a division varies. Some divisions may have as few 
as 5 personnel, while others may have as many 
as 300. Regardless of division size, as the division 
officer you will be responsible for ensuring the 
division operates properly and efficiently. Some 



One way the division officer can ensure the 
division meets all of its requirements is by holding 
inspections. By personal supervision and frequent 
inspections, the division officer can ensure 
personnel satisfactorily maintain spaces, equip- 
ment, and supplies assigned to the division. 
Through these inspections, the division officer can 



4-5 



identify and require the removal of safety hazards 
and discover and correct material discrepancies. 

The division officer should also inspect 
division personnel at morning quarters to ensure 
they present a neat, clean, and well-groomed 
appearance. Conducting daily personnel inspec- 
tions ensures the division's readiness for a 
surprise inspection by the executive officer or the 
department head. 

Additionally, division officers should inspect 
all assigned spaces on a daily basis. The division 
officer should not delegate this responsibility. 
Inspecting all the spaces for cleanliness indicates 
to division personnel that the division officer cares 
about them and their living and working condi- 
tions. It also gives the division officer the 
opportunity to talk to subordinates. As the 
division officer, praise the division for clean 
spaces, unless you note deficiencies. Set standards 
for cleanliness and then ensure those standards 
are met. 

Periodically, external inspection teams will 
conduct inspections. These inspections include the 
operational readiness evaluation (ORE), main- 
tenance and material management systems inspec- 
tion, command inspection, board of inspection 
and survey (INSURV) inspection, and operational 
propulsion plant examination (OPPE). As the 
division officer, you are responsible for preparing 
your division for these inspections and ensuring 
your division is ready when the inspection party 
arrives. 



The total safety program encompasses all 
safety areas, such as aviation, shipboard, and 
weapons and/or explosives safety, as well as 
occupational safety and health. The Navy 
Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) 
Program is a major component of the total safety 
program. 

Over the last several years, the CNO has issued 
many instructions that address employee safety 
and health issues. The purpose of the instructions 
has been to update the NAVOSH Program and 
to combine these instructions into a single 
organized program. The NAVOSH instruction 
currently in effect is OPNAVINST 5100.23B. 

QUALIFICATIONS 

Division officers are responsible for ensuring 
their personnel qualify for the watches they stand 
as well for their in-rate advancement. To ensure 
personnel quahfy in a timely manner, the division 
officer should track the progress of division 
members. The qualification process goes hand in 
hand with the division training program. If an 
effective training program is in place, personnel 
will qualify for watches and advancement quickly. 

While keeping the division qualifications on 
track, division officers must also complete their 
own necessary qualifications. Trying to achieve 
your own qualifications while keeping up with 
those of division personnel may seem like a full- 
time job; but you are responsible for both. 



TRAINING 

To have an efficient division, the division 
officer has to ensure all division personnel are 
properly trained. SO/?7V devotes an entire chapter 
to the subject of training. It provides guidance 
to help you develop and schedule a division train- 
ing program. 

Divisional training programs should cover in- 
rate, watch station, systems, and general military 
training topics. The training program should also 
include personnel quahfication standards (PQS). 
Additionally, all naval personnel should receive 
training in safety. 

Safety training programs should be designed 
to teach personnel safety-related precautions. The 
training should provide personnel with enough 
information to ensure their safety and well-being. 
Such information should lessen their chances of 
being injured or killed or of causing damage or 
destruction to our limited material resources. 



Advancement in Rate 

Personnel must meet various qualifications to 
advance in their rate. Some of these qualifications 
apply to all enlisted personnel, while others may 
only apply to their particular rate. 

To qualify for advancement for the next 
higher paygrade, all enUsted personnel in 
paygrades E-4 through E-7 must complete the 
applicable personnel advancement requirements 
(PARs). They also must pass the miHtary/leader- 
ship exam and the Navywide advancement exam 
for their rate and have their commanding officer's 
recommendation. Other advancement require- 
ments are also necessary, such as requiring 
l5ersonnel to complete performance tests or 
specific courses successfully or to attend certain 
schools. 

To provide the leadership and guidance needed 
to help personnel advance in rate, division officers 
should become familiar with the rating qualifica- 
tions of their personnel. The Advancement 



4-6 



Handbook for Petty Officers, published annually 
for each rating, provides an excellent source of 
information on these requirements. 



Watch Stations 

Almost every division of any command in the 
Navy requires personnel to stand watches. 
Although the requirements for the different 
watches may vary, personnel must meet the 
qualifications for each watch they stand. Division 
officers must provide qualified individuals from 
their division to meet these watch require- 
ments. 



have the experience and can teach you much if 
you will let them. 

Think back on chapter 1 for a moment. Do 
you remember what the role of the U.S. Navy is 
according to Title 10 of the U.S. Code? The 
Navy's role is to be ready to conduct prompt and 
sustained combat operations in support of the 
national interest. For the Navy to be able to fulfill 
this role, you, as a naval officer, must be ready 
to perform your mihtary duties. Only through 
self-examination, study of your job, and mature 
and rational performance can you fulfill your 
duties and responsibilities as a naval officer. 



Before personnel can stand a watch, they must 
complete the PQS for that watch. The PQS 
Program qualifies officer and enlisted personnel 
to perform portions of their assigned duties. This 
could include a specific watch station, such as 
OOD, or a specific job, such as 3-M coordinator. 
Personnel qualification standards are a written 
compilation of the knowledge and skills required 
for a specific watch station. Division officers have 
the responsibility of tracking the progress of their 
personnel in completing the PQS required of 
them. Having an efficient watch team requires 
having personnel who are properly qualified to 
stand the watches. Anything less is an invitation 
to disaster. 



REFERENCES 

Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32B, Office of 
the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 
D.C., September, 1986. 

United States Navy Regulations, 1990, Depart- 
ment of the Navy, Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D.C., 1990. 



SUGGESTED READING 



SUMMARY 

While being a naval officer may not be one 
of the easiest jobs you have, it could well be the 
most rewarding. It might not make you rich or 
famous, but it can be a job in which you have 
great pride. 

Your duties as a naval officer are immense; 
yet so is your authority. Use this authority wisely 
in performing your duties. Remember, the gold 
bars you wear on your collar don't make you 
smarter; they only give you authority. Depend on 
your chiefs and petty officers for guidance; they 



Lee, D.M., J.M. Brown, R. Morabito, H.S. 
Dolenda, Watch Officer's Guide, 12th ed.. 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1986. 

Mack, W.P. and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
Annapohs, Md., 1983. 

Noel, J. v.. Division Officer's Guide, 8th ed.. 
Naval Institute Press, Annapohs, Md., 1986. 

U.S. Department of Defense, The Armed Forces 
Officer, DOD GEN-36A, American Forces 
Information Services, Washington, D.C., 
1988. 



4-7 



DOG WATCH 



DOG WATCH IS THE NAME GIVEN TO THE 1600-1800 AND THE 1800-2000 WATCHES 
ABOARD SHIP. THE 1600-2000 4-HOUR WATCH WAS ORIGINALLY SPLIT TO PREVENT 
MEN FROM ALWAYS HAVING TO STAND THE SAME WATCHES DAILY. AS A RESULT, 
SAILORS DODGE THE SAME DAILY ROUTINE, HENCE THEY ARE DODGING THE WATCH OR 
STANDING THE DODGE WATCH. 

IN ITS CORRUPTED FORM, DODGE BECAME DOG AND PROCEDURE IS REFERRED TO 
AS "DOGGING THE WATCH" OR STANDING THE "DOG WATCH." 




4-8 



CHAPTER 5 



DISCIPLINE AND LEADERSHIP 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 

7. Describe the Navy's policy on fraternization. 



1. Identify the purpose of discipline in the 
military. 

2. Describe the various quahties of a leader. 

3. List the actions that characterize an outstand- 
ing officer. 

4. Identify the core values of the U.S. Navy. 

5. Describe the Navy's policy on equal 
opportunity. 

6. Identify the Navy's support program for single 
parents. 



8. Describe the Navy's policy on sexual harass- 
ment and sexual responsibiUty. 

9. Identify the Navy's requirements for physical 
readiness. 

10. Identify the six points of the code of conduct. 

11. Describe the Navy Leader Development 
Program courses offered by the Navy. 



Civilian executives lead by virtue of superior 
knowledge (through education an/or experience) 
and strong characteristics or personality. No law 
sanctions their positions, and they may not be 
legally responsible for those they lead. Their 
responsibility, if any, for the well-being of 
their followers is primarily a moral one. On the 
other hand, mihtary officers, by virtue of their 
commissions, have a legal as well as a moral 
obligation. They represent the government's 
responsibility to enforce the law of the land, and 
they are charged with the well-being of their 
personnel. 

A leader's position is, to an extent, analogous 
to that of a skilled artisan with a fine set of tools. 
The artisan keeps those tools in first-class condi- 
tion, for on them depends the artisan's ability to 
turn out fine work. The leader's tools are the per- 
sonnel who are assigned to accomplish the 
assigned mission. They, Hke the artisan's tools, 
must be in good physical condition; but here the 
analogy ends. Personnel are not objects to be 
polished by supplying their physical needs, to be 



laid aside when finished with a job, and to be 
picked up again when needed. 

Even though the Navy does everything feasible 
to provide for the physical well-being of its 
personnel, the young officer must not assume that 
personnel are well cared for. The officer must be 
personally concerned with their welfare and must 
know each individual's background, capabilities, 
and Umitations. The officer should be aware 
constantly that debts, personal health, or any one 
of many problems may destroy a person's peace 
of mind and efficiency. 

A good officer gains the confidence of the 
personnel so that they will feel free to talk about 
their problems, knowing they will get all possible 
assistance. Occasionally people have difficulty 
discussing their personal problems with a superior. 
A skillful officer may be able to draw such people 
out and help them; however an officer should use 
care and tact when attempting this. 

Every group has a few people whose sole 
interest in life is to complete their time in the Navy 
and return to civilian life. Most of them are merely 



5-1 



disinterested, but from their ranks many 
troublemakers arise. Any single division may have 
only one or two of them; in the aggregate, 
however, they present a tremendous problem. 
Properly motivated and instilled with a little moral 
responsibility, they can become a great asset. All 
are important, and we must not lose their services 
through failure to redirect their interests and 
energies. 

The rebellious ones must be made to under- 
stand they will be required to abide by rules and 
regulations wherever they go, not only in the 
Navy. They must see that rules and regulations 
serve as guides by which we live and, if followed 
by all, make life more pleasant and easy for all 
of us. They must be taught that the more they 
discipline themselves, the less they will be 
disciplined by others. They must be shown their 
importance to the team and that their shipmates 
must be able to depend on them day by day, as 
well as in battle. They, along with those who are 
disinterested, must be made to realize that 
increasing their knowledge, advancing in rate, and 
assuming more responsibilities are not matters of 
personal preference but duties. 

In this chapter we will discuss why discipline 
and leadership are essential to a military organiza- 
tion. 



PURPOSE OF DISCIPLINE 

The word discipline comes from a Latin word 
meaning "to teach," but it is a certain type of 
teaching. Discipline is not peculiar to military 
organizations. DiscipHne is the training that 
develops self-control, character, and efficiency, 
or is the result of such training. Discipline, rightly 
viewed, is a character builder rather than a 
destroyer of individuality. 

The Navy's discipline consists of training its 
men and women to behave in certain ways under 
certain circumstances. It enables them to work as 
a unit with maximum efficiency. To encourage 
them toward this end, the Navy uses a system of 
motivation and correction through reward and 
punishment. Ambitious Navy men and women, 
when recommended by their commanding 
officers, are rewarded by timely promotions; lazy 
or careless individuals suffer a self-inflicted 
punishment by missing out on these promotions. 
Those who are negligent or indifferent get into 
trouble and are punished by fines, restriction, 
confinement, demotion, and other forms of 
disciplinary action. DiscipHne implies adherence 



to control exerted for the good of the whole — 
the compliance with rules or policies intended for 
the orderly coordination of effort. In a study on 
this subject. Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, USN 
(Retired), stated that "a well-disciplined organiza- 
tion is one whose members work with enthusiasm, 
willingness, and zest as individuals and as a group, 
to fulfill the mission of the organization with 
expectation of success." Personnel show signs of 
discipline in smart salutes, proper wearing of the 
uniform, prompt and correct action in any 
emergency, and battle efficiency that brings 
victory in wars. Discipline, obviously, is in- 
dispensable to a military organization. Without 
it almost any effort would be defeated by lack of 
organization. Discipline demands habitual but 
reasoned obedience to command — obedience that 
preserves initiative and functions unfalteringly 
even in the absence of the commander. 

The purpose of discipline in the mihtary 
services is to bring about an efficient military 
organization. Its aim is to train and control a body 
of human beings for concerted action to attain 
a common goal. Discipline trains each individual 
to fit into the organization as a whole. The 
members understand one another through the 
sharing of common knowledge. They are bound 
together by a unity of will and interest that is 
expressed by their willingness to follow and obey 
their leader. A group so organized is effective, not 
only for the specific purpose intended, but also 
for an emergency. 



REWARDS 

You can see the rewards of good discipUne in 
various ways in the naval organizational structure. 
The positive results are evident as sailors advance 
in rate, a division receives a passing grade on an 
inspection, or a ship successfully completes a 
deployment. 

The reward of good discipline for an enlisted 
person may be in the form of a Good Conduct 
Medal. If individuals are disciplined, they will 
learn their rating and be rewarded with 
promotions. 

These same individuals, when placed in 
divisions, can also help establish discipline there. 
The responsibility for divisional discipline falls on 
the petty officers, chiefs, and division officer. The 
reward of a well-disciplined division is that it will 
operate smoothly and efficiently. 

Discipline has to be present to make any 
organization work, but this is especially true in 



5-2 



the military. It is what brings individuals together 
as a mihtary team. Thus, a gun crew may be 
readily converted into a repair party for carrying 
out any essential job within its capabilities, or a 
company of midshipmen may be turned into a 
fire- fighting organization. A well-disciplined naval 
unit responds automatically to an emergency and 
is not subject to panic. This is the reward of 
discipline to the Navy. 



PUNISHMENT 

Under the Navy's concept, punishment is not 
personal, it is not vindictive, nor is it inflicted as 
revenge for misconduct. The Navy realizes that 
punishment cannot right the wrong resulting from 
an act of dereliction. The Navy considers that the 
value of punishment lies in the object lesson it 
furnishes the wrongdoer and others — that the 
offense must not be repeated. This concept is 
referred to as the deterrent theory of punishment. 

To accomplish its purpose, punishment must 
be consistent, just, and recognized as such by the 
recipients and their shipmates. Punishment should 
neither be of such a nature that it lowers self- 
esteem nor so severe that it is out of proportion 
to the offense. 

Recipients of Navy punishment should keep 
two facts in mind: First, they received punishment 
only as a result of their misbehavior. Second, they 
will not receive punishment again if they learn to 
conform to Navy standards of conduct. 

The administration of punishment is not 
personal; therefore, those who administer it 
should be shown no malice. They are carrying out 
their duties as required by Navy regulations. 



QUALITIES OF A LEADER 

No two leaders are exactly alike. They do not 
possess the same qualities in equal proportions, 
nor do they accompHsh their ends in the same 
manner. One thing is certain, however. All great 
leaders possess certain characteristics and abilities 
that they use to the greatest advantage. Some have 
turned weaknesses into strengths and, by exercise 
of willpower and hard work, risen far above what 
normally might have been expected of them. 

Every leader will not possess every quality 
discussed here, but every good leader will have 
a substantial number of them. Moreover, the less 
natural abihty a leader has, the more important 
is the person's need to cultivate the leadership 



qualities needed to be effective. All truly great 
leaders share one common characteristic: a 
personal code of conduct and moral responsibility 
that does not permit them to exploit their abilities 
and positions to the detriment of their followers. 

Most of us understand about written and un- 
written laws that guide our actions and define our 
duties — "thou shalts" and "thou shalt nots" by 
which we must abide. Our government establishes 
written laws while the Navy estabhshes many 
written and unwritten laws and prescribes our 
duties. If we break these laws or neglect our 
duties, authorities may give us suitable 
punishment. 

Other laws and other duties have no legal 
standing as far as any law-making or law- 
enforcing branch of government is concerned. 
These are moral laws and duties. Each leader 
establishes these based on his or her own 
principles. Depending on the character of the 
person, they can be extensive and more binding 
than any statutory laws, or they can be completely 
nonexistent. The leader receives no legal punish- 
ment for ignoring these laws and duties, and the 
only enforcer is the leader's own conscience. 

In various places throughout this text, we 
quote rules and regulations, at times explaining 
them in more or less detail. Therefore, we assume 
the reader, by now, understands what legal 
responsibilities are. But what about moral 
responsibilities? The Navy expects its personnel 
to demonstrate more than minimum standards of 
moral responsibility. It expects commanding 
officers and others in authority to set good 
examples of virtue, honor, patriotism, and 
subordination. It expects them to be vigilant in 
inspecting the conduct of persons under their 
command and to suppress all dissolute and 
immoral practices. It expects those in authority 
to take necessary and proper procedures to 
promote and safeguard the morale, physical well- 
being, and general welfare of persons under their 
command. 

The history of effective naval leadership 
has isolated additional moral principles that 
have characterized successful leaders from the 
beginning of naval history to our present time. 
These principles are loyalty, devotion to duty, 
professional knowledge, self-confidence, initiative 
and ingenuity, courage, ability to organize and 
make decisions, and personal example. 

LOYALTY 

Loyalty means a true, faithful, strong (even 
enthusiastic) devotion to one's country. Ordinarily 



5-3 



personnel assume this type of loyalty without 
question, but they must also broaden their loyalty 
to include their superiors and subordinates. 

Because of human nature, the ordinary person 
wants to and will extend loyalty to others in the 
organization. In the long run, however, everyone 
must earn the loyalty of others. Part of the price 
a person pays for earning this loyalty is extending 
loyalty to others. Enlisted personnel are par- 
ticularly sensitive about loyalty extended to them 
and are quick to discern and resent its absence. 
The degree of loyalty a division officer shows 
toward the division has a direct bearing on the 
morale of division personnel. Most persons have 
a strong devotion to duty, and their self-respect 
will not allow them to neglect that duty merely 
to spite a superior. But the officer who has not 
earned the loyalty of the personnel cannot expect 
to receive that extra effort above the call of duty 
often necessary to accomplish a mission. This 
brings us to another important quahty, devotion 
to duty, 

DEVOTION TO DUTY 

Devotion to duty is closely allied to loyalty. 
In fact, it might be defined as loyalty to the post 
or position one holds. Occasionally immature 
young persons feel their talents are superior to 
those required to fill the positions in which they 
find themselves. In such cases these young persons 
may become resentful because their abilities are 
not used to better advantage. Consequently, their 
performance falls off. 

More mature persons might assume that 
because the position exists, it must be important 
even though the importance is not readily 
apparent. Assuming this, such persons give a little 
more to the position than it requires by spending 
their extra energy and talents learning the new job. 
Thus, they fulfill their obHgation to the organiza- 
tion, inspire other personnel to greater efforts, 
and earn the respect of all concerned. When 
important openings occur, the choice between 
these individuals and others less willing to put 
forth extra effort is clear. 

Any civiUan firm would consider ambitious 
persons as positive assets; employers would keep 
their eyes on them and perhaps expect great things 
of them. However, mere ambition is not enough 
in the military service. Any military service 
expects all of its officers or enlisted persons to 
place duty above themselves. Everyone at all times 
must do their duty to the best of their ability. They 
must do their best in an effort to support the 



efficient accomplishment of the Navy's mission, 
not to receive personal gain. 

Individuals who refuse to shoulder their share 
of the load make it that much heavier for the rest 
of the unit. Hardships may be increased, lives may 
be sacrificed needlessly, and the unit might fail 
to accomplish its mission. The well-known parable 
of the loss of a kingdom through want of a horse 
describes the situation perfectly. 

The ability to take orders goes hand in hand 
with devotion to duty. One so closely follows the 
other that distinguishing between them is difficult. 
Commands usually issue standing orders to cover 
every situation. The orders help those assigned to 
the position do the job more effectively. As soon 
as a person receives an order, it becomes that 
person's duty to carry it out. Therefore, personnel 
should not resent even the most trivial order, even 
one given in the nature of a reminder, necessary 
or not. Personnel should obey each order quickly 
and cheerfully and report its accomplishment to 
the superior who gave it. 

Devotion to duty and the ability to take orders 
are so important that the Navy has no place for 
the immature people who refuse to grow up. It 
has no place for the self-seekers who do their best 
only when it is advantageous to them to do so. 
The Navy doesn't need resentful, hard-headed, 
self-important individuals who cannot take 
orders. 

PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE 

Leaders who thoroughly know their job are 
far better quaUfied to lead than ones who do not; 
but unfortunately, professional experience does 
not burst into full bloom merely because one 
wishes it so. Although as a new officer, you will 
have professional knowledge, you will lack pro- 
fessional experience when you step aboard ship 
for the first time. Yet, you will be placed in a 
position of leadership, given various jobs to do, 
and then seemingly left to your own devices. The 
jobs will appear monumental to you. Uppermost 
in your mind will be the probability of your 
making a serious error that could expose your 
inexperience. You will have people on all sides, 
however, ready to assist you. 
^ The officer you relieve will assist you in 
learning your new duties, outhne the present 
program, and point out what has not been done. 
The officer will also discuss the inherent dif- 
ficulties of the job and briefly describe the abilities 
and personalities of your new division personnel. 
Senior officers are always ready to give you a 



5-4 



helping hand. While tolerant of your inexperience, 
they will insist that you do your duty and master 
the job as quickly as possible. Your petty officers 
will also teach you provided you show them you 
are willing to benefit from their experience. If 
necessary, the petty officers will "carry you" (as 
the expression goes) as long as you try to 
learn. The instructions may be subtle or frank, 
depending upon the personality of your teachers. 
A few old hands may persist in their offers of aid 
even when rebuffed, but the majority will 
promptly lose the desire to help as soon as you, 
the officer, lose your desire to learn. Therefore, 
it pays to be willing to listen to advice and 
suggestions. Even the newest seaman apprentice 
might be able to make a worthwhile contribution. 

SELF-CONFIDENCE 

As an officer's knowledge grows, self- 
confidence, a most important quality of leader- 
ship, should grow. A vast store of knowledge is 
meaningless without the confidence and ability to 
use it. Never, however, should leaders become so 
swelled with the importance of their "superior" 
education, "vast" professional knowledge, or 
"noteworthy" accomplishments that they display 
arrogance. Remember that the ordinary enlisted 
person is not overly impressed with the number 
of academic degrees officers hold; the enlisted 
person is most impressed with the officers' 
abilities. Enlisted personnel can understand self- 
confidence in proven officers, but they will regard 
arrogance in new, untried ensigns as sheer 
buffoonery. They will meet arrogance with 
indifference and resentment. The officers' 
accompanying loss of respect will greatly diminish 
their control over personnel. 

INITIATIVE AND INGENUITY 

Junior officers are confronted with a 
multitude of Navy rules, regulations, operating 
instructions, procedures, and the policies of senior 
officers. Therefore, junior officers may assume 
they have little room for personal initiative and 
ingenuity in the Navy today. Actually, the reverse 
is true. With its new ships, equipment, technology, 
and concepts, the Navy has a demand for officers 
with initiative and ingenuity. Today's naval 
officers need the imagination to realize their 
potentiality and the skill and daring to develop 
their potentiality to its fullest extent. 

Although limited by rules and regulations, 
officers have an opportunity to exercise initiative 



and ingenuity nearly every day. At first, these 
opportunities may entail only small problems 
requiring only a Httle ingenuity or initiative. 
However, if officers don't take advantage of the 
small chances offered, they will never gain enough 
self-confidence to tackle the bigger problems. 



COURAGE 

Courage is one of the more necessary 
characteristics of a leader. It is that quality of the 
mind which enables us to meet danger and 
difficulties with firmness. It enables us to over- 
come the fear of failure, injury, or death that 
normally precedes any difficult or dangerous act 
we may attempt. Further, courage enables us to 
acknowledge our responsibilities and to carry 
them out regardless of consequences. 

Courage is a quality of the mind and, as such, 
can be developed. Like a muscle, you can 
strengthen it with use; the more you exercise it, 
the stronger it grows. Each time people meet and 
tackle an obstacle, whether it is a particularly 
tough assignment, an examination in school, or 
a hard-charging fullback on the football field, 
they strengthen their courage a bit more. While 
succeeding at an attempt might provide a great 
deal of satisfaction to people, success itself is not 
completely essential to the development of their 
courage. In fact, people who frequently become 
frustrated in their attempts but continue to try 
again and again probably develop their courage 
faster than those who succeed at every endeavor. 

Young people thinking about going into battle 
for the first time may have difficulty believing that 
anything in their background has prepared them 
to overcome the fear they will experience. Having 
doubts about their abihty to conduct themselves 
with honor is normal. Because the military 
services recognize this fact, they condition and 
train their warriors under the most realistic 
conditions possible. 

Our Navy is no exception. Before going into 
battle, all hands have become well acquainted with 
the smell of gunpowder. They have been trained 
and drilled at their battle stations until their 
actions are almost automatic. Because of this 
training, the fast action involved, their sense of 
duty, the inspiration of their cause and their 
leaders, and the close proximity of others, even 
timid persons can develop courage. This courage 
will help them endure without faltering during the 
comparatively short, though terrible, periods of 
battle or emergency. 



5-5 



A courageous person is not necessarily 
fearless, but has learned to conquer fear and 
concentrate on the mechanics of fighting. 

ABILITY TO ORGANIZE 
AND MAKE DECISIONS 

Essentially your primary objective as a junior 
officer is to coordinate the efforts of your 
subordinates so that they can strive toward a 
common goal. However, the normal day-to-day 
activity of the maintenance program of the 
peacetime Navy may not readily reflect this. This 
objective is more difficult to achieve when the goal 
is less easy to define. However, an overall view 
of the maintenance and training programs shows 
how each minor accomplishment fits into the 
whole. You should organize your subordinates so 
that their labor and training will be used to the 
best possible advantage. 

To organize effectively, know the skills and 
physical capabilities of your personnel. Without 
that knowledge you would have to rely on a senior 
petty officer to do the job. For officers to rely 
on petty officers to the extent of their abilities is 
proper and desirable. However, as an officer, 
never allow yourself to be reduced to the 
position of an old-time midshipman — a messenger 
running between the wardroom and the forecastle. 

While you cannot help but profit from careful 
observation of the methods of skilled organizers, 
you should eventually attempt some organization 
on your own. To do so, learn to make decisions; 
without the power of decision, you are useless as 
a leader. When a person presents a problem to 
you, that person expects a clear-cut decision. 
Discuss comphcated questions or those clearly 
beyond your authority to decide with an 
immediate superior; dispose of the lesser ones 
yourself. Never allow the dread of making a 
mistake or the fear of looking ridiculous to deter 
you from attempting to solve a problem. You will 
make mistakes occasionally, but an honest 
mistake seldom involves scorn or censure if all 
elements of the problem were duly considered. 
From mistakes comes experience, and from 
experience comes wisdom. 

PERSONAL EXAMPLE 

Young people have a strong personal need for 
examples to Hve by, at least until they have 
formulated their own principles. They express this 
need by following the example of someone they 
admire — father, brother, teacher, officer, a great 



leader in history, or even someone with antisocial 
tendencies or habits. Young people will, in some 
way, attempt to attach to and be Uke the person 
they admire. As long as these young people are 
not disillusioned and as long as they feel the need, 
they will continue to emulate their hero. 

Naval officers should have such dignity and 
competence in all respects that they inspire their 
enhsted personnel to emulate and respect them. 
We cannot overemphasize the value of setting a 
good personal example in your daily life. 

Officers cannot live by the rule of "don't do 
as I do; do as I say" without the risk of personnel 
regarding them with suspicion or distaste. 
Suspicious or distasteful regard for an officer 
greatly diminishes the officer's reputation as a 
leader. On the other hand, outstanding conduct 
by an officer can inspire others to follow the same 
pattern, thereby benefitting the entire Navy. 

When we speak of conduct, we mean conduct 
ashore as well as aboard ship. A person in uniform 
is consciously or unconsciously watched by 
everyone around. In the minds of the observers, 
that person's actions are interpreted as typical of 
everyone who wears a similar uniform. Therefore, 
we must do nothing to dishonor the uniform, lest, 
in so doing, we dishonor the entire Navy. 

You cannot expect others to follow regulations 
if you ignore them. Depending on the extent of 
the digressions, you may, for all practical 
purposes, completely lose control of your person- 
nel. You may not realize you have lost control 
at first because someone else may keep the 
personnel in Une. However, sooner or later the 
realization will become apparent, but by that time 
you may be unable to do anything about it. In 
any event, to regain the respect of your personnel 
and to reestablish control over them will require 
extraordinary effort. "Rank has its privileges," 
but those privileges are not extended to cover 
deviations from accepted conduct. Rather, when 
speaking of conduct, we must stress that "rank 
has its responsibilities." 



Sign of an Outstanding Officer 

Former Chief of Naval Operations George W. 
Anderson, Jr., considered that truly outstanding 
officers display the following traits. Many have 
a direct relationship to effective leadership and 



5-6 



thus are considered when officers are evaluated 
for reports of fitness. 

• ACHIEVEMENTS— They produce 
results; many are industrious. The effectiveness 
of the work serves as a measure of their 
achievements. 

• ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS— They 
evaluate information, analyze the problem, and 
then integrate the two into a sound and incisive 
decision. (This is closely allied to achievement.) 

• BREADTH OF VISION— They bring to 
the profession a knowledge of all the political, 
social, scientific, economic, and mihtary com- 
ponents that impinge upon the Navy. 

• PERSONAL APPEARANCE— They take 
pride in every detail of their personal appearance. 

• MILITARY BEARING— They conduct 
themselves in a professional military manner 
afloat or ashore, 24 hours a day, every day. 



• KNOWLEDGE OF THE JOB— They 
have a complete mastery of their job plus a 
detailed knowledge of all its responsibihties, 
including those of subordinates. 

• MANNER OF PERFORMANCE— They 
know themselves, the job, the enlisted personnel, 
and the immediate situation. They use four 
approaches to get the job done: (1) personally do 
it, (2) drive others to do it, (3) inspire others to 
do it, or (4) combine the three in the best manner. 

• SOCIAL GRACE— They know the rules 
of social etiquette, such as which fork to use; but 
more importantly, they know how to show a 
sincere interest in the people they meet. 

• SENSE OF HUMOR— They keep every- 
thing in the proper perspective; they distinguish 
between the important and the trivial. 

• PERSONAL BEHAVIOR— They reflect 
integrity and honor in every facet of their 
behavior. 



• MENTAL ALERTNESS— They give 
continual attention to detail coupled with an 
awareness of the big picture. 

• ABILITY TO EXPRESS SELF— They 
express themselves clearly orally and in writing 
to communicate their ideas and decisions. 

• CONTACTS WITH PEOPLE OUTSIDE 
THE SERVICE — They have contact with people 
outside their profession through participation in 
personal activities and interests. Officers who 
allow themselves and their interests to become 
completely involved with their profession will find 
they have exhausted their potential growth. 

• BEING A GOOD SHIPMATE— They do 
not lose sight of their relationships with others 
in the Navy. They realize they cannot function 
alone and can be effective only through others. 

• IMAGINATION— They use their im- 
agination and initiative to improve the task 
performance of their entire unit as well as their 
own performance. A fitness report that states 
"This officer performs all ASSIGNED duties in 
an excellent manner" could easily describe an 
officer who has stopped growing. 



CORE VALUES 

The Navy established a set of core values to 
encourage personnel to make a commitment to 
personal excellence. These core values consist of 
Navy traditions and values that are in consonance 
with our national values. In October of 1987 the 
Navy appointed a team of reviewers to determine 
what these values should be. The team interviewed 
more than 100 sailors representing all com- 
munities, all fleets, and numerous positions within 
the chain of command. The team asked these 
sailors to do the following: 

• Describe "tough situations" that posed 
values conflicts or ethics dilemmas. 

• Characterize those persons they admired 
most and least in the Navy. 

• Discuss in very real terms the values that 
the Navy represents. 

As you can imagine, these interviews produced 
enlightening accounts and personal insights, most 
of which revolve around a set of common themes. 
They named the following values as those most 



5-7 



often portrayed in everyday decision making and 
espoused as important to the Navy: 

TRADITION 

• Concern for people 

• Patriotism 

• Courage 

• Spiritual heritage 

INTEGRITY 

• Honesty 

• Honor 

• Responsibility 

PROFESSIONALISM 

• Competence 

• Teamwork 

• Loyalty 

The Navy expects these core values to result 
in a reemphasis and refocus of traditional Navy 
values and an improvement in the ethical practices 
of the Navy. 

EQUAL OPPORTUNITY 

The Department of the Navy's policy is to pro- 
vide equal treatment and equal opportunity to all 
Navy members, without regard to race, religion, 
gender, age, or national origin. 

The Command Managed Equal Opportunity 
(CMEO) program assists commands in supporting 
the Navy's equal opportunity (EO) policy. This 
management system is responsive to higher 
echelons but is controlled primarily at the 
command level. The program has four basic 
elements: 

COMMAND TRAINING TEAM (CTT): The 
CTT conducts the Navy Rights and Respon- 
sibilities (NR&R) Workshops. These workshops 
present training on basic Navy EO principles and 
policies, sexual harassment prevention, and 
command-specific issues. 

COMMAND ASSESSMENT TEAM (CAT): 
The CAT conducts the annual command assess- 
ment. This survey focuses on EO personnel 
management practices. It also surfaces problems 
or issues not directly related to EO that impact 
on the quality of life within the command. To help 



make the command assessment, the CAT collects 
data on retention, advancement, and discipline. 
The team obtains additional data from interviews, 
observations, and surveys. 

ACTION PLANNING: A plan of actions and 
milestones (POA&M) provides for and tracks the 
correction of existing or potential problems. 

INSPECTIONS: Immediate superiors in com- 
mand (ISIC) conduct CMEO inspections of 
subordinate commands. 

The Navy Affirmative Action Plan (NAAP) 
also promotes the Navy's EO program. The 
NAAP consists of a continuing program of goals 
and actions with realistic milestones. Affirmative 
action is the taking of positive steps to correct or 
eliminate discrimination. These steps are designed 
to correct problems and achieve goals over a 
period of time. Therefore, continued monitoring 
is required as specific actions are completed and 
to ensure that the Navy does not regress. The 
NAAP is revised as appropriate after each annual 
equal opportunity assessment. 

Equal opportunity is essential to Navy leader- 
ship. It must exist at every level of the chain of 
command as an integral part of the Navy's 
commitment to pride, professionaUsm, and per- 
sonal excellence. Equal opportunity improves the 
quality of life for all Navy personnel, increases 
combat readiness, and contributes to mission 
accomplishment. 

To be an effective officer, you should support 
equal opportunity as part of your basic leader- 
ship skills. The personal example you set in 
support of equal opportunity should motivate 
your subordinates to do the same. 

SINGLE PARENTING 

The demands of the Navy lifestyle make single 
parenthood rough. But by taking full advantage 
of the resources available, single parents can make 
their lives, and their children's lives, more 
rewarding and less stressful. 

Navy single parents have more help available 
to them than ever before because of Family 
Service Center programs and expanding child 
care options. Family Service Centers provide 
informational, referral, educational, and other 
ebunseling services designed to assist single parents 
and their children. 

Child care is always a big concern — and often 
a big headache — for single parents. The capacity 
of Navy-operated child care facilities is not always 
sufficient for the number of children eligible to 
use them. 



5-8 



The Family Home Care (FHC) program 
allows spouses of Navy members to care for 
children of Navy personnel in their government 
quarters. FHC serves over 30 commands stateside 
and overseas. Those who wish to open their homes 
for day care must complete training that includes 
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction. 
Child care providers involved in the FHC program 
must purchase insurance, which is available at a 
nominal fee. A professional monitor ensures that 
the child care offered is of the highest quality by 
providing training, screening and background 
checks, and monthly visits to FHC homes. 

The Navy requires all single parents to include 
in their service record a Dependent Care Plan 
and Navy Dependent Care Certificate, OP- 
NAV 1740/1, that provides a plan for dependent 
care arrangements. The plan must include details 
such as who will provide care for the children 
during the parent's normal duty hours, temporary 
additional duty (TAD) assignments, and deploy- 
ments, as well as other pertinent information. The 
parent must also provide a will with guardianship 
provisions and a power of attorney authorizing 
medical care. The Military Personnel Manual 
(MILPERSMAN), article 3810190, outlines the 
dependent care policy and specifies the informa- 
tion parents must include on the certificate. 

Some people worry that their status as single 
parents may hurt their Navy career, but this is 
simply not true. As long as parents keep an up- 
to-date dependent care certificate in their record, 
they have no limits on what they can achieve. 

Single parenting in the Navy isn't easy, but 
an understanding of Navy policy can help a single 
parent's career run more smoothly. Single parents 
should realize the Navy expects them to accept 
full responsibility for the care of their children 
as well as their job requirements. 



FRATERNIZATION 

Navy customs and traditions have historically 
defined the bounds of acceptable personal 
relationships among its members. Proper social 
interaction among officer and enhsted members 
has traditionally been encouraged, as it enhances 
unit morale and esprit de corps. At the same time, 
unduly familiar personal relationships between 
officers and enlisted members have traditionally 
been contrary to naval custom. They undermine 
the respect for authority that is essential to the 
Navy's abihty to accomphsh its military mission. 



Over 200 years of seagoing experience has 
demonstrated that seniors must maintain 
thoroughly professional relationships with juniors 
at all times. This custom prevents personnel from 
using a senior grade or position to show (or 
give the impression of showing) favoritism or 
preferential treatment or for personal gain. It also 
helps prevent officers from becoming involved in 
other actions that undermine good order, 
discipline, authority, or unit morale. In a like 
manner, custom requires that junior personnel 
recognize and respect the authority inherent in a 
senior's grade, rank, or position. 

Fraternization is the traditional term used 
to identify personal relationships that cross 
the customary bounds of acceptable senior- 
subordinate relationships. Although it has most 
commonly been applied to the officer-enlisted 
relationship, fraternization also includes improper 
relationships between officer members and be- 
tween enlisted personnel. 

By definition, fraternization is any unduly 
familiar personal relationship between an officer 
and an enlisted member that does not respect 
differences in rank and grade. It also includes 
personal relationships between officers or between 
enlisted personnel in which a senior-subordinate 
supervisory relationship exists. 

Fraternization is punishable as an offense 
under the Uniform Code of Military Justice when 
it is prejudicial to good order and discipHne or 
brings discredit to the naval service. We cannot 
name every act that may be prejudicial to good 
order and disciphne or is service discrediting; the 
surrounding circumstances often have more to do 
with making the act criminal than the act itself. 
However, dating, cohabitation, or sexual intimacy 
between officer and enlisted members is clearly 
inappropriate. A private business partnership 
between officers and enhsted persons is also 
inappropriate. Likewise, such conduct between 
officers and between enhsted members in which 
a senior-subordinate supervisory relationship 
exists is equally inappropriate. Conduct that 
constitutes fraternization is not excused by a 
subsequent marriage between the offending 
parties. 

The responsibility for preventing inappro- 
priate relationships rests primarily on the senior. 
The senior party is expected to control and 
preclude the development of inappropriate senior- 
subordinate relationships. However, since the 
Navy's fraternization policy apphes to both 
members, both are accountable for their own 
conduct. 



5-9 



SEXUAL HARASSMENT 



SEXUAL RESPONSIBILITY 



Sexual harassment is not an amusing or 
trivial issue. It negatively affects the morale 
and productivity of service members as well 
as team building and mission accomplishment. 
It may also be a violation of any number of 
articles of the Uniform Code of Military Justice 
(fig. 5-1). 

Sexual harassment is defined as (1) influenc- 
ing; offering to influence; or threatening the 
career, pay, or job of another person in exchange 
for sexual favors; or (2) deliberate or repeated 
offensive comments, gestures, or physical contact 
of a sexual nature in a work or work-related 
environment. Sexual advances, requests for sexual 
favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of 
a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment under 
the following circumstances: 

1 . When submission to such conduct is made 
either expHcitly or impUcitly a term or 
condition of a person's job, pay, or career 

2. When submission to or rejection of such 
conduct by a person is used as a basis for 
career or employment decisions affecting 
this person 

3. When such conduct has the purpose or 
effect of interfering with a person's per- 
formance or creating an intimidating, 
hostile, or offensive environment 

Personnel, male or female, who use impUcit 
or explicit sexual behavior to control, influence, 
or affect the career, promotion opportunities, 
duty assignments, or pay of any other Navy 
member are also engaging in sexual harassment. 
Sexual harassment is, therefore, the embarrass- 
ment, intimidation, or exploitation of one person 
by another through sex-related comments or 
behavior. 

The Navy's long tradition of mihtary pro- 
fessionalism results from its positive, aggressive 
leadership and its history of taking care of all 
Navy members. Commanders, supervisors, and 
subordinates are all responsible for providing an 
environment free from sexual harassment. 

The Department of the Navy expects all of its 
personnel to support its policy of sexual harass- 
ment prevention. This not only includes refrain- 
ing from practicing such behavior but actively 
countering and promptly reporting such actions. 



The Navy does not require its personnel to 
abstain totally from sexual relations. However, 
it does strive to instruct all Navy members on the 
importance of sexual responsibility and the 
dangers of sexually transmitted diseases. 

Syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and 
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 
are all sexually transmitted diseases. They are 
normally spread through sexual contact. AIDS 
can also be spread through contaminated blood 
or by shared hypodermic needles. Sexually 
transmitted diseases are not spread through 
inanimate objects such as toilet seats, door knobs, 
or eating utensils. 

The most serious of these diseases is AIDS. 
The AIDS virus attacks the body's immune 
system. This results in the body's inability to fight 
infection. 

Military persons must receive live virus 
vaccines to protect them from certain illnesses and 
from possible exposure to serious infections when 
deployed outside the United States. These vaccines 
may be life-threatening to an infected person 
whose immune system has been damaged by 
AIDS. 

At the present time no cure is known for 
AIDS. More than 70 percent of all AIDS cases 
prove fatal within 2 years of diagnosis. 

As a Navy leader, you should be aware of 
these sexually transmitted diseases and the 
methods for reducing the risks of acquiring them. 
The only way people can be sure not to acquire 
these diseases is to abstain from all forms of sexual 
contact. To reduce the risks of acquiring sexually 
transmitted diseases, those who are sexually 
active should take the following precautions: 



1. 



2. 



3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 



Avoid sexual contact with multiple part- 
ners, anonymous partners, prostitutes, and 
other persons with multiple sex partners. 
Avoid sexual contact with persons who 
have a genital discharge, genital warts, 
genital herpes lesions, or other suspicious 
genital lesions. 
Avoid oral or anal sex. 
Avoid genital contact with cold sores. 
Use condoms and diaphragms in combina- 
tion with spermicides. 
Have periodic examinations for sexually 
transmitted diseases. 



5-10 



IF THE SEXUAL HARASSER 


THE SEXUAL HARASSER MAY 
ALSO BE GUILTY OF 


IN VIOLA- 
TION OF 


1 . Threatens to influence adversely the 
career, salary or job of another in 
exchange for sexual favors. 


Extortion. 

Assault. 

Communicating a threat. 


Article 127 
Article 128 
Article 134 


2. Offers rewards for sexual favors. 


Bribery and graft. 


Article 134 


3. Makes sexual comment and/or 
gestures. 


Indecent, insulting or obscene language 
prejudical to good order. 


Article 134 




Provoking speech or gestures. 


Article 117 




Disrespect. 


Article 89, 91 


4. Makes sexual contact. 


Assault Consummated by a battery. 


Article 128 




Indecent Assault. 


Article 134 




Rape. 


Article 120 


5. Engages in sexual harassment to the 
detriment of job performance. 


Dereliction of duty 


Article 92 


6. Is an officer. 


Conduct unbecoming an officer. 


Article 133 


7. Is cruel to or maltreats any person 
subject to his or her orders. 


Cruelty and maltreatment. 


Article 93 


8. Uses his or her official position to 
gain sexual favors or advantages. 


Failure to obey a lawful general order. 


Article 92 



Figure 5-1. — Example of conduct which might constitute both sexual harassment and an offense under the UCMJ. 



HEALTH AND 
PHYSICAL READINESS 

Certain people in the Navy and in the civihan 
community share a common problem — excessive 
body fat. This problem usually results from 
people working at desk jobs, eating too much, and 
not getting enough exercise. Excessive body fat 
is a serious detriment to a person's health, 
longevity, stamina, and military appearance. We 
need to maintain a high state of health and 
physical readiness. If we do this, combat 
readiness, personal effectiveness, and high morale 
should follow. 

Health and physical readiness have become a 
matter of concern to the Navy. Every Navy person 
should strive to achieve and maintain a high 
standard of physical readiness. Members who fail 



to achieve high standards hurt their units and the 
effectiveness of the Navy. Physical readiness train- 
ing is a complete conditioning program. It 
includes weight control and nutrition, high blood 
pressure identification and control, stress manage- 
ment, smoking cessation, and back injury 
prevention. 

As a leader, stress the importance of physical 
readiness training to your personnel. 



CODE OF CONDUCT FOR 

MEMBERS OF THE ARMED 

FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES 

Because of the conduct of a few Americans 
during the Korean conflict, President Dwight D. 
Eisenhower prescribed a Code of Conduct for 



5-11 



members of the armed forces in 1955. The 
purpose of the code is to provide American 
miHtary personnel with a standard of conduct 
should they be captured by an enemy. It provides 
a framework of ideals and ethical standards that 
will help personnel resist the physical, mental, and 
moral onslaughts of their captor. 

In 1988 President Ronald Reagan issued 
Executive Order 12633, amending the code to use 
gender-neutral language. First expressed in written 
form in 1955, the code is based on time-honored 
concepts and traditions that date back to the days 
of the American Revolution. 

ARTICLE I 

I am an American, fighting in the 
forces which guard my country and our 
way of life. I am prepared to give my life 
in their defense. 

No matter what your job, you are a member 
of the team first. Your duty is to oppose the 
enemies of the United States under all 
circumstances. 

ARTICLE II 

I will never surrender of my own free 
will. If in command I will never surrender 
the members of my command while they 
still have the means to resist. 

Even when a situation seems hopeless, you 
often still have a chance to win. Remember John 
Paul Jones! As long as you have the means to 
resist, you must continue to do so. If you no 
longer have weapons, ammunition, or other 
means, you have the duty to evade capture and 
attempt to rejoin friendly forces. 

ARTICLE III 

If I am captured I will continue to resist 
by all means available. I will make every 
effort to escape and aid others to escape. 
I will accept neither parole nor special 
favors from the enemy. 

Even as a prisoner, you still have a weapon 
for resistance. That weapon is your mind — the 
determination to resist and to escape. Stay 
mentally and physically able to seize any 
opportunity to escape. By maintaining the burn- 
ing determination to resist and escape, you keep 



your mind alert. These have been the ingredients 
in the stories of the personnel of all branches of 
the armed forces who have escaped from the 
enemy. 

Never risk placing yourself under obligation 
to the enemy by accepting favors; the enemy will 
exploit to the utmost any weakness you show. 

ARTICLE IV 

If I become a prisoner of war, I will 
keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will 
give no information or take part in any 
action which might be harmful to my 
comrades. If I am senior, I will take 
command. If not, I will obey the lawful 
orders of those appointed over me and will 
back them up in every way. 

Fellow prisoners are your friends in a prison 
camp. Jealously guard and protect that friendship. 
Do nothing and say nothing that would jeopar- 
dize a fellow prisoner. Article 105 (Misconduct 
as Prisoner) of the Uniform Code of Military 
Justice (UCMJ) provides for punishment of any 
person who jeopardizes a fellow prisoner. This 
includes anyone who causes damage or harm to 
other prisoners, of whatever nationality, for the 
purpose of gaining personally favorable treat- 
ment. It also includes anyone who cruelly treats 
or abuses fellow prisoners while in a position of 
authority. 

You must always resist the enemy's attempts 
to break down your faith in fellow prisoners. The 
enemy will use various tactics to attempt to shatter 
the unity of the prisoners. A prisoner may be 
singled out for special sessions with the captors. 
The captors may appoint one person as their 
representative among the prisoners. The captors 
may take one of the prisoners away from the 
group for an extended period of time and then 
return the prisoner with no explanation. All of 
these tactics are designed to destroy the prisoners' 
faith in one another. If the captors are successful, 
mistrust will grow, individuals will lose faith in 
each other, and the group will disintegrate into 
a dog-eat-dog struggle for survival. 

All military prisoners in the camp are subject 
^ to the lawful orders of the senior officer present, 
just as they would be aboard ship. Should you 
happen to be senior, you will assume command. 
An organization must be established to carry out 
activities such as care of the sick and wounded, 
camp sanitation, and escape and resistance 
planning. Normally, your captors will not permit 



5-12 



this organization to function openly, so it will 
have to be established secretly. Good leadership 
and discipline are keys to survival. 

ARTICLE V 

When questioned, should I become a 
prisoner of war, I am required to give 
name, rank, service number, and date of 
birth. I will evade answering further 
questions to the utmost of my ability. I will 
make no oral or written statements disloyal 
to my country and its allies or harmful to 
their cause. 

The Geneva Convention requires that you 
give your name, rate, service number, and date 
of birth when questioned by the enemy. Any 
further information, although seemingly of no 
importance, could be of value to the enemy in 
attempts to break your spirit or to be used against 
fellow prisoners. The Geneva Convention also 
forbids physical and mental torture of prisoners. 
However, since the Korean conflict. Communist 
forces have resorted to such tactics in their 
attempts to gain information and to get prisoners 
to collaborate. 

The time will come when you will have to say 
something other than your name, rate, service 
number, and date of birth, if only to avoid 
further questioning. Do not make up stories. You 
may fool the interrogator for a short time; but 
eventually the enemy will find your stories to be 
false and may resort to harsher methods. A 
simple "I don't know" will often suffice. 

Oral or written confessions to "war crimes," 
surrender or peace appeals, and statements critical 
of the United States are forbidden. They could 
pose a danger to you and your fellow prisoners 
and damage our country. Any confession becomes 
grounds for trying a prisoner as a war criminal 
if the enemy so desires. 

ARTICLE VI 

I will never forget that I am an 
American, fighting for freedom, respon- 
sible for my actions, and dedicated to the 
principles which made my country free. I 
will trust in my God and in the United 
States of America. 

In the event you are unable to avoid capture, 
remember the first sentence of the first article: "I 
am an American, fighting for freedom." Those 



seven words signify your faith and confidence in 
your God, your country, your service, and 
yourself. 

As a member of the armed forces of the 
United States, you are always subject to the 
UCMJ, even as a prisoner of war. After 
return to friendly forces or escape, you will be 
investigated to determine the circumstances 
of your capture and your conduct as a prisoner. 
If you have done your utmost to uphold the 
principles of this code, you need not worry about 
such an investigation. You may even be able to 
give valuable information that will help future 
prisoners. 

Many Americans have been prisoners of war, 
and they all agree that the life of a POW is a hard 
one. A few of those POWs were either unprepared 
to resist or lacked the ability to maintain their 
basic faith and loyalty under extreme pressure. 
These Americans succumbed to the enemy's 
efforts and acted in a manner detrimental to their 
country, their fellow service members, and 
themselves. Remember, you will have to live the 
rest of your life remembering your conduct under 
stress. The majority of American prisoners have 
behaved honorably and with pride because they 
believed in and adhered to the principles and 
strength on which our country was founded. 



NAVY LEADER DEVELOPMENT 
PROGRAM (NAVLEAD) 

Through research, the Navy has identified 
various leadership skills to distinguish the 
differences between superior performers and 
average performers as Navy leaders. These skills, 
or characteristics, are sometimes referred to as 
competencies. 

The Navy offers a variety of 1-week Navy 
Leader Development Program (NAVLEAD) 
courses designed to train students to apply these 
specific leadership skills in various job situations. 
The NAVLEAD courses are available to E-5 
through 0-6 personnel. All E-6 and E-7 personnel 
are required to complete an NAVLEAD course 
to be eligible for advancement to E-7 and E-8. 

The NAVLEAD course for division officers 
is based on the following 13 characteristics: 

1 . TAKES INITIATIVE: Demonstrates will- 
ingness to go beyond what the situation 
requires and to act before being asked. 

2. FOLLOWS THROUGH: Monitors what 
people and the organization are doing to 
ensure quality and to maintain standards. 



5-13 



3. DEMONSTRATES SELF-CONFIDENCE: 
Projects an ability to succeed, to reach 
challenging goals, or to overcome ob- 
stacles. 

4. SEEKS INFORMATION: Gathers data 
from many sources to ensure actions have 
potential for success. 

5. PLANS: Sets goals and organizes own 
and others' work to accomplish these 
efficiently. 

6. MANAGES TIME EFFICIENTLY: 
Develops ways of accomplishing multiple 
goals in a hmited amount of time. 

7. ENFORCES HIGH STANDARDS: 
Models, communicates, and upholds the 
best criteria for performance. 

8. PROMOTES GOOD WORKING RELA- 
TIONSHIPS WITH THE CHIEF: Effec- 
tively communicates with and delegates 
work to the chief petty officer. 

9. DEMONSTRATES CONCERN FOR 
SUBORDINATES: Listens to subor- 
dinates and works to meet their needs. 

10. ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY: Shows 
willingness to make difficult decisions and 
face the consequences. 

11. INFLUENCES: Motivates or persuades 
others to act or to accept policy or 
position. 

12. COMMUNICATES: Demonstrates verbal 
and written skills in presenting ideas and 
information to others. 

13. PROBLEM-SOLVES: Analyzes situa- 
tions to determine causes and acts to over- 
come obstacles and reach solutions. 

SUMMARY 

Leadership in the Navy is the process of 
influencing people to effectively accomplish the 
mission of the unit. Good leadership is essential 
in today's military organization. Discipline must 
be used in the military to reinforce the leadership 
structure. 

You may see your leadership role as encourag- 
ing your people to assume personal initiative and 
a more active role in meeting their job respon- 
sibihties. This approach requires you to have 
leadership skills in dealing with people to get them 
to cooperate and willingly participate. 

When you blend your personal leadership 
skills with your official authority, you increase 
the productivity of your group. Successful leader- 
ship occurs when you cause your subordinates to 
accept orders without any undue exertion of 
authority or force on your part. To be a leader, 



you must have followers; to be a good leader, you 
must have willing followers. 

A key concept of leadership is flexibility. You 
must be flexible to deal with the many facets of 
your job, such as job deadlines and the capabilities 
of your people. Your leadership style should be 
flexible enough to fit each situation. 

For you to perform all work tasks yourself is 
impractical and impossible; therefore, you must 
depend on your people to a large degree to do a 
good job. As you work closely with your people 
to get a job done, you will quickly recognize the 
need for cooperation and effort from your people. 
Seek to know and understand your people. Try 
to build a spirit of teamwork and high morale so 
that they will willingly help you achieve the work 
goal. 

As a leader you can practice leadership in 
many ways. You have several leadership styles to 
choose from. No one leadership style is right or 
wrong; the appropriate style depends on the 
people being led, the situation, and the require- 
ments of the job. 

Remember, leadership is more than a Hst of 
do's and don'ts. It is a frame of mind or an 
attitude that you develop in deaUng with people, 
your responsibilities, and your role in the chain 
of command. 

Also remember that by applying the principles 
of management, you can make sound leadership 
decisions with skill and confidence. Good 
managers come in many different forms and 
manage with a variety of styles. Whatever your 
personality, you can become a good manager. To 
do so, you have to learn the techniques of good 
leadership and concentrate on training yourself 
to use them. You must realize that the job of 
managing can be very satisfying for those who are 
prepared to meet its challenges but frustrating for 
those who have not mastered the basic leadership 
techniques. 

REFERENCES 

Barnett, Robin, "A Guide for Single Parents," 
All Hands 857 (August 1988): 36-37. 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 
^ 12043, Naval Education and Training Program 

Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 

Fla., 1992. 

Military Requirements for Chief Petty Officer, 
NAVEDTRA 12047, Naval Education and 
Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 



5-14 



Military Requirements for Petty Officer First 
Class, NAVEDTRA 12046, Naval Education 
and Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 

Navy Affirmative Action Plan (NAAPJ, OP- 
NAVINST 5354.3B, Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations, Washington, D.C., 1989. 

Navy Equal Opportunity (EO) Manual, OP- 
NAVINST 5354. IC, Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations, Washington, D.C., 1989. 

Navy Fraternization Policy, OPNAVINST 
5370.2, Office of the Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions, Washington, D.C., 1989. 



Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinical 
Management Guidelines, NAVMEDCOM- 
INST 6222. 1 , Department of the Navy, Naval 
Medical Command, Washington, D.C., 1987. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Mack, W. P. and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
Annapohs, Md., 1983. 

Noel, J. v.. Division Officer's Guide, 8th ed.. 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1986. 



MASTER-AT-ARMS 

THE MASTER-AT-ARMS RATING IS BY NO MEANS A MODERN INNOVATION. NAVAL 
RECORDS SHOW THAT THESE "SHERIFFS OF THE SEA" WERE KEEPING ORDER AS EARLY 
AS THE REIGN OF CHARLES I OF ENGLAND. AT THE TIME, THEY WERE CHARGED WITH 
KEEPING THE SWORDS, PISTOLS, CARBINES. AHD MUSKETS IN GOOD WORKING ORDER AS 
WELL AS ENSURING THAT THE BANDOLIERS WERE FILLED WITH FRESH POWDER BEFORE 
COMBAT. 

BESIDES BEING CHIEFS OF POLICE AT SEA, THE SEA CORPORALS, AS THEY WERE 
CALLED IN THE BRITISH NAVY, HAD TO BE QUALIFIED IN CLOSE ORDER FIGHTING 
UNDER ARMS AND ABLE TO TRAIN SEAMEN IN HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT. IN THE DAYS OF 
SAIL, THE MAAs WERE TRULY "MASTERS AT ARMS." THE MASTER-AT-ARMS IN THE 
U.S. NAVY CAN TRACE THE BEGINNING OF THIS RATE TO THE UNION NAVY OF THE 
CIVIL WAR. 




^sjo;^^ 



5-15 



CHAPTER 6 



GOVERNING REGULATIONS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the articles from Navy Regulations 
that all Navy personnel should know. 

2. Identify the contents of various articles from 
Navy Regulations. 

3. Trace the development of the Uniform Code 
of Military Justice. 

4. Describe the contents of article 137 of the 
Uniform Code of Military Justice. 

5. Identify the contents of the articles that are 
explained in article 137 of the Uniform Code 
of Military Justice. 



6. Describe the proceedings of nonjudicial 
punishment and the punishments that may be 
awarded at nonjudicial punishment 
proceedings. 

7. Describe the three types of courts-martial. 

8. Describe the purpose of the Standard 
Organization and Regulations of the U.S. 
Navy. 

9. Identify the contents of various articles of the 
Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy. 



Figure 6-1 shows the three official sources 
that set forth the basic disciplinary laws for the 
Navy. These sources are the Uniform Code of 
Military Justice (UCMJ) (contained in the 
Manual for Courts-Martial United States, 1984, 
Revised Edition); United States Navy Regulations, 
1990 (commonly called Navy Regs); and the 
Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy. 

You probably have heard the saying, "Ig- 
norance of the law is no excuse." Obviously, this 
idea must govern; otherwise, personnel could 
excuse illegal conduct merely by saying they did 
not know there was a law against it. When you 
entered the Navy, you agreed to abide by the 
Navy's laws and regulations. Naturally, you will 
need time to learn all the rules you must obey. 
However, you should make every effort to learn 
them as soon as possible to avoid embarrassing 
situations and disciplinary action. 



U.S. NAVY REGULATIONS 

The 12 chapters of Navy Regs describe the 
authority and responsibilities of the offices within 
the Department of the Navy. They also describe 
the regulations concerning the procedures, 
authority, and command of these offices. Navy 
Regs also covers honors and ceremonies, the rights 
and responsibilities of persons in the Department 
of the Navy, and the purpose and force of these 
regulations. 

Each ship and station has complete copies of 
A'iQ'v>' Regs available to all personnel. Also 
available is an excellent nonresident training 
course entitled Navy Regulations, NAVED- 
TRA 10740-C, which you are encouraged to 
complete. Your educational services officer (ESO) 
can help you order this course. 

The following section lists articles (with a 
condensation of their text, if appropriate) from 
United States Navy Regulations, 1990, that all 



6-1 



MANUAL 

FOR 

COURTS-MARTIAL 

UNITED STATES 



OPNAVINST 3120.32 




UNITED STATES 

NAVY 
REGULATIONS 

—1990 — 



STANDARD ORGANIZATION 

AND REGULATIONS 
OF THE U.S. NAVY 




DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Figure 6-1. — Three official sources for basic disciplinary laws. 



personnel in the Navy should know. This listing 
serves only as a starting place for you to learn 
about Navy regulations. You are responsible for 
learning and obeying all regulations. These regula- 
tions are not punitive articles, but laws under 
which the Navy operates. Many exist for your own 
protection. Failure to obey any regulation 
subjects the offender to charges under article 
92, UCMJ (Failure to obey order or regula- 
tion). 



In the following excerpts the first two digits 
of the article number indicate the chapter of 
Navy Regs from which the article is taken. 
When the article itself is self-explanatory, the 
atrticle is presented in block quotation exactly as 
stated in Navy Regs; no further explanation 
is given. Articles that are lengthy and, in some 
cases, difficult to interpret are paraphrased to 
give you a brief overview of the contents of the 
article. 



6-2 



0818. Publishing and Posting Orders and 
Regulations 

1. In accordance with Article 137 of 
the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the 
articles specifically enumerated therein 
shall be carefully explained to each enlisted 
person: 

a. At the time of entrance on 
active duty or within six days thereafter; 

b. Again, after completion of six 
months active duty; and 

c. Again, upon the occasion of 
each reenlistment. 

2. A text of the articles specifically 
enumerated in Article 137 of the Uniform 
Code of Military Justice shall be posted in 
a conspicuous place or places, readily 
accessible to all personnel of the 
command. 

3. Instructions concerning the Uni- 
form Code of Military Justice and 
appropriate articles of Navy Regulations 
shall be included in the training and educa- 
tional program of the command. 

4. Such general orders, orders from 
higher authority, and other matters which 
the commanding officer considers of in- 
terest to the personnel or profitable for 
them to know shall be published to the 
command as soon as practicable. Such 
matters shall also be posted, in whole or 
in part, in a conspicuous place or places 
readily accessible to personnel of the 
command. 

5. Upon the request of any person on 
active duty in the armed services, the 
following publications shall be made 
available for that person's personal 
examination: 

a. A complete text of the Uniform 
Code of Military Justice, 

b. Manual for Courts-Martial, 

c. Navy Regulations, 

d. Manual of the Judge Advocate 
General, 

e. Marine Corps Manual (for 
Marine Corps personnel), 

f . Naval Military Personnel Man- 
ual (for Navy personnel) or Marine Corps 
Personnel Manual (for Marine Corps 
personnel). 



0917. Dealings With Foreigners 

When in foreign ports, personnel shall respect 
local laws, customs, ceremonies, and regulations; 
display courtesy and moderation; and cultivate 
a feeling of good will and mutual respect. 

1020. Exercise of Authority 

All persons in the naval service on 
active service, those on the retired list with 
pay, and transferred members of the Fleet 
Reserve and the Fleet Marine Corps 
Reserve are at all times subject to naval 
authority. While on active service they 
may, if not on leave of absence except as 
noted below, on the sick list, taken into 
custody, under arrest, suspended from 
duty, in confinement, or otherwise in- 
capable of discharging their duties, exer- 
cise authority over all persons who are 
subordinate to them. 

1021. Authority Over Subordinates 

This article gives officers the authority 
necessary to perform their duties. 

1023. Abuse of Authority 

Persons in authority are forbidden to 
injure their subordinates by tyrannical or 
capricious conduct, or by abusive 
language. 

1024. Contradictory and Conflicting Orders 

An enlisted person who receives an order that 
annuls, suspends, or modifies one received from 
another superior shall immediately relate this fact 
to the superior from whom the last order was 
received. If, after receiving this information, the 
superior from whom the last order was received 
should insist upon the execution of that order, it 
shall be obeyed. The person receiving and 
executing such order shall report the cir- 
cumstances as soon as practicable to the superior 
from whom the original order was received. 

1033. Authority in a Boat 

This article provides the senior line officer 
ehgible for command at sea the authority over all 
persons embarked in a boat. It also delegates the 
officer responsibility for the safety and manage- 
ment of the boat. 



6-3 



1037. Authority of Warrant Officers, Non- 
commissioned Officers, and Petty Officers 

Chief warrant officers, warrant of- 
ficers, non-commissioned officers, and 
petty officers shall have, under their 
superiors, all necessary authority for the 
proper performance of their duties, and 
they shall be obeyed accordingly. 

1038. Authority of a Sentry 

A sentry, within the limits stated in his 
or her orders, has authority over all 
persons on his or her post. 

1039. Authority of Juniors To Issue Orders to 
Seniors 

No member of the armed forces is authorized 
by virtue of his or her rank alone to give any order 
or grant any privilege, permission, or Uberty to 
any officer senior to him or her. A member is not 
required to receive such order, privilege, per- 
mission, or liberty from a junior, unless such 
junior is at the time: 

• In command of the ship or other command 
to which the senior is attached. 

• In command or direction of the military 
expedition or duty on which such senior 
is serving. 

• An executive officer executing an order of 
the commanding officer. 

1111. Pecuniary Dealings With Enlisted Persons 

No officer should have any dealings involving 
money with enlisted persons except as may be 
required in the performance of the officer's duties 
or as involved in the sale of personal property. 
An officer may be designated by superior 
authority to accept deposits from enlisted person- 
nel for the purpose of safeguarding these funds 
under emergency or operational situations. 

1112. Lending Money and Engaging in a Trade 
or Business 

Naval personnel shall not lend money to 
another member of the armed services at an 



interest rate, for the period of the loan, that 
exceeds 18 percent simple interest per year. 
Personnel may not act as a salesperson or an agent 
or engage in a business on board without 
permission of the commanding officer. 

1115. Report of Fraud 

Any suspicions of fraud, collusion, or im- 
proper conduct in matters concerning supplies and 
repairs should be reported to proper authority. 

1125. Inspection of the Record of a Person in the 
Naval Service 

A person's naval record is maintained by the 
Chief of Naval Personnel or the Commandant of 
the Marine Corps. The record must be available 
for inspection by that person or an authorized 
agent designated in writing by that person. 

1130. Officer's Duties Relative to Laws, Orders 
and Regulations 

All officers in the naval service shall acquaint 
themselves with and obey the laws, regulations, 
and orders relating to the Department of the 
Navy. They shall also, as far as their authority 
extends, enforce these laws, regulations, and 
orders. They shall faithfully and truthfully 
discharge the duties of their office to the best of 
their ability in conformance with existing orders 
and regulations and their solemn profession of the 
oath of office. In the absence of instructions, they 
shall act in conformity with the policies and 
customs of the service to protect the public 
interest. 

1132. Compliance With Lawful Orders 

All persons in the naval service are 
required to obey readily and strictly, and 
to execute promptly, the lawful orders of 
their superiors. 

1133. Language Reflecting on a Superior 

Language tending to diminish the confidence 
a^d respect due superior officers shall not be used. 

1134. Exchange of Duty 

An assigned duty may not be changed with 
another person (such as trading watches) without 
permission from proper authority. 



6-4 



1137. Obligation To Report Offenses 



1154. Communications to the Congress 



All offenses observed should be reported to 
the proper authority. 



1138. Responsibilities Concerning Marijuana, 
Narcotics, and Other Controlled Substances 

Personnel may not bring on board any naval 
activity, or have in their possession at any time, 
marijuana, narcotics, or any controlled 
substances. 



1143. Report of a Communicable Disease 

Personnel should report any suspicions of 
communicable disease to their medical representa- 
tive. 



1144. Immunization 

Personnel must take the immunizations 
prescribed for them as scheduled. 

1145. Service Examinations 

No persons in the Navy, without proper 
authority, should have or attempt to have in their 
possession, any examination papers, any part or 
copy thereof, or any examination answer sheets. 
They also shall not obtain, sell, publish, give, 
purchase, receive, or reproduce any of these 
examination products. 



1150. Redress of Wrong Committed by a 
Superior 

A person who believes that a superior 
exercises authority in an unjust or cruel manner 
or is guilty of misconduct should submit a 
complaint to his or her commanding officer. 



1151. Direct Communication With the Com- 
manding Officer 

The right of any person in the naval 
service to communicate with the com- 
manding officer in a proper manner, and 
at a proper time and place, shall not be 
denied or restricted. 



Personnel may not, in their official capacity, 
apply to Congress for congressional action of any 
kind or provide information requested by Con- 
gress. The only exception to this regulation is such 
communication as authorized by the Secretary of 
the Navy or as provided by law. 

1155. Dealings With Members of Congress 

All persons may write to their congressmen on 
any subject as long as they do not violate security 
regulations or the law. 

1156. Forwarding Individual Requests 

Requests from persons in the naval 
service shall be acted upon promptly. 
When addressed to higher authority, 
requests shall be forwarded without delay. 
The reason should be stated when a request 
is not approved or recommended. 

1157. Leave and Liberty 

Leave and liberty will be granted to the 
maximum extent practicable. 

1158. Quality and Quantity of Rations 

Meals served in the general mess shall be 
sampled regularly by an officer detailed by the 
commanding officer for that purpose. Should this 
officer find the quality or quantity of the food 
unsatisfactory or should any member of the mess 
object to the quaHty or quantity of the food, the 
commanding officer shall be notified and shall 
take appropriate action. 

1159. Possession of Weapons 

Personnel may not have any weapons or 
explosives in their possession without proper 
authority. 

1160. Possession of Government Property 

Personnel shall not possess, without permis- 
sion, any property of the United States except 
what is needed in the performance of their duty. 



6-5 



1162. Alcoholic Liquors 

The personal possession of any alcoholic 
liquors aboard any ship is prohibited. The 
transportation aboard ship of alcoholic liquors 
for personal use ashore is authorized subject 
to the discretion of, and under regulations 
established by, the commanding officer. 



UNIFORM CODE OF 
MILITARY JUSTICE 

Until 1951 the various branches of our armed 
forces operated under different military codes. 
The Army and Air Force were guided in the 
administration of discipline and in legal processes 
by the Army's Articles of War. The Navy was 
guided by the Articles for the Government of the 
Navy ("Rocks and Shoals"); and the Coast 
Guard, by the Disciplinary Laws of the Coast 
Guard. Not surprisingly, then, an act considered 
an offense in the eyes of the Navy may not have 
been judged so by the Army. Even if an act was 
a breach of discipline in all branches of the armed 
forces, the type of trial and severity of punish- 
ment awarded varied. 

A standardized code of military justice was 
recognized as a logical and necessary unification 
measure. Therefore, then Secretary of Defense, 
James Forrestal, appointed an interservice com- 
mittee to study the measure. After an intensive 
study, the committee drafted what is now known 
as the Uniform Code of Military Justice {UCMJ). 
The UCMJ was passed by Congress on 5 May 
1950, signed into law by the President, and 
became effective 31 May 1951. 

The Manual for Courts-Martial, United 
States, 1951 (MCM) consolidated and stan- 
dardized varying military legal procedures. 
Effective 31 May 1951, the same date as the 
original UCMJ, it became the new touchstone of 
military justice. Case decisions of the Court of 
Military Appeals and changes in courts-martial 
procedures have made necessary several changes 
to the original manual. The current edition is the 
Manual for Courts-Martial 1984. 

ARTICLES TO BE EXPLAINED 

Congress and the Navy have taken steps to 
ensure you will know the disciplinary laws and 
regulations most likely to affect your daily life. 
Article 137 of the UCMJ states that certain 
articles of the Code must be explained carefully 



to every enlisted person at certain intervals. They 
must be explained at the time the person enters 
on active duty, after 6 months of active duty, and 
when the person reenlists. In general, these articles 
concern the following topics: 

Article Subject 

2 Persons subject to the Code 

3 Right to try certain persons even 
though they have been separated from 
service 

7-14 Apprehension and restraint 

15 Nonjudicial punishment (captain's 

mast) 

25 Membership of courts-martial 

27 Appointment of counsel to courts- 

martial 

31 Compulsory self-incrimination pro- 

hibited 

37 Unlawful influence on the court 

38 Duties of counsel 

55 Certain punishments prohibited 

77-134 Punitive articles 

137 Articles that must be explained 

138 Complaints of wrongs 

139 Payment for injury or loss of property 

Navy Regulations supplements article 137 of 
the UCMJ by requiring each command to post 
the text of those articles in the preceding list in 
a conspicuous place. Navy Regs also requires each 
command to include these and other appropriate 
articles of Navy Regulations in the command's 
training and education program. Copies of the 
complete UCMJ (140 articles). Navy Regulations, 
and other general orders are available to any 
person desiring to read them. 

EXCERPTS FROM THE UCMJ 

The purpose of this section is not to make you 
an expert on the Uniform Code of Military 



6-6 



Justice, but to give you an overview of each of 
the articles prescribed by article 137. Those 
articles which are self-explanatory are shown in 
block quotation as stated in the UCMJ; no 
further explanation is given. Some of the more 
lengthy articles have been edited to present only 
portions of these articles. Articles that are lengthy 
and, in some cases, difficult to interpret are 
paraphrased to give you a brief overview of what 
the article contains. 

The ^CMy uses the terms "man" or "he" to 
refer to all persons in the military service. 

Art. 2. Persons Subject to This Code 

The following persons are subject to 
this code: 

(1) Members of a regular compo- 
nent of the armed forces, including 
those awaiting discharge after 
expiration of their terms of enlist- 
ment; volunteers from the time of 
their muster or acceptance into the 
armed forces; inductees from the 
time of their actual induction into 
the armed forces; and other persons 
lawfully called or ordered into, or 
to duty in or for training in, the 
armed forces, from the dates when 
they are required by the terms of 
the call or order to obey it. 

This article includes all persons on active duty, 
certain retired persons, prisoners, and prisoners 
of war. 

You should specifically note the following 
provisions of article 2: 

• Any person serving a sentence imposed by 
a court-martial remains subject to the UCMJ. 
Thus, a prisoner who is serving a court-martial 
sentence may be tried for a crime committed while 
a prisoner. This applies even though the prisoner's 
term of enhstment has expired at the time of 
commission of the crime. 

• A reservist on inactive-duty training is 
subject to the UCMJ when (a) the training is 
authorized by written orders; (b) the orders are 
voluntarily accepted by the reservist; and (c) the 
orders specify that the reservist is subject to the 
UCMJ. 

• A reservist ordered into the active military 
service is subject to the UCMJ beginning on the 
date specified in the orders for the reservist to 
report for active duty. 



• The United States Supreme Court has held 
unconstitutional the exercise of court-martial 
jurisdiction over civilians in time of peace. 



Art. 3. Jurisdiction To Try Certain Personnel 

Article 3 states that a person may be tried by 
court-martial, even after leaving the service, for 
offenses committed while under the UCMJ. 



Art. 7. Apprehension 

(a) Apprehension is the taking of a 
person into custody. 

(b) Any person authorized under 
regulations governing the armed forces to 
apprehend persons subject to this code or 
to trial thereunder may do so upon 
reasonable belief that an offense has 
been committed and that the person 
apprehended committed it. 

(c) Commissioned officers, warrant 
officers, petty officers, and noncommis- 
sioned officers have authority to quell 
quarrels, frays, and disorders among 
persons subject to this code and to 
apprehend persons subject to this code who 
take part therein. 

In addition to those listed in 7(c), security 
pohce, military police, shore patrol, and others 
designated to perform guard or police duties may 
apprehend persons subject to the UCMJ. 

Enlisted persons performing police duties 
should not apprehend an officer except on specific 
orders of a commissioned officer. The exception 
is when such apprehension is necessary to prevent 
disgrace to the service, the commission of a serious 
offense, or the escape of one who has committed 
a serious offense. In such cases, the apprehending 
individual immediately notifies the officer to 
whom he or she is responsible or an officer of the 
security police, military police, or shore patrol. 

An apprehension is effected by clear notifica- 
tion to the offender that he or she is thereby taken 
into custody. The order may be oral or written. 

A clear distinction exists between the authority 
to apprehend and the authority to arrest or 
confine (article 9). Any person empowered to 
apprehend an offender, however, is authorized 
to secure the custody of an alleged offender until 
proper authority may be notified. 



6-7 



Art. 8. Apprehension of Deserters 

Any civil officer having authority to 
apprehend offenders under the laws of the 
United States or of a State, Territory, 
Commonwealth, or possession, or the 
District of Columbia may summarily 
apprehend a deserter from the armed 
forces and deliver him into the custody of 
those forces. 

When a military service sends out a descrip- 
tion of a deserter, with a request for the deserter's 
apprehension, the notice gives civil officers the 
authority to apprehend the person. 



Art. 9. Imposition of Restraint 

(a) Arrest is the restraint of a person 
by an order, not imposed as a punishment 
for an offense, directing him to remain 
within certain specified limits. Confine- 
ment is the physical restraint of a person. 

(b) An enlisted member may be 
ordered into arrest or confinement by any 
commissioned officer by an order, oral or 
written, delivered in person or through 
other persons subject to this code. A com- 
manding officer may authorize warrant 
officers, petty officers, or noncommis- 
sioned officers to order enlisted members 
of his command or subject to his authority 
into arrest or confinement. 

(c) A commissioned officer, a warrant 
officer, or a civilian subject to this code 
or to trial thereunder may be ordered into 
arrest or confinement only by a command- 
ing officer to whose authority he is 
subject, by an order, oral or written, 
delivered in person or by another commis- 
sioned officer. The authority to order such 
persons into arrest or confinement may not 
be delegated. 

(d) No person may be ordered into 
arrest or confinement except for probable 
cause. 

(e) Nothing in this article limits 
the authority of persons authorized to 
apprehend offenders to secure the custody 



of an alleged offender until proper 
authority may be notified. 



Art. 10. Restraint of Persons Charged With 
Offenses 

Any person subject to this code charged 
with an offense under this code shall be 
ordered into arrest or confinement, as 
circumstances may require; but when 
charged only with an offense normally 
tried by a summary court-martial, he shall 
not ordinarily be placed in confinement. 
When any person subject to this code is 
placed in arrest or confinement prior to 
trial, immediate steps shall be taken to in- 
form him of the specific wrong of which 
he is accused and to try him or to dismiss 
the charges and release him. 

As the words "normally" and "or- 
dinarily" imply, the provisions of this 
article may not apply in exceptional cases. 
Whether to confine, arrest, or restrict a 
person in lieu of arrest is within the 
discretion of the officer having the power 
to do so. What this article says, in effect, 
is that in most instances confinement is not 
necessary for persons accused of minor 
offenses. 



Art. 11. Reports and Receiving of Prisoners 

(a) No provost marshall, commander 
or a guard, or master-at-arms may refuse 
to receive or keep any prisoner committed 
to his charge by a commissioned officer of 
the armed forces, when the committing of- 
ficer furnishes a statement, signed by him, 
of the offense charged against the prisoner. 

(b) Every commander of the guard or 
master-at-arms to whose charge a prisoner 
is committed shall, within twenty-four 
hours after that commitment or as soon as 
he is relieved from guard, report to the 
commanding officer the name of the 

'^ prisoner, the offense charged against him, 
and the name of the person who ordered 
or authorized the commitment. 

An arrest is imposed by notification to the 
person to be arrested that he or she is under 



6-8 



arrest and of the limits of the arrest. The order 
of arrest may be oral or written. A person to be 
confined is placed under guard and taken to the 
place of confinement. 



Art. 12. Confinement With Enemy Prisoners 
Prohibited 



delivery, if followed by conviction in a civil 
tribunal, interrupts the execution of the 
sentence of the court-martial, and the 
offender after having answered to the civil 
authorities for this offense shall, upon the 
request of competent military authority, be 
returned to military custody for the 
completion of his sentence. 



No member of the armed forces may 
be placed in confinement in immediate 
association with enemy prisoners or other 
foreign nationals not members of the 
armed forces. 



Art. 13. Punishment Prohibited Before Trial 

Subject to . . . Article 57, no person, 
while being held for trial or the result of 
trial, may be subjected to punishment or 
penalty other than arrest or confinement 
upon the charges pending against him, nor 
shall the arrest or confinement imposed 
upon him be any more rigorous than the 
circumstances require to ensure his 
presence, but he may be subjected to minor 
punishment during that period for in- 
fractions of disciphne. 

The minor punishment permitted under article 
13 includes that authorized for violations of 
discipline set forth by the place in which the 
person is confined. The article does not prevent 
a person from being required to do ordinary clean- 
ing or policing or from taking part in routine 
training and duties not involving the bearing of 
arms. 



Art. 14. Delivery of Offenders to Civil Author- 
ities 

(a) Under such regulations as the 
Secretary concerned may prescribe, a 
member of the armed forces accused of an 
offense against civil authority may be 
delivered, upon request, to the civil 
authority for trial. 

(b) When delivery under this article is 
made to any civil authority of a person 
undergoing sentence of a court-martial, the 



Art. 15. Commanding Officer's Nonjudicial 
Punishment 

Article 15 explains commanding officer's non- 
judicial punishment. For some offenses, com- 
manders may offer an article 15 instead of 
court-martial. If accepted, the commander may 
impose punishment as permitted by regulations 
(usually at captain's mast). Receiving an article 
15 is not a conviction, and it does not give a 
person a criminal record. This article will be 
explained in greater detail later in this chapter 
under "Nonjudicial Punishment." 



Art. 25. Who May Serve on Courts-Martial 

Any commissioned officer, including commis- 
sioned warrant officers, on active duty with the 
armed forces is eligible to serve on a court-martial. 
Any warrant officer on active duty with the armed 
forces is eligible to serve on a general court-martial 
(GCM) and special court-martial (SPCM) for the 
trial of any person, other than a commissioned 
officer. Any enlisted person on active duty with 
the armed forces who is not a member of the same 
unit as the accused is eligible to serve on general 
and special courts-martial for the trial of enlisted 
persons. However, enlisted personnel may serve 
as a member of a court-martial only if, before the 
assembling of such court, the accused has per- 
sonally requested in writing that enlisted personnel 
serve as members of the court. 



Art. 27. Detail of Trial Counsel and Defense 
Counsel 

Each general and special court-martial must 
have a trial counsel and a defense counsel, with 
such assistants as the convening authority deems 
necessary. The terms "counsel," "trial counsel," 
and "defense counsel" should be interpreted to 



6-9 



mean the detailed counsel named in the convening 
order. The term "individual counsel" refers to 
the military counsel selected by the accused or the 
civilian counsel provided by the accused at his or 
her own expense. 

The trial counsel and defense counsel detailed 
for a general court-martial must have equivalent 
legal qualifications. Each must be a judge 
advocate of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or 
Marine Corps who is a graduate of an accredited 
law school or is a member of the bar of a federal 
court or of the highest court of a state. Each must 
be certified as competent to perform such duties 
by the Judge Advocate General of the armed 
forces of which he or she is a member. A civilian 
counsel must be a member of the bar of a federal 
court or of the highest court of a state. 

In a special court-martial, the accused must 
be afforded the opportunity to be represented by 
counsel qualified under article 27, UCMJ, unless 
such counsel cannot be obtained because of the 
geographical location or pressing military re- 
quirements. If quahfied defense counsel cannot 
be obtained or if the accused has dechned 
qualified counsel, the detailed defense counsel 
must meet the following requirements. If the 
detailed defense counsel does not meet the follow- 
ing requirements, an SPCM is not legally 
constituted: 



• If the detailed trial counsel or any 
assistant trial counsel is qualified to act as counsel 
before a GCM, the detailed defense counsel must 
be a person similarly quahfied; or 



• If the detailed trial counsel or any assis- 
tant trial counsel is a judge advocate or a member 
of the bar of a federal court or the highest court 
of a state, the detailed defense counsel must be 
one of the same. 



Art. 31. 



Compulsory 
hibited 



Self-incrimination Pro- 



This article explains your right not to provide 
evidence against yourself (self-incrimination), a 
right given to all citizens under the Fifth Amend- 
ment to the U.S. Constitution. The following 



statements explain your rights against self- 
incrimination: 

• You cannot be forced to answer questions 
or give evidence that may help to prove 
your guilt. 

• You must be told the nature of the offense 
of which you are accused; that you do not 
have to make any statement; and that if 
you do, it can be used against you. 

• You cannot be forced to make a statement 
or give evidence in a trial that is not related 
to the case or that may degrade you. 

• No statement obtained from you by threats 
or trickery can be used against you in a 
court-martial trial. 



Art. 37. Unlawfully Influencing Action of Court 

(a) No authority convening a general, 
special, or summary court-martial, nor any 
other commanding officer, may censure, 
reprimand, or admonish the court or any 
member, military judge, or counsel 
thereof, with respect to the findings or 
sentence adjudged by the court, or with 
respect to any other exercise of its or his 
functions in the conduct of the proceeding. 
No person subject to this code may attempt 
to coerce or, by any unauthorized means, 
influence the action of a court-martial or 
any other military tribunal or any member 
thereof, in reaching the findings or 
sentence in any case, or the action of any 
convening, approving, or reviewing 
authority with respect to his judicial acts. 

Article 37 is designed to ensure that every 
court, its members, and its officers shall be 
completely free to fulfill their functions without 
fear of reprisal. 



Art. 



38. Duties of Trial Counsel and Defense 
Counsel 



The trial counsel prosecutes in the name of the 
United States and, under the direction of the 



6-10 



court, prepares the record of proceedings. The 
duties of the trial counsel might be compared to 
those of a civil district attorney. The prosecution 
must prove beyond a reasonable doubt the guilt 
of the accused for each offense charged. Of 
course, such burden of proof is relieved by a plea 
of guilty. The many duties of the trial counsel vary 
widely beginning at the time of assignment to the 
trial. The duties change throughout the prepara- 
tion for trial, the trial itself, and the preparation 
and disposition of the record of trial. 

All accused persons have the right to be 
represented before special and general courts- 
martial by defense counsel. This counsel may be 
a civilian or military lawyer selected by the 
accused or may be a defense counsel appointed 
by the convening authority. If a civilian counsel 
is selected, the accused must pay the counsel's 
expenses. If the accused prefers to select counsel, 
the detailed counsel and assistant counsel act as 
associate counsel if the accused so desires; other- 
wise, they may be excused. 

Some of the duties of the defense counsel are 
as follows: 

• To advise the accused of the right to have 
enlisted membership on the court 

• To explain the meaning and effect of a 
guilty plea, if appropriate 

• To advise the accused of the right to 
introduce evidence; to testify or to remain 
silent; if after findings of guilty are an- 
nounced, to make an unsworn statement 
and to introduce evidence as to matters in 
extenuation and mitigation; and to assert 
any proper defense or objection 

Art. 55. Cruel and Unusual Punishments Pro- 
hibited 

This article prohibits any cruel or unusual 
punishment. In particular, courts-martial are 
forbidden to award sentences that include whip- 
ping, branding, marking, or tattooing the body. 
The use of irons is also prohibited, except for the 
purpose of safe custody. 

PUNITIVE ARTICLES OF THE UCMJ 

The punitive articles of the UCMJ are those 
numbered 77 through 134. They are the laws of 



Congress telling you what you must do and must 
not do, under pain of punishment. 

What about civil laws? Can you be given 
military punishment for nonmilitary offenses? 
Yes, you can. For example, the only UCMJ 
regulations against drunkenness are for drunken 
driving and being drunk on duty. Many civilian 
communities, though, have laws against drunken- 
ness in public. If you are found guilty in civil court 
and spend time in jail for being drunk in public, 
the Navy can try you for being absent without 
leave (UCMJ, article 86) and for bringing discredit 
upon the Navy (UCMJ, article 134). 

If you willfully refuse to pay just debts, you 
will be warned to pay them by your commanding 
officer. Continued failure to pay your debts can 
lead to an undesirable type of discharge. The Navy 
has no use for people who do not exhibit integrity 
and honesty. On the other hand, if you are being 
gouged by unscrupulous dealers, see your legal 
officer for assistance. 

The punitive articles that follow are those you 
are required to know. If you have any questions 
about their meaning, ask your division officer for 
guidance. 

Art. 77. Principals 

The mere fact that a person is at the scene of 
a crime does not make the person a principal. To 
be a principal of a crime, the person must be guilty 
of an intent to aid or encourage the persons who 
committed the crime. 

A person who witnesses a crime can be a 
principal. Evidence must show the witness had a 
duty to interfere and the witness's noninterference 
was intended to operate and did operate to 
encourage or protect the perpetrator. 

A person may be a principal even though not 
at the scene of the crime if he or she commanded, 
advised, or obtained another person to commit 
an offense. 

Art. 78. Accessory After the Fact 

Any person subject to this code who, 
knowing that an offense punishable by this 
code has been committed, receives, com- 
forts, or assists the offender in order to 
hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial, 
or punishment shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 

A person who voluntarily gives an escaped 
prisoner provisions that permit him or her to 



6-11 



avoid pursuers becomes an accessory after the fact to the prisoner's escape. 
Provisions include transportation, clothing, money, or any other necessities. 



Art. 79. Conviction of Lesser Included Offense 

An accused may be found guilty of an offense necessarily included 
in the offense charged or of an attempt to commit either the offense 
charged or an offense necessarily included therein. 

A military tribunal may only try a person who has been charged with 
violating a particular article or articles of the UCMJ. Quite simply, if a person 
committed what is considered a crime but the code did not include that crime 
in one of its punitive articles, no court-martial could try him or her. Articles 
77, 78, 80, 81, and 82 of the code, thus, encompass persons who may not 
have taken an active part in or successfully committed an offense. These 
articles permit persons to be tried for being an accomplice in a crime, even 
though the crime isn't included in the UCMJ. 

Article 79 goes a step further by authorizing the finding of guilty of a lesser 
included offense when a finding of guilty cannot be sustained for the offense 
charged. For this reason, a charge has three permissible findings: guilty; not 
guilty; not guilty, but guilty of a violation of article 

The key words in article 79 are "offense necessarily included in the 
offense charged." For example, a violation of article 85 (Desertion) "with 
intent to remain away therefrom permanently" — invariably is also an 
uncharged violation of the lesser charge of article 86 (Absent without leave). 
Proving that an accused deserter had no intention of ever returning might 
be impossible. But the date the person absented himself or herself and the 
date the person (was) returned to military jurisdiction are clear. Thus, many 
deserters are, for lack of proof of intent, found not guilty, but guilty of a 
violation of article 86. 

Other examples of what generally are held to be lesser included offenses 
contained in a principal offense include the following: 

Article Principal Offense Article Lesser Included Offense 

83 Fraudulent enlistment, 3 Jurisdiction to try certain 

appointment, or separa- personnel 

tion 

94 Mutiny 92 Failure to obey lawful order 



94 


Sedition 


116 


Breach of the peace 


95 


Breach of arrest 


134 


Breach of restriction 


118 


Murder 


119 


Manslaughter 


122 


Robbery 


121 


Larceny 


124 


Maiming 


128 


Assauh with a dangerous 
weapon 



6-12 



Art 80. Attempts 

(a) An act, done with specific intent to 
commit an offense under this code, 
amounting to more than mere preparation 
and tending, even though faihng, to effect 
its commission, is an attempt to commit 
that offense. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who attempts to commit any offense 
punishable by this code shall be punished 
as a court-martial may direct, unless other- 
wise specifically prescribed. 

(c) Any person subject to this code 
may be convicted of an attempt to commit 
an offense although it appears on the trial 
that the offense was consummated. 

An accused may be guilty of an attempt even 
though the crime turns out to be impossible to 
commit because of an outside intervening cir- 
cumstance. For example, a pickpocket who puts 
a hand in the pocket of another person with the 
intent to steal a billfold is guilty of an attempt 
to commit larceny, even though the pocket is 
empty. 



Art. 81. Conspiracy 

"Conspiracy" is defined as an agreement 
between two or more persons to commit a crime. 
Conspiracy refers to such a plan by a group whose 
intent usually is to commit a crime of a bold 
nature, such as overthrowing a government. 

The agreement in a conspiracy need not be 
formal. The agreement need only be a common 
understanding in the minds of the parties to 
accompHsh the objective of the conspiracy. 



(b) Any person subject to this code 
who solicits or advises another or others 
to commit an act of misbehavior before the 
enemy in violation of . . . Article 99 or 
sedition in violation of . . . Article 94 
shall, if the offense solicited or advised is 
committed, be punished with the punish- 
ment provided for the commission of the 
offense, but, if the offense solicited or 
advised is not committed, he shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

Solicitation may be accomplished by other 
means than by word of mouth or by writing. Any 
act or conduct that reasonably may be considered 
as a serious request or advice to commit one of 
the offenses named in the article may constitute 
solicitation. The accused may act through other 
persons in committing this offense. 



Art. 83. Fraudulent Enlistment, Appointment, 
or Separation 

Any person who: 

(1) procures his own enlistment 
or appointment in the armed forces 
by knowingly false representation 
or deliberate concealment as to his 
qualifications for that enlistment or 
appointment and receives pay or 
allowances thereunder; or 

(2) procures his own separation 
from the armed forces by knowingly 
false representation or deliberate 
concealment as to his eligibility for 
that separation; 

shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 



Art. 82. Solicitation 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who soUcits or advises another or others 
to desert in violation of . . . article 85 or 
mutiny in violation of . . . Article 94 shall, 
if the offense solicited or advised is 
attempted or committed, be punished with 
the punishment provided for the commis- 
sion of the offense, but, if the offense 
solicited or advised is not committed or 
attempted, he shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 



An essential element of the offense of 
fraudulent enlistment or appointment is that the 
accused shall have received pay or allowances 
while under that enlistment or appointment. 
Acceptance of food, clothing, shelter, or transpor- 
tation from the government constitutes receipt of 
allowances. 

After apprehension, an accused charged with 
having fraudulently obtained separation from a 
branch of the armed forces is subject to the 
UCMJ. The accused is subject to the L^CM/ while 
in the custody of the armed forces and while 
awaiting trial for the fraudulent separation. 



6-13 



Art. 84. Unlawful Enlistment, Appointment, or 
Separation 

Any person subject to this code who effects 
an enlistment or appointment in or a separation 
from the armed forces of any person who is 
known to him to be ineUgible for that enlistment, 
appointment, or separation because it is pro- 
hibited by law, regulation, or order shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 



Art. 85. Desertion 

This article states that members of the armed 
forces who, without permission, leave their place 
of duty or organization with the intent to remain 
away permanently are guilty of desertion. 

The status of an absentee changes to that of 
a deserter after 30 days of absence, or sooner if 
the intent to desert is apparent. For example, 
suppose a Navy member goes ashore without 
permission, taking all personal belongings and 
announcing to shipmates that he or she is leaving 
the service for good. That person could be 
immediately declared a deserter. 

After an individual is declared a deserter, 
notification is forwarded to the next of kin; 
the deserter's hometown police; and various 
other law enforcement agencies, including the 
FBI. Deserters are nearly always caught and 
identified because of nationwide fingerprinting 
and identification practices. Furthermore, ex- 
penses incurred in the return of the deserter to 
military control are chargeable to the returned 
absentee. 

The effects of desertion can be many; some 
can be severe. If tried and convicted of desertion, 
the deserter is almost certainly imprisoned; in time 
of war, the deserter may be executed. A person 
whose conviction of desertion in time of war 
results in a dishonorable discharge can never hold 
any office of trust or profit in the United States 
government. 



Art. 86. Absence Without Leave 

Any member of the armed forces who, 
without authority — 

(1) fails to go to his appointed 
place of duty at the time prescribed; 

(2) goes from that place; or 



(3) absents himself or remains 
absent from his unit, organization, 
or place of duty at which he is re- 
quired to be at the time prescribed; 



shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

This article covers every case not provided for 
in the other punitive articles in which an armed 
forces member, through that member's own fault, 
is not in a required location at a specified time. 
As opposed to desertion, whether or not the 
member intended to remain away makes no 
difference. The intent is expressed by the 
member's absence. 

Make sure you avoid the bad habit of taking 
the last bus, train, or plane when returning from 
leave. Always allow time for unexpected delays. 



Art. 87. Missing Movement 

Any person subject to this code who 
through neglect or design misses the move- 
ment of a ship, aircraft, or unit with which 
he is required in the course of duty to move 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Provisions of article 87 should be self- 
explanatory. However, note that the violator, to 
be found guilty, need not have known the exact 
hour or even the exact date of the scheduled move- 
ment. If a person had knowledge of only the 
approximate date, the court may convict the 
absentee on the charge of missing movement. 
Missing ship is a serious offense to the Navy. It 
leaves the ship shorthanded and requires 
somebody to do the absentee's work and stand 
the absentee's watches. 



Art. 88. Contempt Toward Officials 

Any commissioned officer who uses 
contemptuous words against the President, 
■^ the Vice President, Congress, the Secretary 
of Defense, the Secretary of a military 
department, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
or the Governor or legislature of any State, 
Territory, Commonwealth, or possession 
in which he is on duty or present shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 



6-14 



Art. 89. Disrespect Toward Superior Commis- 
sioned Officer 

Any person subject to this code who 
behaves with disrespect toward his superior 
commissioned officer shall be punished as 
a court-martial may direct. 

A superior commissioned officer is a commis- 
sioned officer who is superior in rank or com- 
mand. Disrespect includes insulting words, 
insolence, impertinence, undue familiarity or 
other rudeness, and failing to salute. 

Art. 90. Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying 
Superior Commissioned Officer 

Any person subject to this code who — 

(1) strikes his superior commis- 
sioned officer or lifts up any 
weapon or offers any violence 
against him while he is in the 
execution of his office; or 

(2) willfully disobeys a lawful 
command of his superior commis- 
sioned officer; 

shall be punished, if the offense is 
committed in time of war, by death or such 
other punishment as a court-martial may 
direct, and if the offense is committed at 
any other time, by such punishment, other 
than death, as a court-martial may direct. 

An officer is in the "execution of his office" 
when performing any act the officer is required 
or authorized to do. Note that the article is not 
confined to striking a superior commissioned 
officer; it takes in brandishing a weapon or 
waving a fist under the officer's nose. 

Willful disobedience, as used here, means 
intentional defiance of a lawful order. You must 
presume that any order given by an officer is legal. 
If you disobey because you think otherwise, you 
do so at your own risk. It is better to do your 
questioning after you have carried out the order. 

Art. 91. Insubordinate Conduct Toward Warrant 
Officer, Noncommissioned Officer, or 
Petty Officer 

Any warrant officer or enlisted member 
who — 

(1) strikes or assaults a warrant 
officer, noncommissioned officer, 
or petty officer, while that officer 
is in execution of his office; 



(2) willfully disobeys the lawful 
order of a warrant officer, non- 
commissioned officer, or petty of- 
ficer; or 

(3) treats with contempt or is 
disrespectful in language or deport- 
ment toward a warrant officer, 
noncommissioned officer, or petty 
officer, while that officer is in the 
execution of his office; 

shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

This article has the same general objectives 
with respect to warrant officers, noncommis- 
sioned officers, and petty officers as articles 89 
and 90 have with respect to commissioned of- 
ficers. Namely, it ensures obedience to their lawful 
orders and protects them from violence, insult, 
or disrespect. 



Art. 92. Failure To Obey Order or Regulation 

Any person subject to this code who — 

(1) violates or fails to obey any 
lawful general order or regulation; 

(2) having knowledge of any 
other lawful order issued by a 
member of the armed forces, which 
it is his duty to obey, fails to obey 
the order; or 

(3) is derelict in the perform- 
ance of his duties; 

shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

A general order or regulation is one that 
applies generally to an armed force. It may be 
issued by the President or the Secretary of 
Defense, the Secretary of Transportation, or the 
Secretary of a military department. It may also 
be issued by an officer having general court- 
martial jurisdiction, a general or flag officer in 
command, or a commander superior to one of 
these. 

Disobedience of "any other lawful order" 
requires that the person must have had a duty to 
obey the order and must have had knowledge of 
the order. An accused may be charged with 
disobedience of the lawful order of one not a 
superior, provided the accused had a duty to obey 



6-15 



such order. Examples are lawful orders of a 
sentinel or of members of the armed forces police. 
Dereliction in the performance of duties 
occurs when a person willfully or negligently fails 
to perform them or performs them in a culpably 
inefficient manner. To be culpably inefficient, an 
accused must have had the ability and opportunity 
to perform the assigned duties efficiently, but 
performed them inefficiently nevertheless. 



Art. 93. Cruelty and Maltreatment 

Any person subject to this code who is 
guilty of cruelty toward, or oppression or 
maltreatment of, any person subject to his 
orders shall be punished as a court-martial 
may direct. 

The cruelty, oppression, or maltreatment must 
be real, although not necessarily physical. To 
assault and to subject to improper punishment are 
examples of this offense. The assignment of 
necessary or proper duties and the requirement 
for their correct performance will not constitute 
this offense even though such duties are arduous 
or hazardous or both. 



Art. 94. Mutiny or Sedition 

There are two distinct types of mutiny, both 
requiring an intent to usurp (to seize and hold by 
force without the legal right or authority) or over- 
ride military authority. One type would be the 
creation of violence or disturbance with the 
intent to commit mutiny. This act may be 
committed by one person acting alone or by more 
than one. The other type of mutiny consists of 
a refusal in concert (in agreement) with any other 
person to obey or otherwise do one's duty. This 
second type of mutiny constitutes what is termed 
collective insubordination; it necessarily includes 
some combination of two or more persons in 
resisting lawful military authority. 



Art. 95. Resistance, Breach of Arrest, and 
Escape 

Any person subject to this code who 
resists apprehension or breaks arrest or 
who escapes from custody or confinement 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 



Art. 96. Releasing Prisoner Without Proper 
Authority 

Any person subject to this code who, 
without proper authority, releases any 
prisoner committed to his charge, or who 
through neglect or design suffers any such 
prisoner to escape, shall be punished as a 
court-martial may direct, whether or not 
the prisoner was committed in strict 
compliance with law. 



Art. 97. Unlawful Detention 

Any person subject to this code who, 
except as provided by law, apprehends, 
arrests, or confines any person shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

Any unlawful restraint of another's freedom 
will result in a violation of this article, whether 
or not such action is taken under the appearance 
of authority. 



Art. 98. Noncompliance With Procedural Rules 

Any person subject to this code who — 

(1) is responsible for un- 
necessary delay in the deposition of 
any case of a person accused of an 
offense under this code; or 

(2) knowingly and intentionally 
fails to enforce or comply with any 
provision of this code regulating the 
proceedings before, during, or after 
trial of an accused; 

shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 



Art. 99. Misbehavior Before the Enemy 

Any member of the armed forces who 
before or in the presence of the enemy — 

(1) runs away; 

(2) shamefully abandons, sur- 
renders, or delivers up any com- 
mand, unit, place, or miUtary 
property which it is his duty to 
defend; 



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(3) through disobedience, neg- 
lect, or intentional misconduct 
endangers the safety of any such 
command, unit, place, or mihtary 
property; 

(4) casts away his arms or 
ammunition; 

(5) is guilty of cowardly 
conduct; 

(6) quits his place of duty to 
plunder or pillage; 

(7) causes false alarms in any 
command, unit, or place under 
control of the armed forces; 

(8) willfully fails to do his' 
utmost to encounter, engage, cap- 
ture, or destroy any enemy troops, 
combatants, vessels, aircraft, or 
any other thing, which it is his duty 
so to encounter, engage, capture, 
or destroy; or 

(9) does not afford all practic- 
able relief and assistance to any 
troops, combatants, vessels, or air- 
craft of the armed forces belong- 
ing to the United States or their 
allies when engaged in battle; 

shall be punished by death or such other 
punishment as a court-martial may direct. 



1. 100. Subordinate Compelling Surrender 

Any person subject to this code who 
compels or attempts to compel the com- 
mander of any place, vessel, aircraft, or 
other military property, or of any body of 
members of the armed forces, to give it up 
to an enemy or to abandon it, or who 
strikes the colors or flag to an enemy 
without proper authority, shall be punished 
by death or such other punishment as a 
court-martial may direct. 

Although these offenses are similar to mutiny, 
they do not require concert of action. The com- 
pulsion to surrender must be by acts rather than 
words. To "strike the colors or flag" is to 
surrender. The offense is committed by anyone 
subject to the (/CM/ who assumes the authority 
to surrender a military force or position when that 
person is not authorized to do so either by com- 
petent authority or by the necessities of battle. 



Art. 101. Improper Use of Countersign 

Any person subject to this code who in 
time of war discloses the parole or counter- 
sign to any person not entitled to receive 
it or who gives to another who is entitled 
to receive and use the parole or counter- 
sign a different parole or countersign from 
that which, to his knowledge, he was 
authorized and required to give, shall be 
punished by death or such other punish- 
ment as a court-martial may direct. 

A "countersign" is a word designated by the 
principal headquarters of a command to aid 
guards and sentinels in their scrutiny of persons 
who apply to pass the lines. It consists of a secret 
challenge and a password. A "parole" is a word 
used as a check on the countersign; it is imparted 
only to those who are entitled to inspect guards 
and to commanders of guards. 

Art. 102. Forcing a Safeguard 

Any person subject to this code who 
forces a safeguard shall suffer death or 
such other punishment as a court-martial 
may direct. 

A "safeguard" is a detachment, guard, or 
detail posted by a commander. It protects persons, 
places, or property of the enemy or of a neutral 
affected by the relationship of the opposing forces 
in their prosecution of war or during a state of 
conflict. The term also includes a written order 
left by a commander with an enemy subject or 
posted upon enemy property for the protection 
of the individual or property concerned. The 
effect of a safeguard is a pledge of honor by a 
nation that its armed force will respect the person 
or property concerned. 

Art. 103. Captured or Abandoned Property 

(a) All persons subject to this code 
shall secure all public property taken from 
the enemy for the service of the United 
States, and shall give notice and turn over 
to the proper authority without delay all 
captured or abandoned property in their 
possession, custody, or control. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who — 

(1) fails to carry out the duties 
prescribed in subsection (a); 



6-17 



(2) buys, sells, trades, or in any 
way deals in or disposes of captured 
or abandoned property, whereby he 
receives or expects any profit, 
benefit, or advantage to himself or 
another directly or indirectly con- 
nected with himself; or 

(3) engages in looting or pil- 
laging; 

shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Immediately upon its capture from the enemy, 
public property becomes the property of the 
United States. Persons subject to military law have 
an immediate duty to take those steps within their 
power and functions to secure such property to 
the service of the United States. They then have 
the duty to protect that property from destruc- 
tion or loss. 

Art. 104. Aiding the Enemy 

Any person who — 

(1) aids, or attempts to aid, the 
enemy with arms, ammunition, 
supplies, money or other things; or 

(2) without proper authority, 
knowingly harbors or protects or 
gives intelligence to, or com- 
municates or corresponds with or 
holds any intercourse with the 
enemy, either directly or indirectly; 

shall suffer death or such other punishment 
as a court-martial or military commission 
may direct. 

This article applies to all persons whether or not 
they are otherwise subject to military law. "Enemy" 
denotes citizens as well as members of military 
organizations. All the citizens of hostile nations, 
as well as their government, are our enemies. 

Art. 105. Misconduct as Prisoner 

Misconduct covers unauthorized conduct by 
a prisoner of war that tends to improve his or her 
condition to the detriment of other prisoners. 
Such acts may be the reporting of plans to escape 
or the reporting of secret caches of food, equip- 
ment, or arms. The acts must be related to the 
captors and tend to have the probable effect of 
bestowing upon the accused some favor with, or 
advantage from, the captors. The act of the 
accused must be contrary to law, custom, or 
regulation. For example, the escape of a prisoner 



might result in closer confinement or other 
measures against fellow prisoners still in the hands 
of the enemy. Such escape, however, is not an 
offense under this article, as escape from the 
enemy is regarded as authorized by custom. 

Art. 106. Spies 

Any person who in time of war is found 
lurking as a spy or acting as a spy in or 
about any place, vessel, or aircraft, within 
the control or jurisdiction of any of the 
armed forces, or in or about any shipyard, 
any manufacturing or industrial plant, or 
any other place or institution engaged in 
work in aid of the prosecution of the war 
by the United States, or elsewhere, shall 
be tried by a general court-martial or by 
a military commission and on conviction 
shall be punished by death. 

The words "any person" bring within the 
jurisdiction of courts-martial and military com- 
missions all persons of whatever nationality or 
status who commit the offense of spying. 

Art. 107. False Official Statements 

Any person subject to this code who, 
with intent to deceive, signs any false 
record, return, regulation, order, or other 
official document, knowing it to be false, 
or makes any other false official statement 
knowing it to be false, shall be punished 
as a court-martial may direct. 

Several articles of the (7CM7 provide for the 
punishment of untruths: articles 83 and 84 
(Fraudulent and unlawful enlistment, appoint- 
ment, or separation), article 107 (False official 
statements), article 131 (Perjury), and article 132 
(Fraud). You can see how highly truth is regarded 
in the military service. 

A statement, whether oral or in writing, is 
official when it is made pursuant to regulations. 
A statement is also official when made in response 
to a request or question from one's commanding 
officer or a person acting under the commanding 
officer's authority. Official statements thus 
include all those made in the line of duty. 

Art. 108. Military Property of the United 
States — Loss, Damage, Destruction, 
or Wrongful Disposition 

Any person subject to this code who, 
without proper authority — 

(1) sells or otherwise disposes of ; 



6-18 



(2) willfully or through neglect 
damages, destroys, or loses; or 

(3) willfully or through neglect 
suffers to be lost, damaged, 
destroyed, sold, or wrongfully 
disposed of; 

any military property of the United States, 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Whether the property in question was issued 
to the accused, whether it was issued to someone 
other than the accused, or whether it was issued 
at all is immaterial. 

"Willful" means intentional. "Neglect" 
means inattention to duty or failure to take 
action that, under the circumstances, should have 
been taken to prevent the loss, destruction, or 
damage. 

Art. 109. Property Other Than Military Property 
of United States — Waste, Spoilage, or 
Destruction 

Any person subject to this code who 
willfully or recklessly wastes, spoils, or 
otherwise willfully and wrongfully destroys 
or damages any property other than 
military property of the United States shall 
be punished as a court-martial may direct. 

"Wastes" and "spoils" refer to wrongful acts 
of voluntary destruction, such as burning down 
buildings, burning piers, tearing down fences, or 
cutting down trees. To be destroyed, property 
need be only sufficiently injured to be useless for 
the purpose for which it was intended. "Damage" 
consists of any physical injury to the property. 
The property must be other than military property 
of the United States and must belong to one other 
than the accused. 

Art. 110. Improper Hazarding of Vessel 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who willfully and wrongfully hazards or 
suffers to be hazarded any vessel of the 
armed forces shall suffer death or such 
other punishment as a court-martial may 
direct. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who negligently hazards or suffers to be 
hazarded any vessel of the armed forces 



shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

The word "suffers" means to allow or permit. 
A person "suffers" a ship to be hazarded who, 
although not in direct control of the vessel, knows 
a danger to be imminent but takes no steps to pre- 
vent it. For example, a plotting officer of a ship 
underway inadvertently fails to report observa- 
tion of a radar target on a colhsion course with, 
and dangerously close to, the ship. The officer 
has neghgently suffered the ship to be hazarded. 

Art. 111. Drunken or Reckless Driving 

Any person subject to this code who 
operates any vehicle while drunk, or in a 
reckless or wanton manner, shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

Operating a vehicle includes not only driving 
or guiding it while in motion. It also includes the 
setting of its motive power in action or the 
manipulating of its controls to cause the vehicle 
to move. The term "vehicle" applies to all types 
of land transportation, whether motor-driven or 
passenger-carrying. Drunken or reckless opera- 
tion of water or air transportation may be charged 
as a violation of article 134. For the meaning of 
"drunk," see the remarks following article 112. 

Art. 112. Drunk on Duty 

Any person subject to this code, other 
than a sentinel or lookout, who is found 
drunk on duty, shall be punished as a 
court-martial may direct. 

The term "on duty" in article 112 refers to 
routine or detailed duties on board a ship or 
station. The term does not cover periods of leave 
or liberty (which come under a different article), 
but does include duties of a standby nature. A 
person whose mental or physical abilities are 
impaired by either liquor or drugs may be con- 
sidered drunk. 

Art. 112a. Wrongful Use, Possession, etc., of 
Controlled Substances 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who wrongfully uses, possesses, manufac- 
tures, distributes, imports into the customs 
territory of the United States, exports from 
the United States, or introduces into an 



6-19 



installation, vessel, vehicle, or aircraft used 
by or under the control of the armed forces 
a substance described in subsection (b) 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

(b) The substances referred to in 
subsection (a) are the following: 

(1) Opium, heroin, cocaine, 
amphetamine, lysergic acid 
diethylamide, methamphetamine, 
phencyclidine, barbituric acid, and 
marijuana and any compound or 
derivative of any such substance. 

(2) Any substance not specified 
in clause (1) that is listed on a 
schedule of controlled substances 
prescribed by the President for the 
purposes of this article. 

(3) Any other substance not 
specified in clause (1) or contained 
on a list prescribed by the President 
under clause (2) that is listed in 
schedules I through V of section 
202 of the Controlled Substances 
Act (21 U.S.C. 812). 

Art. 113. Misbehavior of Sentinel 



But being drunk while on duty as a sentinel or 
lookout in time of war might endanger every 
person in the command. 



Art. 114. Dueling 

Any person subject to this code who 
fights or promotes, or is concerned in or 
connives at fighting a duel, or who, having 
knowledge of a challenge sent or about to 
be sent, fails to report the fact promptly 
to the proper authority, shall be punished 
as a court-martial may direct. 



Art. 115. Malingering 

Any person subject to this code who for 
the purpose of avoiding work, duty, or 
service — 

(1) feigns illness, physical dis- 
ablement, mental lapse or derange- 
ment; or 

(2) intentionally inflicts self- 
injury; 



Any sentinel or lookout who is found 
drunk or sleeping upon his post, or leaves 
it before he is regularly relieved, shall be 
punished, if the offense is committed in 
time of war, by death or such other punish- 
ment as a court-martial may direct, but if 
the offense is committed at any other time, 
by such punishment other than death as a 
court-martial may direct. 



shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

"MaUngering" is an offense defined as any 
act to avoid duty by pretending to be ill or 
physically/mentally disabled. 



Art. 116. Riot or Breach of Peace 



A post is not limited by some actual or 
imaginary line, nor is it confined to those times 
when you may be on watch as a sentry. This article 
covers all periods when you are standing a watch 
of any kind, such as guarding stores or prisoners 
or acting as a bow lookout. It also covers periods 
when you are performing any other duty that 
requires you to remain alert at all times. 

A sentinel on post who is found asleep or 
drunk is guilty of a serious offense; in time of war, 
the offense may be punishable by death. For 
persons in the armed forces, drunkenness is 
prejudicial to good order and discipline whenever 
and wherever it appears. Being drunk in public, 
whether a person is in uniform or civilian clothes, 
may bring discredit upon the service, while being 
drunk on station is a breach of military discipline. 



Any person subject to this code who 
causes or participates in any riot or breach 
of the peace shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 

The term "riot" is used when a disturbance 
is caused by a group of three or more persons 
engaged in a concerted action against anyone who 
may oppose them. 

"Breach of the peace" is an unlawful disturb- 
ance by violent or turbulent means that disturbs 
the peace of the community. Engaging in a fight 
or using abusive words in public are examples of 
breach of the peace. As used in this article, 
"community" includes any military installation 
or ship as well as a civilian community. 



6-20 



Art. 117. Provoking Speeches or Gestures 

Any person subject to this code who 
uses provoking or reproachful words or 
gestures towards any other person subject 
to this code shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 

"Provoking" and "reproachful" describe 
those words or gestures used in the presence of 
the person to whom they are directed which tend 
to induce breaches of the peace. They do not 
include reprimands, censures, reproofs, and the 
Hke, which may properly be administered in the 
interests of training, efficiency, or discipline in 
the armed forces. 



Art. 118. Murder 

Any person subject to this code who, 
without justification or excuse, unlawfully 
kills a human being, when he — 

(1) has a premeditated design 
to kill; 

(2) intends to kill or inflict great 
bodily harm; 

(3) is engaged in an act which 
is inherently dangerous to others 
and evinces a wanton disregard of 
human life; or 

(4) is engaged in the perpetra- 
tion or attempted perpetration of 
burglary, sodomy, rape, robbery, 
or aggravated arson; 

is guilty of murder, and shall suffer such 
punishment as a court-martial may direct, 
except that if found guihy under clause (1) 
or (4), he shall suffer death or imprison- 
ment for life as a court-martial may direct. 



Art. 119. Manslaughter 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who, with an intent to kill or inflict great 
bodily harm, unlawfully kills a human 
being in the heat of sudden passion caused 
by adequate provocation is guilty of 
voluntary manslaughter and shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who, without an intent to kill or inflict 



great bodily harm, unlawfully kills a 
human being — 

(1) by culpable negligence; or 

(2) while perpetrating or at- 
tempting to perpetrate an offense, 
other than those named in clause (4) 
of . . . Article 118, directly affect- 
ing the person; 

is guilty of involuntary manslaughter and 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of 
another. There are two basic types of man- 
slaughter: voluntary and involuntary. 

Voluntary manslaughter is the unlawful killing 
of another when there is an intent to kill or 
inflict great bodily harm, but the act is committed 
in the heat of sudden passion caused by adequate 
provocation. 

Involuntary manslaughter is the unlawful kill- 
ing of another committed without an intent to kill 
or inflict great bodily harm. 

Art. 120. Rape and Carnal Knowledge 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who commits an act of sexual intercourse 
with a female not his wife, by force and 
without her consent, is guilty of rape and 
shall be punished by death or such other 
punishment as a court-martial may direct. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who, under circumstances not amounting 
to rape, commits an act of sexual inter- 
course with a female not his wife who has 
not attained the age of sixteen years, is 
guilty of carnal knowledge and shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

(c) Penetration, however slight, is suf- 
ficient to complete these offenses. 

Art. 121. Larceny and Wrongful Appropriation 

"Larceny" is stealing something and keeping 
it; "wrongful appropriation" is taking something 
not your own, but only temporarily. Legally, 
taking or withholding is wrong if done without 
the consent of the owner; obtaining usually 
implies getting something under false pretenses. 
All of these meanings denote theft. 

The most common example of larceny, of 
course, is outright theft. An example of obtaining 
something under false pretenses is to obtain a 



6-21 



radio from a person who borrowed it from the 
owner, saying you will return it to the owner, but 
instead, seUing it. 

An example of wrongful appropriation is 
taking someone's car without permission and 
going for a joyride, later returning or abandoning 
the car. 

Art. 122. Robbery 

Any person subject to this code who 
with intent to steal takes anything of value 
from the person or in the presence of 
another, against his will, by means of force 
or violence or fear of immediate or future 
injury to his person or property or to the 
person or property of a relative or member 
of his family or of anyone in his company 
at the time of the robbery, is guilty of 
robbery and shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 

When a robbery is committed by force or 
violence, evidence must exist of actual force or 
violence to the victim preceding or accompanying 
the taking against the victim's will. Whether or 
not fear is engendered in the victim is immaterial. 

When a robbery is committed by means of 
fear, no evidence is required of actual force or 
violence. However, evidence of demonstrations 
of force or menaces that place the victim in such 
fear that the victim is warranted in offering no 
resistance is required. 

Art. 123. Forgery 

Any person subject to this code who, 
with intent to defraud — 

(1) falsely makes or alters any 
signature to, or any part of, any 
writing which would, if genuine, 
apparently impose a legal liability 
on another or change his legal right 
or liability to his prejudice; or 

(2) utters, offers, issues, or 
transfers such a writing, known by 
him to be so made or altered; 

is guilty of forgery and shall be punished 
as a court-martial may direct. 

A forgery may be committed by a person's 
signing his or her own name to an instrument. For 
example, presume a check payable to the order 
of a certain person comes into the hands of 



another person of the same name. The receiver 
commits forgery if, knowing the check to be 
another person's, he or she endorses it with his 
or her own name with the intent to defraud. 

Some of the instruments most frequently 
subject to forgery are checks, orders for delivery 
of money or goods, military orders directing 
travel, and receipts. A writing may be falsely 
"made" by materially altering an existing writing; 
by filling in or signing the blanks in a paper, such 
as a blank check; or by signing an instrument 
already written. 

Art. 123a. Making, Drawing, or Uttering Check, 
Draft, or Order Without Sufficient 
Funds 

This article provides specific statutory auth- 
ority for the prosecution of bad check offenses. 
In the absence of evidence indicating otherwise, 
bad faith might be shown by the maker's or 
drawer's failure to effect redemption within the 
5-day period provided for in the article. The 
offense of wrongfully and dishonorably failing 
to maintain sufficient funds for payment of 
checks upon presentment is a violation of article 
134. This offense is a lesser included offense under 
article 123, not requiring proof of fraudulent 
intent. 

Art. 124. Maiming 

Any person subject to this code who, 
with intent to injure, disfigure, or disable, 
inflicts upon the person of another an 
injury, which — 

(1) seriously disfigures his per- 
son by any mutilation thereof; 

(2) destroys or disables any 
member or organ of his body; or 

(3) seriously diminishes his 
physical vigor by the injury of any 
member or organ; 

is guilty of maiming and shall be punished 
as a court-martial may direct. 

Maiming includes putting out a person's eye; 
"cutting off a person's hand, foot, or finger; or 
knocking out a person's front teeth, as these 
injuries destroy or disable those members or 
organs. Maiming also includes cutting off a per- 
son's ear or scaring a person's face, as these 
injuries seriously disfigure the person. Injuring 
an internal organ so as to seriously diminish the 



6-22 



physical vigor of a person is also considered 
maiming. 

The disfigurement, diminishment of vigor, or 
destruction or disablement of any member or 
organ must be a serious injury, one of a sub- 
stantially permanent nature. However, the offense 
is complete if such an injury is inflicted, even 
though the victim may eventually recover the use 
of the member or organ or the disfigurement may 
be cured by surgery. 

Art. 125. Sodomy 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who engages in unnatural carnal copula- 
tion with another person of the same or 
opposite sex or with an animal is guilty of 
sodomy. Penetration, however slight, is 
sufficient to complete the offense. 

(b) Any person found guilty of sodomy 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Any unnatural method of carnal copulation 
is prohibited by this article. Any penetration, 
however slight, is sufficient to complete the 
offense; emission is not necessary. 

Art. 126. Arson 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who willfully and maliciously burns or sets 
on fire an inhabited dwelling, or any other 
structure, movable or immovable, wherein 
to the knowledge of the offender there is 
at the time a human being, is guilty of 
aggravated arson and shall be punished as • 
a court-martial may direct. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who willfully and maHciously burns or sets 
fire to the property of another, except as 
provided in subsection (a), is guilty of 
simple arson and shall be punished as a 
court-martial may direct. 

In aggravated arson, danger to human life is 
the essential element; in simple arson, it is injury 
to the property of another. In either case, the fact 
that no one is injured is immaterial. 

Art. 127. Extortion 

Any person subject to this code who 
communicates threats to another person 
with the intention thereby to obtain 



anything of value or any acquittance, 
advantage, or immunity is guilty of extor- 
tion and shall be punished as a court- 
martial may direct. 

A threat may be communicated by word of 
mouth or in writing, the essential element of the 
offense being the knowledge of the threat to the 
victim. An acquittance is, in general terms, a 
release, or discharge from an obligation. An 
intent to obtain any advantage or immunity of 
any description may include an intent to make a 
person do an act unwillingly. 

The threat sufficient to constitute extortion 
may be a threat against the person or property 
of the individual threatened. It may also be a 
threat of unlawful injury or any other harm to 
any family member or other person held dear to 
the victim. 

Art. 128. Assault 

(a) Any person subject to this code 
who attempts or offers with unlawful force 
or violence to do bodily harm to another 
person, whether or not the attempt or offer 
is consummated, is guilty of assault and 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

(b) Any person subject to this code 
who — 

(1) commits an assault with a 
dangerous weapon or other means 
of force likely to produce death or 
grievous bodily harm; or 

(2) commits an assault and 
intentionally inflicts grievous bodily 
harm with or without a weapon; 

is guilty of aggravated assault and shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

Section (a) describes the offense of simple 
assault. Swinging your fist, pointing a gun at a 
person, or raising a club over someone's head, 
even though no harm is actually done, is each an 
act of simple assault. When the threat is 
consummated and force is applied to the victim, 
the offense becomes assault and battery. 

Section (b) describes aggravated assault, of 
which there are two types. The first is assault with 
a dangerous weapon and other means of force 
hkely to kill or grievously harm the victim (like 
shoving a person over the fantail). The second 
type takes place when an assailant intentionally 



6-23 



inflicts severe bodily harm, with or without a 
weapon. If, after you have knocked an individual 
down, you repeatedly kick him or her so as to 
break the person's ribs, you have committed 
aggravated assault. 

Art. 129. Burglary 

Any person subject to this code who, 
with intent to commit an offense punish- 
able under . . . Articles 118-128, breaks 
and enters, in the nighttime, the dwelling 
house of another, is guilty of burglary and 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

The house must be a dwelling place at the time 
of the breaking and entry, but the residents do 
not have to actually be in it. A simple act such 
as opening a closed door or window or some other 
similar fixture or cutting out the glass of a window 
or the netting of a screen constitutes breaking 
Entry gained through a trick, false pretense, 
impersonation, intimidation, or collusion also 
constitutes breaking. For the intruder to succeed 
in carrying out the intent for which the house was 
broken into is not an essential element. 

Art. 130. Housebreaking 

Any person subject to this code who 
unlawfully enters the building or structure 
of another with intent to commit a criminal 
offense therein is guilty of housebreaking 
and shall be punished as a court-martial 
may direct. 

The initial entering must amount to trespass- 
ing; this article is not violated if the accused 
entered the building or structure lawfully, even 
though the person had the intent to commit an 
offense therein. This offense is broader than 
burglary in that the place entered need not be a 
dwelling house; also, the place need not be 
occupied. A breaking is not essential. The entry 
may be either in the nighttime or in the daytime. 
The criminal intent is not limited to those offenses 
punishable under articles 118 through 128. 

Art. 131. Perjury 

Any person subject to this code who in 
a judicial proceeding or in a course of 
justice willfully and corruptly gives, upon 
a lawful oath or in any form allowed by 



law to be substituted for an oath, any false 
testimony material to the issue or matter 
of inquiry is guilty of perjury and shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

"Judicial proceeding" includes a trial by 
court-martial, and "course of justice" includes 
an investigation conducted under article 32. 

For false testimony to be "willfully and 
corruptly" given, the accused must appear not to 
believe his or her testimony to be true. 

The false testimony must be with respect to 
a material matter, but that matter need not be the 
main issue in the case. Thus, a person may 
commit perjury by giving false testimony about 
the credibility of a material witness, as well as by 
giving false testimony concerning either direct or 
circumstantial evidence. 

Art. 132. Frauds Against the United States 

This article deals with frauds against the 
United States. It pertains to making false claims 
against the government to obtain money or 
property. 

It also pertains to the offense of making a 
writing or other paper known to contain a false 
statement for the purpose of obtaining the 
approval, allowance, or payment of a claim. The 
offense is complete when the writing or paper is 
made for that purpose, whether or not the use of 
either one has been attempted and whether or not 
the claim has been presented. 

Art. 133. Conduct Unbecoming an Officer and 
a Gentleman 

Any commissioned officer, cadet, or 
midshipman who is convicted of conduct 
unbecoming an officer and a gentleman 
shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Art. 134. General Article 

Though not specifically mentioned in 
this code, all disorders and neglects to the 
prejudice of good order and disciphne in 
'^ the armed forces, all conduct of a nature 
to bring discredit upon the armed forces, 
and crimes and offenses not capital, of 
which persons subject to this code may be 
guilty, shall be taken cognizance of by a 
general, special, or summary court-martial, 
according to the nature and degree of the 



6-24 



offense, and shall be punished at the discre- 
tion of that court. 

Article 134 makes punishable acts or omissions 
not specifically mentioned in other articles. They 
include wearing an improper uniform, abusive use 
of a military vehicle, the careless discharge of a 
firearm, and impersonating an officer. They also 
include offenses involving official passes, permits, 
and certificates, and the wrongful possession of 
a habit-forming narcotic drug. 

"Discredit" means to injure the reputation of; 
that is, to bring the service into disrepute. 
Examples include acts in violation of state or 
foreign laws, failure to pay one's debts, adultery, 
bigamy, and indecent acts. 

Crimes and offenses not capital include those 
acts or omissions, not punishable by another 
article, denounced as crimes or offenses by enact- 
ments of Congress or under authority of Congress 
and made triable in the federal civil courts. Cer- 
tain of such offenses are made punishable 
wherever committed; others are punishable only 
if committed within the geographical boundaries 
of the areas in which they are apphcable. 

Art. 137. Articles To Be Explained 

Articles 2, 3, 7-15, 25, 27, 31, 37, 38, 
55, 77-134 and 137-139 of this code shall 
be carefully explained to each enlisted 
member at the time of his entrance on 
active duty, or within six days thereafter. 
They shall be explained again after he has 
completed six months of active duty, and 
again at the time when he reenlists. A 
complete text of the Uniform Code of 
Military Justice and of the regulations 
prescribed by the President thereunder 
shall be made available to any person on 
active duty upon his request, for his per- 
sonal examination. 

Art. 138. Complaints of Wrongs 

Any member of the armed forces who 
believes himself wronged by his command- 
ing officer, and who, upon due application 
to that commanding officer, is refused 
redress, may complain to any superior 
commissioned officer, who shall forward 
the complaint to the officer exercising 
general court-martial jurisdiction over the 
officer against whom it is made. The 



officer exercising general court-martial 
jurisdiction shall examine into the com- 
plaint and take proper measures for 
redressing the wrong complained of; and 
he shall, as soon as possible, send to the 
Secretary concerned a true statement of 
that complaint, with the proceedings had 
thereon. 

This article provides for redress of wrongs 
inflicted by a commanding officer on subor- 
dinates, and it prescribes the procedure to be 
followed by subordinates to apply for such 
redress. 



Art. 139. Redress of Injuries to Property 

(a) Whenever complaint is made to any 
commanding officer that willful damage 
has been done to the property of any 
person or that his property has been 
wrongfully taken by members of the armed 
forces, he may, under such regulations as 
the Secretary concerned may prescribe, 
convene a board to investigate the com- 
plaint. The board shall consist of from one 
to three commissioned officers and, for the 
purpose of that investigation, it has power 
to summon witnesses and examine them 
upon oath, to receive depositions or other 
documentary evidence, and to assess the 
damages sustained against the responsible 
parties. The assessment of damages made 
by the board is subject to the approval of 
the commanding officer, and in the 
amount approved by him shall be charged 
against the pay of the offenders. The order 
of the commanding officer directing 
charges herein authorized is conclusive on 
any disbursing officer for the payment by 
him to the injured parties of the damages 
so assessed and approved. 

(b) If the offenders cannot be ascer- 
tained, but the organization or detachment 
to which they belong is known, charges 
totaling the amount of damages assessed 
and approved may be made in such 
proportion as may be considered just upon 
the individual members thereof who are 
shown to have been present at the scene at 
the time the damages complained of were 
inflicted, as determined by the approved 
findings of the board. 



6-25 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE UCMJ 

The UCMJ gives the rules and regulations that 
should govern our behavior. These rules, as with 
any rules, however, are not always obeyed. When 
these rules are broken, the offender must be 
punished. This is done according to the provisions 
of article 15 (Commanding officer's nonjudicial 
punishment) or, in some cases, by courts- 
martial. 



Nonjudicial Punishment 

Commanding officer's nonjudicial punish- 
ment is often referred to as captain's mast. 
Captain's mast gets its name from the old sailing 
days when the setting for this form of naval 
justice was the weather deck near the ship's 
mainmast. 

Cases are heard and punishments given at 
captain's mast. Anyone who is not attached to 
or embarked in a vessel may, however, demand 
trial by court-martial in lieu of punishment at 
mast, before such punishment is imposed. Anyone 
attached to a vessel may not request trial by court- 
martial in Heu of captains's mast. 

The punishments permitted at captain's mast 
depend upon the rank of the officer holding mast. 
Figure 6-2 shows the punishment that may be 
awarded. 

A commanding officer who decides an offense 
deserves a punishment more severe than he or she 
is authorized to award at mast may order a court- 
martial. 

The following paragraphs explain some of the 
punishments that may be given at captain's 
mast. 



RESTRICTION.— Restriction is the require- 
ment to remain within certain specified limits 
(ship, station, etc.). Although required to 
muster at certain times, the restricted person 
usually continues to perform his or her regular 
duties. 



extra duties or hard labor. A typical example is 
an individual who is free to carry out regular 
duties during the day but is confined in the brig 
at night. 



CONFINEMENT ON BREAD AND WATER 
OR DIMINISHED RATIONS.— Confinement 
on bread and water or diminished rations may be 
imposed only on enhsted persons aboard ship. 
Correctional custody and confinement on bread 
and water may be imposed only on enlisted per- 
sons below the rank of petty officer. 



EXTRA DUTY.— Extra duty is the assign- 
ment of any duty (except guard duty) to be 
performed after the person's regular working 
hours. Extra duty is not to exceed 2 hours daily 
or to be performed on holidays. Petty officers 
may not be assigned extra duties that would 
demean their grade or position. 



FORFEITURE OF PAY —Forfeiture of pay 
is a permanent loss of a specified amount or a 
temporary withholding of a certain amount of 
pay. The detention period must be specified. The 
money detained is normally returned at the end 
of the detention period, but it can be detained for 
a period of 1 year. 



DETENTION OF PAY —Detention of pay 
is the temporary withholding of a certain amount 
of pay. The detention period must be specified. 
The money detained is normally returned at the 
end of the detention period, but it can be detained 
for a period of 1 year. 



APPEALS. — If persons consider their punish- 
ment under article 15 to be unjust or out of 
proportion to the offense, they may appeal to the 
next superior authority in the chain of command. 
The appeal must be made within a reasonable time 
(generally 15 days) and promptly forwarded. If 
the superior authority upholds the appeal, all 
^•ights, privileges, and property are restored. 



CORRECTIONAL CUSTODY.— Correc- 
tional custody is the physical restraint (confine- 
ment) of a person during duty or nonduty hours, 
or both. The person may be required to perform 



PROTECTION AGAINST SELF-INCRIMI- 
NATION.— Under article 31 of the UCMJ, 
compulsory self-incrimination is prohibited. The 
accused must be informed of the nature of the 



6-26 







PUNISHMENT IMPOSED BY 


PUNISHMENT 


Flag or general 

officer 

in command 


CO if LCDR 
or above 


CO if below 
LCDR 


OIC— any 

grade 



F 
F 
I 
C 
E 
R 


Admonition or 
reprimand 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Restriction 


60 days 


30 days 


15 days 
-JAG man. 0101- 


No 


Arrest in quarters 


30 days 


No 


No 


No 


Forfeiture of pay 


1/2 of 1 mo. pay 
per mo. for 2 mo. 


No 


No 


No 


Detention of pay 


1/2 of 1 mo. pay 
per mo. for 3 mo. 


No 


No 


No 




Any officer commanding, 
LCDR and above 


Commanding officers below LCDR; 
OICs, any grade 


E 

N 
L 
I 
S 
T 
E 
D 


Admonition or 
reprimand 


Yes 


Yes 


Confinement on 
B&W or dimin- 
ished rations 


3 consecutive days (only on E-3 

and below, aboard ship) 

-JAG Man. 0101- 


3 consecutive days (only on E-3 

and below, aboard ship) 

-JAG Man. 0101- 


Correctional 
custody 


30 consecutive days (only on E-3 

and below) 

-JAG Man. 0101- 


7 consecutive days (only on E-3 

and below) 

-JAG Man. 0101- 


Forfeiture of pay 


1/2 of 1 mo. pay per mo. for 2 mo. 


7 days' pay 


Reduction in 
grade 


To next inferior grade 
-JAG Man. 0101- 


To next inferior grade 


Extra duty 


45 days 


14 days 


Restriction 


60 days 


14 days 


Detention of pay 


1/2 of 1 mo. pay per mo. for 3 mo. 


14 days' pay 



Figure 6-2. — One or more of the maximum punishments authorized by article 15, UCMJ, may be imposed upon military 
personnel of the commands by the categories of commanding officers (including officers in charge) shown above. 
Punishments authorized by article 15 are primarily corrective in nature. 



6-27 



charges against him or her. The accused must also 
be advised that he or she does not have to make 
any statement regarding the offense of which 
accused, but that any statement made may be used 
as evidence against him or her in a trial by court- 
martial. No statement obtained through the use 
of coercion, unlawful influence, or unlawful 
inducement may be used as evidence against the 
accused. 



MERITORIOUS AND REQUEST MASTS.— 

Not all masts are for disciplinary purposes. A 
meritorious mast may be held by the commanding 
officer to give awards or commendations to those 
persons who have earned them. 

Article 1107 of Navy Regs grants the right 
for any person to communicate with the 
commanding officer. You can't just walk up to 
the captain, however, and start talking. Certain 
times are set aside by the CO for the purpose of 
hearing valid requests or complaints from crew 
members. This practice is called request mast. The 
person having a request or grievance should first 
try to resolve the problem with the division 
officer. Failing that, the person may request a 
mast. Usually, the person will talk to the executive 
officer first. If the executive officer cannot 
settle the matter, then the person may see the 
commanding officer. 



Courts-martial 



SPECIAL COURT-MARTIAL (SPCM).— 

A special court-martial (SPCM) consists of not 
less than three members. The accused can request 
that enlisted personnel serve on the court. In that 
event, enlisted personnel make up at least one- 
third of the court membership. When a military 
judge (a qualified lawyer) is detailed to the court, 
the accused has the right to know the identity of 
the military judge. The accused also has the right 
to consult with the defense counsel and to request 
that the court consist of only the military judge. 
The request must be in writing, submitted before 
the court is assembled, and approved by the 
military judge. A special court-martial may award 
the same punishment as a summary court, or it 
may award a more severe punishment. For 
example, it can award a bad conduct discharge, 
confinement for 6 months, loss of two-thirds pay 
per month for 6 months, and hard labor without 
confinement for 3 months. 



GENERAL COURT-MARTIAL (GCM).— 

A general court-martial (GCM) consists of a 
military judge and not less than five members. As 
in a special court-martial, the accused may request 
that enlisted personnel serve on the court. Under 
the conditions described for a special court, the 
accused may request that the court consist of only 
a military judge. A general court-martial can 
award any punishment not forbidden by the 
UCMJ, including death when specifically 
authorized for the offense. 



Based on article 16 of the UCMJ, courts- 
martial are of three types: summary, special, and 
general. The captain decides the type of court- 
martial to award based on the nature, time, and 
place of the offense. 



SUMMARY COURT-MARTIAL (SCM).— 

A summary court-martial (SCM) consists of one 
commissioned officer. If the commanding officer 
is the only officer with the command, that officer 
acts as the summary court officer. A summary 
court can award any sentence that may be given 
at mast. It can also award the additional 
punishments of confinement for 1 month and 
hard labor without confinement for 45 days. Any 
person awarded a summary court-martial will then 
be held, as appropriate. 



STANDARD ORGANIZATION AND 
REGULATIONS OF THE U.S. NAVY 

The Standard Organization and Regulations 
of the U.S. Navy (OPNAVINST 3120. 32B) pro- 
vides regulations and guidance governing the 
conduct of all members of the Navy. This publica- 
tion specifies duties and responsibilities of per- 
sonnel within a unit organization — from the 
commanding officer down to the messenger of the 
watch. 

The information quoted in italicized type in 
this instruction is regulatory; these regulations 
apply to each member of the U.S. Navy. Failure 
to comply with the provisions of the regulatory 
material is punishable in accordance with the 



6-28 



Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). 
Regulatory articles are printed on large posters, 
which are posted in conspicuous locations aboard 
naval units. 

Quoted material in plain type is guidance for 
commanders, commanding officers, and officers 
in charge. 

Because the explanation of these regula- 
tions is beyond the scope of this book, only 
a selected few of the regulatory articles will 
be given as examples. Our concern in this 
section is with chapter 5, "Regulations," of 
the Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy. 



it is subject to customs and other inspec- 
tions by Federal authorities. 

a. On such occasions, customs dec- 
larations will be distributed to all hands in 
sufficient time to be filled out and returned 
before arrival in port. 

b. It shall be the duty of all person- 
nel to complete customs declarations 
accurately prior to arrival in port. 

c. No person, without permission 
from the Commanding Officer, shall bring 
on board any article, animal, or any other 
thing, the introduction of which into U.S. 
territory is forbidden or restricted under 
current regulations. 



510.5 Armed Forces Identification Cards and 
Leave Papers 

No person without proper authority 
shall: 



510.16 Divine Services 

Accessible and appropriate space shall 
be provided for divine services. No person 
shall conduct himself/herself in a manner 
which would interfere with properly 
authorized divine services. 



a. Have in his/her possession more 
than one properly validated Armed Forces 
Identification Card. 

b. Depart on hberty without his/her 
own properly validated identification card; 
or, in the case of leave, without his/her 
own properly vahdated leave papers and 
identification card. 

c. Have in his/her possession a false 
or unauthorized identification card; or a 
mutilated, erased, altered, or not properly 
validated identification card; or an iden- 
tification card bearing false or inaccurate 
information concerning a name, grade, 
service number, or date of birth. 

d. Return from leave without deposit- 
ing his/her leave papers with the proper 
authority. Any person returning without 
an identification card shall report the loss 
to the OOD in person. 



510.14 Customs 

Upon arrival of a naval unit in United 
States territory after visiting a foreign port. 



510.18 Emergency Equipment 

No person shall use emergency equip- 
ment for any purpose other than that for 
which it is intended. Emergency equipment 
includes items such as battle lanterns, 
emergency first aid boxes, shoring, 
wrenches, life rings, equipment in life rafts 
and boats, portable fire pumps, fire hoses, 
and fuel for emergency machinery. 



510.21 Government Property 

No person shall: 

a. Conceal or fail to report to proper 
authority the loss, removal, destruction, 
or damage of Government property en- 
trusted to his/her care or custody. 

b. Remove without proper authority 
from its regular place of stowage or loca- 
tion, for any purpose whatever, any arti- 
cle of Government property, including hull 
and damage control fittings, first aid 



6-29 



equipment, life saving and emergency 
equipment, and stores and foodstuffs. 

c. Have in his/her possession any 
article of Government property except as 
may be necessary for the performance of 
his/her duty or as may be authorized by 
proper authority. 



510.22 Grooming and Personal Appearance 

It is the responsibility of officers in 
command to ensure their personnel are 
neat and well groomed at all times. (See 
U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, NAV- 
PERS 15665G, for current standards.) 



all persons who return on board in an 
intoxicated condition, or found on board 
intoxicated, shall be promptly examined 
by the medical officer or a qualified 
representative. 

b. When restraint is imposed on an 
individual, it should be in such a man- 
ner as to accomplish the desired degree 
of restraint with a minimum of force. 
Attachment of an individual to a fixed or 
immovable object should only be authorized 
when all else fails, and then a continuous 
guard should be posted with specific 
instructions to care for the welfare of the 
person under restraint in the event of an 
emergency. 



510.24 Hitchhiking 

No naval personnel will, on a public 
road, street, or highway, endeavor by 
words, gestures, or otherwise to beg, 
solicit, or hitchhike a ride in or on 
any motor vehicle. Accepting rides at 
established service personnel pickup sta- 
tions is authorized. 



510.25 Indebtedness 

Since indebtedness brings a discredit 
to the naval service, debts shall not be 
incurred when there is no reasonable 
expectation of repaying them. The Com- 
manding Officer's interest in the matter of 
indebtedness of personnel attached to a 
naval unit will be directed principally to 
the establishment of facts so that corrective 
or disciplinary measures may be taken. 



510.27 Intoxicated Persons 

All persons intoxicated to such an 
extent as to create a disturbance or to make 
their being at large dangerous to their 
personal safety or to the safety of the 
unit shall be placed under protective 
restraint upon direction of the Command- 
ing Officer, the Command Duty Officer, 
or the Officer of the Deck. 

a. The Officer of the Deck or the 
Command Duty Officer shall ensure that 



510.28 Leave and Liberty 

No person will: 

a. Proceed from the confines of a 
naval unit without permission of proper 
authority. 

b. Proceed from the confines of a 
naval unit while knowingly in a restraint 
status without permission of the Com- 
manding Officer, the Executive Officer, or 
in emergencies, the Command Duty 
Officer. 

c. Proceed from the confines of a 
naval unit while knowingly on the sick list, 
binnacle list, or the medical quarantine list. 

d. Fail to report his/her departure 
from or return to a naval unit to the OOD 
or an authorized representative. 



510.34 Motor Vehicles 

The following provisions relate to per- 
sonnel operating motor vehicles assigned 
to Navy units: 

a. No person shall operate a Govern- 
ment-owned motor vehicle assigned to a 
naval unit unless specifically designated to 
do so by the Commanding Officer, and 

'^ then only for official unit business. 

b. Military personnel operating Gov- 
ernment-owned motor vehicles shall com- 
ply with all post, station, local, state, and 
Federal directives. U.S. Government 
operator's permit is not required for 
vehicles under one ton. 



6-30 



c. All persons operating Government- 
owned motor vehicles assigned to a naval 
unit shall obtain the permission of the 
OOD before driving away from the unit 
and shall report to the OOD upon their 
return. Arrival and departure reports of 
vehicles assigned to naval vessels may be 
made to the beach guard. 

510.40 Personal Effects 

The command and individuals have a 
shared responsibility to safeguard the 
personal property of members of the unit. 

a. No person will maintain personal 
belongings or other articles in any locker 
closet, peacoat locker, or space other than 
that regularly assigned to him/her or 
authorized by proper authority to use. 

b. Each person is responsible for 
obtaining a lock and keeping his/her 
locker locked at all times. Any evidence of 
tampering with locks or unauthorized 
entry into a personal locker will be 
reported to the Chief Master-At-Arms 
immediately. 

c . When any enlisted person on board 
a naval unit is declared a deserter or 
becomes mentally or physically incapac- 
itated to the extent that he/she can no 
longer care for his/her personal effects, 
they will be collected, inventoried, and 
sealed by a division petty officer in the 
presence of the division officer and a 
master-at-arms and delivered to the Chief 
Master-At-Arms for safekeeping and 
disposition in accordance with current 
instructions. Only personnel designated 
will handle or disturb in any way the per- 
sonal effects of another person. 

d. The personal effects of an absent or 
incapacitated officer will be inventoried 
and packed by two officers designated by 
the Executive Officer and will be delivered 
to the supply office for safekeeping and 
disposition per current instructions. 

510.44 Photographic Equipment 

No person shall: 

a. Possess or introduce on board 
a naval unit any camera or other 



photographic equipment capable of ex- 
posing a photographic plate or film 
without permission of the Commanding 
Officer or his authorized representative. 

b. Make photographs of a naval unit 
or its equipment, or of objects from 
the unit, without permission of the 
Commanding Officer, and then only 
of the objects for which permission was 
specifically given. 

c. While on watch or duty as a sentry 
or member of a patrol, knowingly permit 
the introduction of any camera or photo- 
graphic equipment on board a naval unit 
unless such equipment is authorized by 
the Commanding Officer or authorized 
representative. 

510.45 Plan of the Day 

A plan of the day will be pubHshed 
daily by the Executive Officer or an 
authorized representative and will issue 
such orders and directives as the Executive 
Officer may issue. When the Executive 
Officer is absent from the unit it will be 
issued by the Command Duty Officer. 

a. The Plan of the Day will be posted 
on all department and division bulletin 
boards. 

b. All persons will read the Plan of the 
Day each day. They are responsible for 
obeying applicable orders contained 
therein. In port, the Plan of the Day will 
be read at quarters. 

510.46 Profane Language 

No person will use profane, obscene, 
or vulgar words or gestures on board a 
naval unit. 



SUMMARY 

Although most of us could not possibly 
memorize each article of Navy Regs, the UCMJ, 
or the SORN, we should all be familiar with them. 
The intent of this chapter is just that: to 
familiarize you with these articles; therefore, we 
only scratch the surface. You would be wise to 
read Navy Regs, the UCMJ, and the SORN in 
their entirety. Even then you should go back and 
review them periodically, because all are often 



6-31 



used in the process of running a division and the 

Navy. 

REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 
12043, Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 
Fla., 1992. 



Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, 
Washington, D.C., 1984. 

Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32B, Chief of 
Naval Operations, Washington, D.C., 1986. 

United States Navy Regulations, 1990, Secretary 
of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1990. 



KEELHAUL 

TO BE KEELHAULED TODAY IS MERELY TO BE GIVEN A SEVERE REPRIMAND 
FOR SOME INFRACTION OF THE RULES. AS LATE AS THE 1 9TH CENTURY, 
HOWEVER, IT MEANT THE EXTREME. IT WAS A DIRE AND OFTEN FATAL 
TORTURE EMPLOYED TO PUNISH OFFENDERS OF CERTAIN NAVAL LAWS. 

AN OFFENDER WAS SECURELY BOUND BOTH HAND AND FOOT AND HAD HEAVY 
WEIGHTS ATTACHED TO HIS BODY. HE WAS THEN LOWERED OVER THE SHIP'S 
SIDE AND SLOWLY DRAGGED ALONG UNDER THE SHIP'S HULL. IF HE DIDN'T 
DROWN--WHICH WAS RARE - -BARNACLE S USUALLY RIPPED HIM, CAUSING HIM 
TO BLEED TO DEATH. 

ALL NAVIES STOPPED THIS CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT MANY YEARS 
AGO -AND TODAY ANY SUCH PUNISHMENT IS FORBIDDEN. 




/> 



6-32 



CHAPTER 7 



MILITARY COURTESY 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 

6. Identify the rules for quarterdeck etiquette. 



1. Identify the normal courtesies juniors render 
to seniors. 

2. Identify the basic rules of conduct for ship- 
board officers. 

3. Describe the basic guidelines for officers' 
relationships with enlisted personnel. 

4. Identify the proper forms of address for 
military personnel to both military and civilian 
persons. 

5. Describe the proper procedures for boarding 
ships and boats. 



7. Describe the organization and rules of 
etiquette for the wardroom mess. 

8. Identify the rules of boat etiquette. 

9. Describe the conduct expected of naval 
personnel in foreign countries. 

10. Describe the origin of the hand salute. 

11. Identify the proper method of saluting. 

12. Identify the times when saluting is appro- 
priate and inappropriate. 



The essential traits of a naval officer are tact, 
loyalty, integrity, tolerance, dependabihty, good 
manners, self-confidence, a sense of humor, 
regard for the rights of others, and the abiHty to 
treat everyone as equals. 

In a letter to Congress in 1775, John Paul 
Jones wrote, "It is by no means enough that 
an officer of the Navy should be a capable 
mariner. He must be that, of course, but also a 
great deal more. He should be as well a gentleman 
of liberal education and refined manners, 
punctilious courtesy, and the nicest sense of 
personal honor." 

This chapter introduces most of the main 
aspects of military courtesy and etiquette. It 
covers the traditional elements that still survive 
and those which have changed with the passage 
of time. 



NAVAL ETIQUETTE 

Military courtesy between officers and enlisted 
personnel undergoes little change during wartime. 
These relations are the most fundamental part of 
all military courtesy and the main source of most 
naval etiquette. 

The twin foundations of military courtesy 
among officers are precedence and deference to 
seniors. Officers take precedence according to 
their grade. This precedence is not confined 
strictly to military relationships on ship or shore, 
but extends to the mess, to the club, and to social 
life. 

Naval courtesy prescribes that junior officers 
accord their seniors certain respect. This respect 
corresponds to that which younger people accord 
to their elders in a polite society. It also prescribes 
that seniors acknowledge and respond, with equal 
care, to these tokens of respect required of 



7-1 



juniors. Those serving their country in the strictly 
ordered fraternity of military service observe naval 
courtesy as a type of ritual. 



GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN 
JUNIORS AND SENIORS 

A junior officer approaching a senior for the 
purpose of making an official report remains at 
attention until invited to be seated or to stand at 
ease. The junior officer awaits rather than 
anticipates the invitation. 

Unless on watch, a person in the naval 
service uncovers when entering a room where a 
senior is present. 

When a senior enters a room where junior 
officers or enlisted persons are seated, the one who 
first sees the senior calls, "Attention on deck." 
All present remain at attention until ordered to 
carry on. 

Personnel seated at work, at games, or at mess 
normally are not required to rise when an officer 
passes unless they must clear a path. However, 
they are required to rise when called to attention 
or when a flag officer or the captain of the ship 
passes. 

The place of honor is on the right. Accordingly, 
when a junior walks, rides, or sits with a senior, 
the junior takes position alongside and to the left. 

When entering an automobile or a boat, 
officers do so in inverse order of grade. A 
lieutenant and a captain getting into an auto- 
mobile enter in that order. The lieutenant takes 
the seat in the far, or left-hand, corner and the 
captain sits on the right side. When getting out, 
the captain leaves first. In entering buildings or 
rooms, however, the junior opens doors for the 
senior and enters last. 

The custom of the "right-hand rule" is an old 
one, quaintly expressed by George Washington 
in the 30th "Rule of Civility": "In walking, the 
highest place in most countries seems to be on the 
right hand, therefore, place yourself on the left 
of him whom you desire to honor." 

At parties, to leave before the commanding 
officer is considered poor taste. If necessary to 
do so, guests should pay their respects to the 
commanding officer before departing. 

A junior never offers to shake hands with a 
senior; the senior makes the first gesture. 

A junior officer avoids keeping a senior 
waiting. Normal courtesy aside, punctuality is 
essential in the military service. When called by 
a senior, a junior responds immediately. 



In replying to questions from a senior, a junior 
officer avoids a great deal of embarrassment by 
giving complete and explicit answers. If the junior 
cannot supply the desired information, an "I 
don't know, sir/ma'am, but I will find out and 
let you know" is the best answer. An indirect 
answer may convey misinformation on which a 
senior may be basing an important decision. To 
avoid admitting ignorance, juniors sometimes 
make evasive statements that not only seriously 
affect their reputation but also confuse the issue. 

A junior assigned to do a task should 
promptly report the progress of completing the 
task to the senior. The junior should report either 
the completion of the task or exactly what has 
been done toward its completion. 

When given orders, juniors must ensure they 
know what is required. They should not hesitate 
to ask questions to clarify points. If they need ad- 
vice, they should seek it first from their peers, but 
should not hesitate to go to the senior who gave 
the orders. Juniors should anticipate the wishes 
of a senior whenever possible. 

An officer should not jump the chain of 
command. When necessary to proceed to someone 
higher in the chain of command, officers should 
keep their immediate supervisor informed of their 
actions. 

Suggestions for Junior Officers 

Excuses for failure or negligence are always 
unacceptable. Officers should assume responsibility 
and not depend on alibis. If at fault, they should 
freely accept blame. 

Bootlicking, a dehberate courting of a person 
for favor, is despised. Seniors may temporarily 
mistake such tactics for a sincere desire to please 
and to do a good job. However, through long 
experience with such behavior, they in time 
recognize this false sincerity. However, junior 
officers must make a genuine effort to be friendly 
and cooperative to succeed. Persons with a 
continued willingness to undertake any task 
assigned and perform it cheerfully and efficiently 
eventually gain a reputation for dependability. 
They also ensure their popularity with fellow 
officers. Continued complaining has the opposite 
effect. 

' The satisfaction of having done a good job 
should be sufficient reward in itself. The junior 
officer should not report each personal or 
divisional accomplishment to the senior officer. 
Of course a report that is required must be made, 
but work well done generally reaches the attention 
of superiors. 



7-2 



The conduct of members of the service must 
be above criticism. The Navy is often judged by 
the appearance and behavior of its personnel. 

Officers should carefully consider all under- 
takings and projects in advance and make all 
preparations necessary to their success well in 
advance. Officers should be capable of thinking 
ahead and making intelligent plans; they must 
always strive to demonstrate that they are entitled 
to the grade they hold. 

One of the best things a senior officer can say 
about juniors is that when given a job, they can 
always be depended upon for satisfactory results. 

Suggestions for Shipboard Officers 

Officers have customarily reUeved the watch 
not later than 15 minutes before the hour that the 
watch begins (usually signaled by the traditional 
bell system of shipboard timekeeping). That 
requires the officers to be on the bridge at sea 
30 minutes before the bell. For officers to be late 
to relieve the watch is not only a breach of naval 
custom but is discourteous and unpardonable. 

Every officer has two personalities, the official 
and the unofficial. An officer who plays the 
"good guy" on watch is sooner or later bound 
to come to grief. Holding a boat for another 
officer who is late is an example. Telling the 
executive officer that the written order contained 
in the boat schedule has been disobeyed simply 
because another officer requested it is a poor 
excuse. 

Whenever an officer receives an order to pass 
to subordinates for action, that officer must 
promptly and smartly execute that order. The 
officer's responsibility in the matter does not end 
until the order has been completed. 

Although personnel will not like every order 
they receive, everyone in the chain of command 
must obey all orders. Carrying out such orders 
may seem difficult, but an officer should never 
apologize for them and should never question an 
order in front of subordinates. 

When new officers report aboard ship, they 
should devote most of their spare time to 
professional reading and getting acquainted with 
the ship's organization and regulations. They 
should set aside a certain amount of time each 
day for professional study. 

New officers would be wise never to request 
permission to leave the ship in the afternoon 
until they have completed the work assigned or 
expected of them. They have much to learn in the 
first few months aboard ship. Astute newcomers 
will avoid becoming known as "liberty hounds." 



All hands will critically evaluate new officers 
shortly after they report aboard ship. Since they 
will evaluate the appearance as well as the ability 
of new officers, having a good appearance is 
important. Therefore, officers should wear their 
good clothes at quarters and their best clothes at 
inspections. 

Senior officers do not always call attention to 
minor faults or errors made by juniors, but they 
are sure to notice them and will form their 
opinions accordingly. While senior officers will 
make allowances for lack of experience, they will 
base their final estimate entirely on what the new 
officer contributes. Junior officers should be alert 
and analyze their own conduct frequently to 
determine if they are unintentionally offending 
anyone. Such behavior might involve a junior's 
lack of respect toward senior officers or a 
tendency to become familiar with them. It could 
also involve the officer's harsh, unreasonable 
handling of enlisted personnel or irresponsibility 
and lack of initiative. 

An outstanding naval officer of the 19th 
century, Matthew Fontaine Maury, said: "Make 
it a rule never to offend, or to seek causes of 
offense in the conduct of others. Be polite to all, 
familiar with but few. The rule in the Navy is to 
treat everybody as a gentleman until he proves 
himself to be otherwise. It is a good rule — observe 
it well." 

Some officers tend to think their rank or 
position will carry them through all difficult 
situations even if they are unqualified for the 
responsibilities of the office they hold. Inevitably 
they suffer a rude awakening. Intelligent and 
effective junior officers know the limits of 
their abilities and continually strive to increase 
those limits by learning from all available 
sources. 

Of all the valuable qualities an officer can 
have, few of them are superior in importance to 
tact. In a military sense tact means a knowledge 
and an appreciation of when and how to do 
things. Tactful officers know how to deal with 
their shipmates — both senior and junior. The 
usefulness of many officers who are otherwise 
capable has been damaged because they do not 
use tact. 

In conclusion, all organizations in society have 
certain customs and etiquette. Such customs and 
etiquette are especially necessary for smooth 
cooperation between persons living close together 
as done aboard a man-of-war. Disregard of 
customs and etiquette marks a person as careless, 
indifferent, or ignorant. 



7-3 



All professional officers and enlisted persons 
take pride in naval traditions and eagerly conform 
to the customs and etiquette of the service. These 
traditions and customs are the honorable heritage 
of "seamen who go down to the sea in ships." 

SHIPBOARD RELATIONS BETWEEN 
OFFICERS AND ENLISTED PERSONS 

A shipboard environment increases the 
difficulty with which officers and enlisted persons 
maintain the proper relationship. Developing a 
level of communication with their personnel that 
will foster mutual respect is of vital importance 
for new officers. The key to developing this 
communication is for officers to learn the 
personality and character of every one of their 
juniors. American blue-jackets are intelligent, 
cooperative, and ambitious. They want their 
superiors to treat them well and show appreciation 
for their ability. They want to respect their 
officers, to admire them, and to be able to boast 
about them to the crews of other ships. 

By virtue of their commission, new officers 
find themselves in charge of people; they may feel 
strange about this newly acquired authority. 
Because inexperienced officers may feel uncertain 
about associating with enlisted personnel, they 
may hesitate to develop a good relationship. They 
want to be liked by their personnel, to know them 
as individuals, yet maintain rightful authority over 
them. 

Personal dignity is a quality new officers must 
cultivate. Successful leaders possess that un- 
definable quality that enables them to talk casually 
and unofficially with their people, while main- 
taining that reserve which discourages undue 
familiarity. However, consideration for enlisted 
personnel is a must; good leaders always show 
concern for the welfare of their people. 

The relationship between officers and their 
subordinates influences discipline. Officers should 
not fraternize with enlisted persons or attempt to 
be "one of the gang." This type of familiarity 
quickly undermines discipline. If subordinates 
become familiar and fail to keep the proper 
distance between themselves and a senior, the 
officer usually is at fault. 

A great difference exists between familiarity 
and friendship. The officer who talks to 
subordinates in a friendly manner, taking a 
personal interest in them and showing concern for 
their problems, quickly gains their confidence and 
respect. Subordinates want to look to their seniors 
for guidance; they want to be proud of their senior 



petty officers and officers. Such leaders, because 
they are friendly and approachable, will be the 
first ones their people turn to for advice. 

Being friendly with subordinates does not 
mean being easy with them. Leaders must 
handle breaches of discipline immediately, 
justly, and consistently. They cannot react 
severely to breaches one day and pass them off 
as insignificant the next. Such an approach can 
only result in confusion, poor morale, and distrust 
of the leader. 

Two fundamental rules apply: (1) Never make 
a regulation you cannot or will not enforce; and 
(2) take immediate, fair action that leaves no 
doubt in the mind of the offenders as to why they 
are being punished. 

In summary, a good relationship between 
officers and their subordinates must be founded 
on mutual respect. The measure of respect an 
officer inspires in enlisted personnel is a measure 
of that officer as a leader and a seaman. 

Relations With the Leading 
Chief Petty Officer (LCPO) 

Many new officers have difficulty adjusting 
to their new roles of authority. Just the simple 
case of having someone 10 to 15 years their senior 
calling them "sir" or "ma'am" often takes some 
getting used to. That coupled with the respon- 
sibilities of their billet and the Navy way of life 
may induce a "culture shock." 

A very important person in the development 
of the new division officer is the leading chief 
petty officer (LCPO). As the division's technical 
authority and supervisor, the LCPO has the 
expertise and skill to accomplish all divisional 
tasks. LCPOs have traditionally contributed 
to the professional growth of junior officers 
through a hands-on approach of passing on their 
knowledge. 

The LCPO has been around the Navy and the 
division longer than the new officer and stands 
ready to give support. New officers should make 
a point of talking with their LCPO about 
decisions affecting the division. When new 
officers develop a step-by-step plan to accomplish 
a task, they should discuss the plan with the 
LCPO. The LCPO has the experience and 
technical expertise to disassemble the plan and put 
it back together. The LCPO will give an honest 
opinion of the plan and provide suggestions for 
improvement. The LCPO will be supportive of 
the plan if it is sound but will also voice 
objection when in doubt. 



7-4 



The bottom line is this: The officer and the 
LCPO are a team working toward the same goals. 
The LCPO will bend over backwards to assist and 
teach the officer if allowed. Conversely, the 
LCPO will soon stop trying to help if the officer 
doesn't accept support. When that happens the 
officer ends up with numerous problems. 

Relations With the Command 
Master Chief (CM/C) 

Probably the most vital link between officer 
and enlisted personnel in a command is the 
command master chief (CM/C). The CM/C 
serves as the senior enlisted adviser to the 
commander or commanding officer on all 
matters relating to enlisted policy. The CM/C 
carries out and promotes command policy and 
enjoys special command trust and confidence 
extending to the administration and management 
of enlisted personnel. 

The CM/C often provides guidance and 
counseling to enlisted personnel. Division officers 
should seek the advice of the CM/C on personal 
problems of members of their division. The 
CM/C, having years of experience in the Navy, 
possesses a wealth of knowledge. More often than 
not the CM/C is more than willing to assist both 
officers and enlisted personnel. Division officers 
can't expect the CM/C to run the division and 
perform their duties; but if they have problems 
in communicating with a member of the division, 
they can count on the CM/C to help. 

FORMS OF ADDRESS 

Custom, tradition, and social change deter- 
mine the form of verbal address you use to 
introduce members of the naval service. Although 
tradition and military customs generally pre- 
dominate, methods of addressing and introducing 
military personnel differ according to whether you 
are in civilian or military circles at the time. (See 
fig. 7-1.) 

Except as provided in the paragraphs that 
follow, address or introduce all officers in the 
naval service by the title of their grade preceding 
the surname. 

You may address officers of the Medical 
Corps or Dental Corps and officers of the Medical 
Service Corps or Nurse Corps having a doctoral 
degree as "Doctor." Likewise, you may address 
an officer of the Chaplain Corps as "Chaplain." 
However, if the doctor or chaplain prefers to be 
addressed by lieutenant, commander, captain, and 



so forth, honor that request. When addressing an 
officer whose grade includes a modifier (lieutenant 
commander for example), you may drop the 
modifier (lieutenant). 

In general, calling officers of the rank of 
commander or above by their title and name is 

preferable; that is, "Commander " 

rather than the impersonal "sir" or "ma'am." 
Address other officers in the same manner. 
However, in prolonged conversation, in which 
repetition would seem forced or awkward, use 
"sir" or "ma'am." 

Address a chief warrant officer as "Chief 

Warrant Officer " In mihtary 

circles, address a midshipman as "Mr. or Ms. (or 
Miss) ." When with civilians, in- 
troduce the midshipman as "Midshipman 
" and address the midshipman as 



"Mr. or Ms. (or Miss) ." 

Aboard ship, address the regularly assigned 
commanding officer as "Captain" regardless of 
grade. 

Introduce naval officers to civilians by title. 
The method of introduction should cue the 
civilians as to how they should address the officers 
from then on. If you were introducing an officer 
below the grade of commander to a civilian, you 
might say, "This is Lieutenant Jones. Mr. Jones 
is an old shipmate of mine." This introduction 
serves a double purpose; it gives the officer's 
grade, and it also gives the correct method of 
address, "Mr. Jones." 

Because many people are not familiar with 
Navy grade insignia and corps devices, make 
any introduction, however brief, reasonably 
informative. You may introduce a female 
lieutenant with the words, "This is Lieutenant 
Johnson. Miss (or Ms. or Mrs.) Johnson is in 
the Nurse Corps," or "This is Lieutenant 
Commander Jones. Miss Jones is on duty in the 
Navy Department." 

The Navy today is a cross-section of America. 
In the same family, one man may be a Chief 
Machinist's Mate and his brother a lieutenant. An 
ensign may have a sister who is a Yeoman second 
class, and so forth. General Pershing held the 
highest United States military rank, General of 
the Armies, but his son entered World War II 
as a private. The first Secretary of Defense 
entered World War I as a Seaman second class. 
Accordingly, even though the distinction between 
officer and enlisted personnel still exists in all 
formal and official relations, it does so less and 
less in nonmilitary relations. 



7-5 



PERSON ADDRESSED 
OR INTRODUCED 


TO MILITARY 


TO CIVILIAN 


INTRODUCE AS: 


ADDRESS AS: 


INTRODUCE AS: 


ADDRESS AS: 


COMMANDER 
or above 


COMMANDER 

(or appropriate rank) 

Smith 


COMMANDER 

(or appropriate rank) 

Smith 


COMMANDER' 

(or appropriate rank) 

Smith 


COMMANDER 

(or appropriate rank) 

Smith 


LIEUTENANT COMMANDER 
or below 


LIEUTENANT COMMANDER 

(or appropriate rank) 

SMITH 


COMMANDER ^ 
SMITH 


LIEUTENANT COMMANDER' 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mrs., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


MEDICAL and/or 

DENTAL CORPS 

OFFICER 


DR. SMITH" 


DR. SMITH" 


LIEUTENANT SMITH 

OF THE 

NAVY MEDICAL CORPS 


DR. SMITH" 


CHAPLAIN CORPS 
OFFICER 


CHAPLAIN 
SMITH 


CHAPLAIN 
SMITH 


CHAPLAIN 
SMITH 


CHAPLAIN 


NAVY NURSE CORPS 
OFFICER 


COMMANDER 

(or appropriate rank) 

SMITH 


COMMANDER 
SMITH 


COMMANDER SMITH 

OF THE 
NAVY NURSE CORPS 


COMMANDER 

(Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


CHIEF WARRANT 
OFFICER 


CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER 
SMITH 


CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER 
SMITH 


CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mrs., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


MIDSHIPMAN 


MIDSHIPMAN 
SMITH 


MIDSHIPMAN 
SMITH 


MIDSHIPMAN 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


CHIEF PETTY 
OFFICER 


CHIEF' 
SMITH 


CHIEF 

or 

CHIEF SMITH' 


CHIEF YEOMAN' 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mrs.. Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


AVIATION 
CADET 


AVIATION CADET 
SMITH 


MR. SMITH 


AVIATION CADET 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mrs., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


PETTY 
OFFICER 


PETTY OFFICER 
SMITH 


PETTY OFFICER 
SMITH 


PETTY OFFICER 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mis., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 


SEAMAN 


SEAMAN 
SMITH 


SMITH 


SEAMAN 
SMITH 


MR. 

(Mrs., Miss, Ms.) 

SMITH 



1. When not in uniform a captain or lieutenant would be introduced as "of the Navy" to distinguish the grade from the other services. 

2. When addressing an officer whose grade includes a modifier (i.e., lieutenant commander) the modifier may be dropped. 

3. A suggested form of introduction is: "This is LCDR Smith. Mr. (Mrs., Miss, Ms.) Smith is now stationed here." This indicates both (a) the officer's 
grade and (b) the form of address. 

4. If a senior officer of the Medical or Dental Corps perfers to be addressed by title, such preference should be honored. 

5. Prefixed by "Senior" or "Master" as appropriate. 

Figure 7-1. — Introducing and addressing naval personnel. 



Military and civilian practices differ in 
the introduction and address of enlisted per- 
sonnel. Under military conditions, address 
and introduce petty officers of the Navy by 
their respective title followed by their last 
name. Address petty officers in the paygrades of 

E-7, E-8, and E-9 informally as "Chief " 

prefixed by "Senior" or "Master," if appro- 
priate. Introduce them formally as "Chief 
Petty Officer " prefixed by "Senior" 



or "Master," if appropriate. Introduce and 
address petty officers in paygrades E-4 through 
E-6 both formally and informally as "Petty 

Officer " You aren't required to 

change the form of verbal address (by last 
name) of personnel in paygrades E-3 and 
below. However, when introducing them, precede 
their last name by "Seaman," "Fireman," 
"Airman," "Constructionman," and so forth, 
as appropriate. 



7-6 



Civilians often feel uncomfortable in social 
gatherings when addressing enlisted personnel as 
described in the preceding paragraph. Therefore, 
those outside the service customarily address 
enlisted personnel in the same manner they 
address civihans. In other words they prefix their 
names with "Mr.," "Mrs.," "Miss," or "Ms.," 
as the case may be. When introducing enlisted 
personnel to civihans, give their title and name, 
then the mode of address, such as "This is Petty 
Officer Smith. Mr. Smith will be visiting us for 
a while." 

Only one response to an oral order is proper: 
"Aye, aye, sir/ma'am." This reply means more 
than yes. It indicates, I understand and will obey. 
Responses to an order such as "O.K., sir" or 
"Alright, sir" are improper. A senior may 
properly acknowledge a report made by a junior 
by saying, "Very well," but a junior never says 
"Very well" to a senior. 

Use "sir/ma'am" as a prefix to an official 
report, statement, or question addressed to a 
senior. Also use it when addressing an official on 
duty representing a senior. For example, the 
officer of the deck (OOD), regardless of grade, 
represents the commanding officer; therefore, 
address the OOD as "sir/ma, 'am." 

Juniors addressing a senior should introduce 
themselves unless certain the senior knows them 
by sight. 

Junior and senior officers observe certain 
differences in phrasing. Senior officers send their 
"compliments" to juniors. For example, "Admiral 
Smith presents his compliments to Captain 
Brown." Juniors send their "respects." When 
making a call upon a commanding officer, the 
junior is correct in saying, "Captain, I came to 
pay my respects." If an orderly or a secretary 
presents guests to the captain, ask the orderly or 
secretary to "please tell the captain that Ensign 
Jones would like to pay her respects." 

In written correspondence, a senior officer 
may "call" attention to something, but a junior 
may only "invite" it. For many years. Navy 
custom prescribed that a junior writing a 
memorandum to a senior use the complimentary 
close "Very respectfully" and a senior writing to 
a junior use "Respectfully." Some officers and 
enlisted still follow that custom when writing 
memorandums. However, the Department of the 
Navy Correspondence Manual, SECNAVINST 
5216. 5C, states that "a complimentary close is not 
desired or required." 



QUARTERDECK ETIQUETTE 

Quarterdeck etiquette remains the same in 
peace and war. The quarterdeck has always been 
honored as part of the ship on which official 
ceremonies are conducted. It still retains its 
sanctity. Because of that sanctity, you cannot just 
walk on and off a ship as you would enter and 
leave your home; you must follow certain 
procedures. 



Quarterdeck Conduct 

The watch officer should strictly enforce the 
etiquette of the quarterdeck. The quarterdeck 
should be kept immaculate and its ceremonial 
character maintained. On the quarterdeck, 
officers and enlisted persons alike must adhere to 
the following rules of etiquette: 

• Avoid appearing out of uniform. 

• Never smoke. 

• Refrain from putting hands in pockets. 

• Don't engage in recreational athletics 
unless they are sanctioned by the captain, 
and then only after working hours. 

Boarding a Ship in Uniform 

When in uniform and boarding ANY ship 
flying the national ensign, salute in the following 
order: 

1. Halt at the gangway, face aft, and salute 
the ensign. 

2. Turn to the officer of the deck (OOD) and 
salute. 

When returning to your own ship, salute the 
OOD and say, "I report my return aboard, 
sir/ma'am." The OOD returns both salutes and 
responds with, "Very well," or a similar 
expression. 

When you salute the OOD upon boarding a 
ship other than your own, say, "I request 
permission to come aboard, sir/ma'am ..." and 
then add the purpose of your visit; for example, 
". . . to visit a friend," or ". . . to go to small 
stores." 



7-7 



When leaving your ship, reverse the order of 
saluting: 

1 . Salute the OOD first and say, "I have per- 
mission to leave the ship, sir/ma'am." 
When leaving a ship you have visited, 
salute the OOD and say, "I request per- 
mission to leave the ship sir/ma'am." 

2. After receiving permission, face and salute 
the ensign (if it is flying) and depart. 

Boarding a Ship in Civilian Attire 

When in civilian attire and boarding a ship 
flying the national ensign, halt at the gangway, 
at attention, and face aft. Then, remaining at 
attention, turn to the OOD. If you are returning 
to your own ship, say, "I report my return 
aboard, sir/ma'am." The OOD salutes and 
responds with "Very well," or a similar 
expression. When boarding a ship other than your 
own, say, "I request permission to come aboard, 
sir/ma'am ..." and then add the purpose of 
your visit. The OOD will then say, "Permission 
granted" or "Permission not granted." 

When leaving a ship in civilian attire, reverse 
the procedure. First stand at attention in front of 
the OOD and say, "I have permission to leave 
the ship, sir/ma'am." After receiving permission, 
stand at attention facing the ensign (if it is 
flying) and depart. 

Boarding and Departing Ships in a Nest 

Sometimes destroyers, submarines, and other 
ships must tie up in nests alongside a repair ship, 
tender, or pier. At such times you may have to 
cross several ships to go ashore or return to your 
own ship. Upon boarding a ship that you must 
cross, salute the colors (if flying); then turn 
toward and salute the OOD, and request 
permission to cross. After receiving permission, 
proceed to cross without delay. When departing 
that ship, you are not required to salute the 
colors or OOD again. Repeat this crossing 
procedure until you reach your destination. 

Boarding Ships With Petty 
Officers Standing OOD Watch 

On many ships, particularly those of destroyer 
size and smaller, a first class or chief petty officer 
instead of an officer may be on the quarterdeck. 
Although you do not usually salute enlisted 
personnel, you must salute an enhsted person 



serving as OOD. You are saluting the position and 
authority represented— not the individual. 

Small Boats Approaching 
the Ship at Anchor 

The OOD should know who is approaching 
the ship at all times. At night the sentry, 
gangway watch, or quartermaster hails small 
boats nearing a vessel at anchor with "Boat 
ahoy!" The boat coxswain returns the hail with 
a response such as the following, depending on 
the personnel aboard: 



"United States"— if the 
United States is aboard 



President of the 



"Navy" — if the Secretary of the Navy is 
aboard 

"Fleet" — if the commander in chief of the 
fleet is aboard 

"Name of ship" — if the commanding officer 
is aboard 

"Aye, aye" — if a commissioned officer is 
aboard 

"No, no" — if a midshipman is aboard 

"Hello" — if an enlisted person is aboard 

"Passing"— if the boat does not intend to 
come alongside, regardless of passenger status 

WARDROOM ETIQUETTE 

The officers' mess is organized on a business- 
hke basis. All officers must contribute to a mess 
fund upon joining the mess. Officers receive a 
subsistence allowance from the Navy with which 
to pay the mess fund. As a courteous gesture 
officers should ask the mess treasurer, within the 
first 24 hours aboard, for their mess bill and mess 
entrance fee and pay them at once. The monthly 
mess assessments defray the cost of food as well 
as conveniences such as periodicals. 
-> The mess treasurer, who is elected by the 
members, administers the mess fund. In messes 
where the treasurer does not also act as caterer, 
the commanding officer appoints a mess caterer. 
The treasurer then accounts for all receipts and 
expenditures, while the caterer takes responsibility 
for the purchase of food, preparation of menus, 



and supervision of service. Both offices are 
recognized as collateral duties, and attention is 
paid to them in the marking of officers' reports 
of fitness. As with all things, doing either job well 
requires study and application. Some caterers 
perform their tasks exceptionally well. They give 
their full attention to planning balanced diets and 
light appetizing luncheons and to planning with 
the Mess Management Specialist for new dishes 
and varied menus. At the close of each month, 
the mess treasurer gives the mess members a 
statement of the mess accounts. 

The senior officer of the wardroom mess 
always welcomes junior officers and treats them 
as full-fledged members of the mess in every 
respect. Nevertheless, a junior officer should not 
be too forward in conversation or action. An 
error on the side of formality is more readily 
pardoned than one in the other direction. 

Like many other phases of naval courtesy, 
wardroom etiquette, of necessity, undergoes many 
changes in time of war. In the interest of 
completeness, we will cover the rules of wardroom 
etiquette as they are in peacetime and then give 
some of the variations that would be brought 
about by war. 



In Peacetime 

The wardroom is the commissioned officers' 
mess and lounge room. The main peacetime rules 
of wardroom etiquette are as follows: 

• Don't enter or lounge in the wardroom out 
of uniform. 

• Except at breakfast, don't sit down to 
meals before the presiding officer does. 

• If necessary to leave before the completion 
of the meal, ask to be excused. 

• Introduce guests to wardroom officers, 
especially on small ships. 

• Never be late for meals. If you are 
unavoidably late, make your apologies to 
the presiding officer. 

• Don't loiter in the wardroom during 
working hours. 

• Avoid wearing a cap in the wardroom, 
especially when your shipmates are eating. 



• Avoid being boisterous or noisy. 

• Don't talk shop continuously. 

• Pay mess bills promptly. 

• As a new officer, be a good listener. 

• Don't discuss religion and poHtics. 

• Don't express unfavorable comments and 
opinions about senior officers. Expressing 
such comments with the intention of 
being overheard by seniors is known as 
"bulkheading." 

Good manners, with a consideration for other 
members and their guests, constitute the first 
principle to which all others are secondary. 

The executive officer normally serves as the 
president of the mess. A small ship such as a 
destroyer, however, does not provide a separate 
mess for the commanding officer. In this case the 
CO, who eats meals in the wardroom, serves as 
president of the mess. 

Officers are assigned permanent seats at the 
table, alternately, in the order of grade, to the 
right and left of the presiding officer. (Second 
ranking officer sits on the right of the presiding 
officer, third on the left, and so on.) The mess 
caterer occupies the seat opposite that of the 
presiding officer. 

In Wartime 

During a war, the routine of the wardroom 
is vastly different from that just described. 
Regular mealtimes are out of the question 
during general quarters. If, before starting to eat, 
officers always waited for the presiding officer to 
sit down, meals would be too irregular and 
delayed. 

Instead of dining in the wardroom during 
wartime, many officers eat a hasty meal of 
sandwiches and coffee served topside whenever 
time allows. A rule about never being late for 
meals is hardly binding under such circumstances. 

The seating arrangements in wardrooms may 
undergo changes during a war. A ship may 
scatter higher ranking officers among many tables 
rather than concentrate them at one place, where 
a chance enemy hit might wipe out all of them 
at once. Seating arrangements for persons eating 
in shifts are sometimes cross-sectioned by grade 
among the various shifts for the same reason. 



7-9 



In short, in peacetime, wardroom etiquette 
follows the old, estabhshed customs; but during 
a war, common sense and necessity dictate 
expedient conduct. 

BOAT ETIQUETTE 

Officers observe the following rules of boat 
etiquette: 

• Unless otherwise directed by the senior 
officer present, officers enter boats in 
inverse order of rank (juniors first) and 
leave them in order of rank (juniors last), 

• Juniors may stand and salute when a 
senior enters or leaves a boat, unless an 
officer or petty officer is in charge to 
render the honors. However, common 
sense and safety always prevail. 

• When a senior officer is present, do not 
sit in the stern seats unless asked to do so. 

• Leave the most desirable seats for seniors. 

• Always offer a seat to a senior. 

• When leaving a ship, get in the boat a 
minute before the boat gong or when the 
OOD says the boat is ready; don't make 
a last-second dash down the gangway. 

• If the boat is crowded, juniors embark in 
the next boat. 

• Juniors in boats take care to give seniors 
room to move about. 

• Don't use the thwarts, gunwales, and 
decking of another boat as a walkway 
without permission. Don't request per- 
mission to use another boat as a walkway 
if another route is available. 

SOCIAL CALLS 

Except during wartime, when the practice 
is almost universally canceled, officers first 
reporting to a command make a visit of courtesy 
to the commanding officer within 48 hours. That 
is done even though they may have met the 
captain when they reported for duty. The 
executive officer usually arranges a time for the 
visit. Aboard ship, the social call is made in the 



captain's cabin, although in small ships the 
captain may dispense with the formality of 
courtesy visits. 

At an activity ashore, the commanding officer 
may designate "at home" hours during which 
juniors make their social calls. At other stations, 
the commanding officer may hold periodic "hail 
and farewell" cocktail parties during which 
juniors make and return calls. Newly reported 
juniors should also call at the homes of their 
department head and executive officer within the 
first 2 weeks after they report aboard. If married, 
the spouse should accompany the officer. 

Officers making courtesy visits to the 
commanding officer's cabin or office should never 
settle back for a long conversation; they should 
remain for approximately 10 minutes, unless 
requested to remain longer. They should be 
attentive and polite but not servile or wooden. 
Although they should allow their host to direct 
the conversation, they should try to add more to 
it than simply affirmatives and negatives. Officers 
should refrain from asking leading questions 
about their new duty, about military problems 
facing their host, or about intimate details 
concerning the commanding officer's private life. 

Officers invited to dinner should take 
particular pains to be punctual and to leave before 
their welcome has worn out. They shouldn't stay 
all afternoon or evening. A visit of 45 minutes 
to an hour after a meal is all that courtesy 
demands; they should ask to be excused within 
this time unless urged to remain. If a guest of 
honor who is not a houseguest is present, other 
guests should await that individual's departure, 
if possible. 



CONDUCT IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

When ashore in uniform in foreign countries, 
remember that your conduct will represent the 
conduct of all members of the United States naval 
service. Scrupulously respect the laws and customs 
of any foreign country. Infractions of a seemingly 
unimportant nature, even though committed 
unwittingly, arouse resentment and may result in 
serious complications. Under no circumstances 
should you enter into an altercation or argument 
with anyone abroad. In case of trouble of any 
nature, refer the matter to the appropriate U.S. 
naval authority ashore or afloat. If senior naval 
guidance is not available, consult the consular 
officer or diplomatic representatives of the United 
States. 



7-10 



United States customs regulations explicitly 
state that exemption from payment of duty for 
articles purchased abroad covers only articles 
intended for personal use of the returning traveler. 
The term personal use as used in the regulations 
refers to articles purchased with the traveler's own 
money, either for personal use or as a gift to 
others. The import of large quantities of material, 
under any agreement that permits transfer of 
goods after importation, violates the regulations. 
Offenders are liable to heavy fines as well as to 
imprisonment. Travelers should keep an accurate 
record of purchases made abroad so that they can 
make a correct customs declaration. The prices 
actually paid for articles purchased abroad, either 
in the currency of the country where purchased 
or the equivalent in United States currency, must 
be stated in the customs declaration. 



THE SALUTE 

One of the essentials of military courtesy is 
the salute. Regulations governing its use are 
founded on military etiquette and, as such, are 
deeply rooted in traditions and customs of the 
service. A military organization functions 
efficiently only as a unit, and any common bond 
or identifying symbol that furthers the feeling of 
comradeship strengthens that unity. 

The custom of saluting is a time-honored 
demonstration of courtesy among military 
personnel the world over. It expresses mutual 
respect and pride in the military service. 

In form, the salute is simple and dignified, but 
that gesture has great significance. The privilege 
of saluting is generally denied prisoners because 
their status is unworthy of the comradeship of 
military personnel. 

The salute probably originated in the days of 
chivalry, when knights in mail (flexible armor) 
customarily raised their visors to friends for the 
purpose of identification. Because of strict 
gradations or rank, the junior was required to 
make the first gesture. Another school of thought 
traces the salute back to a custom at the time of 
the Borgias. Since assassinations by dagger were 
common at that time, men began approaching 
each other with raised hand, palm to the front, 
to show they concealed no weapon. 

In the American Navy, however, history 
indicates that the hand salute came to use directly 
from the British Navy. In the earliest days of 
British military units, the junior uncovered when 
meeting or addressing a senior. Gradually, the act 



of removing the cap was simplified into merely 
touching the cap or, if uncovered, the head 
(forelock). The act finally evolved into the 
present form of salute. 

PROPER MANNER OF SALUTING 

Except when walking, stand at attention when 
saluting. In any case, turn your head and eyes 
toward the person saluted unless doing so is 
inappropriate, such as when a division in ranks 
salutes an inspecting officer on command. Raise 
the right hand smartly until the tip of the 
forefinger touches the lower part of the headgear 
or forehead above and slightly to the right of the 
right eye. Join and extend thumb and fingers. 
Turn the palm slightly inward until the person 
saluting can just see its surface from the corner 
of the right eye. Position the upper arm parallel 
to the ground with the elbow slightly in front of 
the body. Incline the forearm at a 45-degree angle 
with the hand and wrist in a straight line. 
Complete the salute (after it is returned) by 
dropping the arm to its normal position in one 
sharp, clean motion. (See fig. 7-2.) 

Execute the first position of the hand salute 
when six paces from the person saluted, or at the 
nearest point of approach, if more than six paces. 
(Thirty paces is generally regarded as maximum 
saluting distance.) Hold the first position until the 
person saluted has passed or returns the salute. 

According to naval custom, a word of greeting 
should accompany the hand salute. The junior 





FOREARM INCLINED AT ii' TIP OF FOREFINGER 

TOUCHING SLIGHTLY 
TO RIGHT OF RIGHT EYE 



AT ATTENTION 




UPPER ARM PARALLEl 
TO DECK . ELBOW 
SLlfiHTLY FORWARD 



HAND AND WRIST IN A 
STRAIGHT LINE, PALM 
SLIGHTLY INWARD 



Figure 7-2. — Hand salute. 



7-11 



stands at attention; looks the senior straight in 
the eye; and, depending upon the time of day, 
extends one of the following greetings: 

From first rising until noon: "Good morning, 



From noon until sunset: "Good afternoon, 



From sunset until turning in: "Good evening. 



Preferably, the junior should call the senior 
by grade and name, such as "Commander 
Jones," rather than by the impersonal "sir" or 



Naval custom permits saluting with the left 
hand when you cannot render a salute with the 
right hand. Army and Air Force custom permits 
only right-hand salutes. 

Avoid making the following common errors 
in saluting: 

Bowing the head when giving the salute. 

Dropping the salute before it has been 
returned. 

Holding the arm awkwardly high or letting it 
sag too low. 

Saluting while on the double. 

Avoiding the gaze of the person saluted. 

Saluting with pipe, cigar, or cigarette in the 
mouth or in the hand. 

Waiting too long to begin a salute. 

Saluting in a casual or perfunctory manner. 

WHEN TO SALUTE 

In the Navy, as in practically every military 
service in the world, everybody salutes — from the 
bottom to the top of the ranks and down again. 
Enlisted personnel salute all officers, and every 
officer salutes seniors. All who are saluted return 
the salute. When uncovered, the person saluted 
usually acknowledges a salute by an appropriate 
oral greeting or nod of the head. (See fig. 7-3.) 



Extend salutes to officers of the Navy, Army, 
Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard and 
to foreign military officers whose governments are 
formally recognized by the government of the 
United States. When in uniform, extend salutes 
to officers of the Naval, Army, Air Force, Marine 
Corps, and Coast Guard Reserves and the 
National Guard. Public Health Service and 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
officers also rate a salute when serving with the 
armed forces of the United States. 

When several officers in company are saluted, 
all return the salute when the senior officer in 
the company returns the salute accorded. For 
example, if an ensign is walking with a 
commander and an Army captain approaches, the 
ensign waits for the Army captain to salute the 
commander. As the commander returns the 
salute, the ensign salutes simultaneously. If two 
or more persons of various grades accompany the 
senior officer, the same rule apphes: they render 
the salute when the senior officer returns the salute 
accorded. 

CiviHans entitled by reason of their position 
to gun salutes or other honors also are entitled 
by custom to the hand salute. 

Five types of personal salutes are rendered: 
hand salute; hand salute under arms; present 
arms; sword salute; and "eyes right," given by 
personnel passing in review. 

Aboard Ship 

All officer and enlisted personnel on board a 
ship of the Navy salute the following officers: 

All flag officers (officers above the grade of 
captain) 

The commanding officer 

Visiting officers senior to themselves on every 
occasion of meeting, passing near, or being 
addressed 

On the first daily meeting, personnel salute all 
senior officers attached to their ship. (Many ships 
consider salutes rendered at quarters to suffice for 
""this first salute of the day.) They salute when 
addressing or being addressed by seniors. They 
also salute an inspecting officer during the course 
of an official inspection. When the progress of 
a senior officer may be impeded, all personnel 
clear a path and stand at attention facing the 
senior officer until he or she has passed. 



7-12 




ENLISTED MEN SALUTE OFFICERS 
AND JUNIOR OFFICERS SALUTE 
SENIORS WHEN MEETING. PASSING 
NEAR. ADDRESSING OK BEING 
ADDRESSEO 




WHEN OVERTAKING A SENIOR 
THE SALUTE SHALL BE GIVEN 
WHEN ABREAST, WITH BY YOUR 
LEAVE SIR OR MAAM 




WHEN REPORTING (COVERED) 





GUARDS SALUTE ALL OFFICERS 
PASSING CLOSE ABOARD 



SENTRIES AT GANGWAYS SALUTE 
ALL OFFICERS GOING OR COMING 
OVER SIDE, PASSING CLOSE ABOARD 




WHEN OFFICER MEETS DETAIL 
ASHORE OR AFLOAT, PERSON IN 
CHARGE SALUTE FOR DETAIL 




UPON APPROACH OF OFFICER, 
ONE CALLS ATTENTION, 
ALL SALUTE 




ON FIRST DAILY MEETING SALUTE, 
ALL SALUTE 



ON EVERY OCCASION SALUTE THE 
CAPTAIN, OFFICERS SENIOR TO HIM 
OR HER, AND SENIOR OFFICERS 
FROM OTHER SHIPS 



CFFICERS RISE ANO SALUTE 
WHEN A SENIOR ENTERS 
OR LEAVES 




WHEN OFFICER PASSES NEAR, 
OFFICER OR PETTY OFFICER IN 
CHARGE SALUTES, IF NONE 
PRESENT, ALL HANDS DO 



RENDER SALUTES DUE THEM TO 
ALU OFFICERS IN VEHICLES 
(if SAFETY PERMITS) 



Figure 7-3. — When to salute. 



7-13 



In Boats 



Reporting 



Personnel in charge of a boat that is not 
underway salute officers that come alongside 
or pass nearby. If no one is in charge, all 
those in the boat render the salute. Boat 
coxswains salute all officers entering or leaving 
their boats. (Although personnel customarily 
stand when saluting, this formality is dispensed 
with if it risks the safety of the boat.) 
When boat awnings are spread, enlisted per- 
sonnel sit at attention while saluting; they 
do not rise. Officers seated in boats rise when 
rendering salutes to seniors who are entering 
or leaving. 

When boats pass each other with embarked 
officers or officials in view, the senior officer 
and coxswain in each boat render hand salutes. 
Officers seated in passing boats do not rise when 
saluting; the coxswain rises to salute unless it is 
dangerous or impracticable to do so. 

In Civilian Attire 

When a junior recognizes a senior in the armed 
services as one who rates a salute, the junior 
initiates a proper greeting even though the senior 
may be in civihan clothing. If the senior is 
covered, the junior may render a salute. In time 
of war, however, an officer not in uniform may 
be deliberately avoiding disclosure of his or her 
naval membership. Therefore, the junior should 
be discriminate about following the normal 
(peacetime) rule. 

Normally, you do not render salutes while 
wearing civilian clothing. If necessary to avoid 
embarrassment to the naval service, render a 
salute when in doubt. 

In a Group 

If enlisted personnel or officers are standing 
together and a senior officer approaches, the first 
to see the senior calls, "Attention!" All then face 
the senior officer and salute. 



When reporting on deck or out-of-doors 
ashore, all personnel remain covered and salute 
accordingly. When reporting in an office, juniors 
uncover upon approaching the senior but do not 
salute. 

Seated 

An enlisted person being seated and without 
particular occupation rises upon the approach of 
an officer; faces the officer; and salutes, if 
covered. If both remain in the same general 
vicinity, they need not repeat the compliments. 

Seniority Unknown 

In most cases officers will know the relative 
seniority of those with whom they are in frequent 
contact. However, in many situations, especially 
ashore, that is an obvious impossibility. To be 
safe, salute at such times, doing so without delay. 
As a matter of fact, in practically every case where 
uncertainty exists, regardless of grade, the rule is 
to render the salute. 

Sentries 

Sentries at gangways salute all officers going 
or coming over the side. They also salute when 
passing or being passed by officers close aboard 
in boats or otherwise. 

Vehicles 

Enlisted personnel and officers salute all senior 
officers riding in vehicles. Those in the vehicle 
both render and return salutes, as may be 
required. The driver of a vehicle must salute if 
the vehicle is at a halt but may omit the salute 
while the vehicle is in motion to avoid endangering 
the safety of the occupants. 

Watch Relief 



Overtaking 

No junior should overhaul and pass a senior 
without permission. When for any reason the 
junior must pass, he or she does so to the 
left. When abreast of the senior, the junior 
salutes and asks, "By your leave, sir/ma'am?" 
The senior replies, "Very well," and returns the 
salute. 



Many watches aboard ship do not require the 
watch stander to be covered. However, personnel 
''standing watch on the bridge are covered. When 
personnel enter the pilothouse, they salute the 
Boatswain's Mate of the Watch (BMOW) and 
request permission to enter. The helmsman and 
lee helmsman salute the conning officer and 
request permission to relieve the helm and lee 
helm. The conning officer and the OOD also 



7-14 




IN PUBLIC PLACES 
WHERE IMAPPR0PR1*TE 
(THEATRE. HOTEL, 
RESTAURANT, ETC..) 




WHEN UHCOVEREO AND IN INNCR 

COURT OR OPEN PkSIMCWAT 
tCTWCCN «IN«« or (UILOWM 




IN PUtUC CONVCTAMCCt 
«MCN 0*V10Utl.T IHAPPROPRIATC 




Figure 7-4. — When not to salute. 



exchange salutes with the personnel who relieve 
them. Personnel customarily salute whenever the 
commanding officer enters the pilothouse. They 
also salute whenever making reports to the 
commanding officer. 

WHEN NOT TO SALUTE 

Saluting is improper in the following situations 
(fig. 7-4): 

When uncovered, except where failure to salute 
might cause embarrassment or misunderstanding 



In formation, except on command 

On work detail (Person in charge of detail 
salutes.) 

When engaged in athletics or assembled for 
recreation or entertainment 

In public places where obviously inappropriate 
(theaters, restaurants, etc.) 

In pubhc conveyances 



7-15 



When a member of the guard is engaged in 
performance of a duty that prevents saluting 

In action or under simulated combat con- 
ditions 



At mess (When addressed, stop eating and 
show respectful attention.) 



HAND SALUTES ON 
FORMAL OCCASIONS 

Formal occasions require hand salutes 
according to the situation. At a military ceremony 
and when the occasion requires, an officer or 
enlisted person salutes rather than uncovers, as 
that is the traditional mark of respect. 

When an officer officially attends a miUtary 
funeral, a salute is appropriate at the following 
times: 

Whenever honors are rendered 

When the body is removed from the hearse 
to the chapel, from the chapel to the caisson, 
and from the caisson to the grave 



colors, if displayed; otherwise, they face the sound 
of the music. If covered, they begin the salute at 
the first note and end it at the last note. 
When in ranks, the officer in charge orders, 
"Attention," and renders the appropriate hand 
or sword salute for the formation. In boats, only 
the boat officer — or, in the officer's absence, the 
coxswain — stands and salutes when the national 
anthem is played. Other members of the crew, and 
passengers who are already standing, stand at 
attention. All others remain-seated at attention. 
Personnel in civilian clothing standing at attention 
in a boat during the playing of the national 
anthem do not render the "hand-over-heart" 
salute. That is an exception to the general 
rule. 

The above rules apply only to a formal 
rendition of the national anthem. For example, 
if you were in uniform and heard "The Star- 
Spangled Banner" being broadcast over the radio, 
you would not be expected to stop, face the music, 
and salute. However, you would render the 
required honors if you were attending a public 
gathering where the anthem was being broadcast 
as part of the ceremony. 



When the volleys are fired 



During Parades 



When "Taps" is sounded 

Participants at a nonmilitary funeral or burial 
service may follow the civilian custom of un- 
covering (rather than saluting) when such honors 
are called for. For example, they might uncover 
during the procession to the grave or the lowering 
of the body. 

Jewish custom calls for remaining covered 
during all religious ceremonies. The usual rules 
regarding uncovering do not apply when a 
representative of that faith conducts the service. 

Additionally, personnel may wear a skullcap 
(yarmulke) with the uniform whenever a military 
cap, hat, or other headgear is not prescribed. They 
also may wear a skullcap underneath military 
headgear as long as it does not interfere with the 
proper wearing, functioning, or appearance of the 
prescribed headgear. 



During National Anthem 

When the national anthem is played, persons 
in the naval service stand at attention, facing the 



Military personnel salute the flag when they 
are passed by or pass the flag being carried 
uncased in a parade or military formation. 



Funerals and Religious Services 

During funerals (fig. 7-5), officers and enlisted 
personnel remain covered while in the open but 
uncover during the committal service at the grave. 
During burial services at sea, they remain covered 
throughout the service. 

During religious services aboard ship and 
during formal religious ceremonies outdoors 
ashore (such as Easter sunrise service), members 
remain uncovered throughout the ceremony. 

y In general, a military person uncovers during 
a religious ceremony but remains covered during 
a military ceremony. Religious ceremonies include 
church services, civihan funerals, or burial 
services an officer or enlisted person attends as 
a friend of a relative rather than as a represent- 
ative of the Navy. Mihtary funerals and burials 



7-16 



00 




01 

o 



b 

at 

e 



« 

e 






s 
Q 



u 
S 



7-17 



at sea are regarded primarily as military 
ceremonies. 

Service personnel wearing civilian clothing at 
a military funeral follow the etiquette prescribed 
for civilians. 



Honors to the Colors 

Naval ships not underway hoist the national 
ensign at the flagstaff aft at 0800 and lower it at 
sunset. Likewise, they hoist and lower the union 
jack at the jackstaff forward at the same time. 
At colors, they smartly hoist the ensign, lower it 
slowly, and never allow it to touch the deck. At 
both morning and evening colors, ships sound 
"Attention," and all officers and enlisted 
personnel topside face the ensign and render the 
salute. At shore stations and, in peacetime, on 
board large vessels where a band is present, they 
play the national anthem during the ceremonies. 
In the absence of a band, a bugler, if available, 
sounds "To the Colors" at morning ceremonies 
and "Retreat" at sunset formalities. (When 
underway, naval ships usually fly the ensign both 
day and night from the mast and do not hoist the 
jack.) In half-masting the ensign, personnel first 
raise it to the truck or peak and then lower it to 
half-mast. Before lowering the ensign from half- 
mast, they first raise it to the truck or peak and 
then lower it. 

During colors, boats underway within sight or 
hearing of the ceremony either lie to or proceed 
at the slowest safe speed. Boat officers — or in their 
absence, coxswains — stand and salute except when 
dangerous to do so. Other persons in the boat 
remain seated or standing and do not salute. 
Vehicles within sight or hearing of colors stop. 
Persons riding in vehicles sit at attention. The 
person in charge of a military vehicle (but 
someone other than the driver) renders the hand 
salute. 

When a vessel under the flag of a nation 
formally recognized by the government of the 
United States salutes a ship of our Navy by 
dipping its ensign, our ship returns the salute dip 
for dip. U.S. naval vessels never initiate the 
dipping of the ensign. 

In the large assortment of flags carried by 
American men-of-war, only one flies above the 
ensign — the church pennant (fig. 7-6). It is 
displayed during a divine service held by a 
chaplain or visiting church dignitary. 




134.38 
Figure 7-6. — The church pennant, displayed during divine 
services, is the only emblem that may be flown above 
the ensign. 



SUMMARY 

Courtesy can be defined as an act or 
verbal expression of consideration or respect 
for others. When a person acts with courtesy 
toward another, the courtesy is Hkely to 
be returned. We are courteous to our seniors 
because we are aware of their greater respon- 
sibilities and authority. We are courteous 
to our juniors because we are aware of 
their important contributions to the Navy's 
mission. 

^ In the military service, and particularly in the 
Navy where personnel must live and work in 
rather close quarters, we must practice courtesy 
in all that we do on and off duty. Military courtesy 
is important to everyone in the Navy. If you know 
and practice military courtesy, you will make 
favorable impressions and display a self-assurance 



7-18 



that will carry you through many difficult 
situations. Acts of respect and courtesy are 
required of all members of the naval service; the 
junior member takes the initiative, and the senior 
member returns the courtesy. 

While not all-inclusive, this chapter has shown 
you some of the basic guidehnes for military 
courtesies and naval etiquette. As with all other 
endeavors, you must also apply a good measure 
of common sense. 



REFERENCES 

Accommodation of Religious Practices, SEC- 
NAVINST 1730.8, Department of the Navy, 
Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C., 
1988. 

Chief Petty Officer Indoctrination Course, NAV- 
EDTRA 10825-B, Naval Education and 
Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1987. 



Military Requirements for Chief Petty Officer, 
NAVEDTRA 10047- A, Naval Education and 
Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1988. 

Military Requirements for Senior and Master 
Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 10048- A, 
Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 
Fla., 1988. 

United States Navy Regulations. 1990, Depart- 
ment of the Navy, Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D.C., 1990. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Bearden, Bill, and Bill Wedertz, The Bluejacket's 
Manual, 21th ed., United States Naval 
Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1990. 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed., Naval Institute Press, 
Annapolis, Md., 1983. 



HE KNOWS THE ROPES 

WHEN WE SAY THAT SOMEONE KNOWS THE ROPES WE INFER THAT 
HE KNOWS HIS WAY AROUND AT SEA AND IS QUITE CAPABLE OF 
HANDLING MOST NAUTICAL PROBLEMS. THROUGH THE YEARS THE 
PHRASE'S MEANING HAS CHANGED SOMEWHAT. ORIGINALLY, THE 
STATEMENT WAS PRINTED ON A SEAMAN'S DISCHARGE TO INDI- 
CATE THAT HE KNEW THE NAMES AND PRIMARY USES OF THE 
MAIN ROPES ON BOARD SHIP. IN OTHER WORDS, "THIS MAN IS 
A NOVICE SEAMAN AND KNOWS ONLY THE BASICS OF SEAMANSHIP." 




7-19 



CHAPTER 8 



HONORS AND CEREMONIES 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Describe the procedures for conducting morning 
and evening colors. 

2. Identify the procedures for saluting the 
national ensign when boarding a ship or when 
meeting a military formation. 

3. Name the individual who is accorded "Hail to 
the Chief." 

4. Describe the U.S. Navy's regulations for gun 
salutes. 

5. Describe the U.S. Navy's regulations for 
conducting passing honors. 

6. Describe the U.S. Navy's regulations for 
displaying the national ensign, union jack, and 
distinctive marks of vessels. 



7. Describe the ceremony conducted by a ship 
passing Washington's Tomb. 

8. Describe the ceremonies conducted by the 
Navy on President's Day, Independence Day, 
and Memorial Day. 

9. Describe the ceremony conducted by a ship 
passing the USS Arizona memorial. 

10. Describe the procedure for conducting military 
funerals. 

11. Describe the procedure for placing a U.S. 
Navy ship in commission. 

12. Describe a formal change-of-command 
ceremony. 



Honors and ceremonies have been an integral 
part of military courtesy and naval custom for 
hundreds of years. As a part of naval custom, we 
have traditionally rendered honors to ships, to 
high ranking individuals, and to nations. We often 
render honors in the form of ceremonies. We 
make festive occasions of many naval honors and 
ceremonies at which the Navy is seen at its best. 
We perform ceremonies as formal acts on public 
occasions. 

The Navy has too many types of honors and 
ceremonies and too many occasions on which they 
are performed for us to include all of them in this 
chapter. Instead, we will discuss some of the more 
common situations involving a formal ceremony 
or honor and the behavior required of you 
during the event. We have used excerpts from 



chapter 12 of United States Navy Regulations in 
many sections of this chapter. 



HONORS TO NATIONAL ANTHEMS 
AND NATIONAL ENSIGNS 

When naval bands play the national anthem 
of the United States, "The Star Spangled 
Banner," they play it in its entirety. They play 
it as written and prescribed in the official U.S. 
Navy Band arrangement, which is designated as 
the official Department of Defense arrangement. 
The following rules apply to the rendering of the 
national anthem: 

• The official U.S. Navy Band's playing of 
the national anthem of the United States, or of 



8-1 



any other country, as a part of a medley is 
prohibited. 

• When a foreign national anthem is 
prescribed in connection with honors, and per- 
forming the national anthem of the United States 
is also considered appropriate, the national 
anthem of the United States is performed last. 

• On other occasions when foreign national 
anthems are performed, the national anthem of 
the United States is performed last, except when 
performed in conjunction with morning colors. 

Whenever the national anthem of the United 
States is played, all naval service personnel not 
in formation stand at attention and face the 
national ensign; if the national ensign is not 
being displayed, they face the source of the music. 
When covered, they salute at the first note of the 
anthem. Persons in formation are brought to 
order arms or called to attention as appropriate. 
The formation commander faces in the direction 
of the music or ensign and renders the salute for 
the unit. Persons in formation participating in a 
ceremony, on the formation commander's com- 
mand, follow the procedure prescribed for such 
persons during colors; persons in civilian clothes 
comply with the rules and customs established for 
civilians. 

Personnel show the same respect prescribed 
during the playing of the national anthem of the 
United States during the playing of a foreign 
national anthem. 

MORNING AND EVENING COLORS 

Naval commands ashore and aboard ships not 
underway observe the ceremonial hoisting and 
lowering of the national ensign at 0800 and sunset. 
At 0800, this ceremony is known as morning 
colors; at sunset, it is known as evening colors. 
Commands carry out this ceremony as prescribed 
in Navy Regulations as follows: 

• The guard of the day and the band are 
paraded in the vicinity of the point of hoist of the 
ensign. 

• "Attention" is sounded, followed by the 
playing of the national anthem by the band. 



• At morning colors, the ensign is started up 
at the beginning of the music and hoisted smartly 
to the peak or truck. At evening colors, the 



ensign is started from the peak or truck at the 
beginning of the music and lowered at a pace with 
the music so as to be completed at the last note. 

• At the completion of the music, the bugle 
call "Carry On" is sounded. 

• In the absence of a band, "To the Colors" 
is played by the bugle at morning colors, and 
"Retreat" at evening colors. The salute is 
rendered as prescribed for the national anthem. 

• In the absence of music, a whistle sounds 
"Attention" and "Carry On" to begin and end 
the salute. "Carry On" is sounded as soon as the 
ensign is completely lowered. 

• During colors, boats underway within sight 
or hearing of the ceremony lie-to or proceed at 
the slowest safe speed. Boat officers (or in their 
absence, coxswains) stand and salute except when 
dangerous to do so. Other persons in the boat 
remain seated or standing and do not salute. 

• During colors, vehicles within sight or 
hearing of the ceremony stop. Persons riding in 
such vehicles remain seated at attention. 

• After morning colors, if foreign warships 
are present, the national anthem of each nation 
represented is played. Anthems are played in the 
order in which a gun salute would be fired to, or 
exchanged with, the senior official or officer 
present of each nation. This is provided so that 
when a ship is in a foreign port, the national 
anthem of the port is played immediately after 
morning colors, followed by the national anthems 
of other foreign nations present. 

SALUTES TO THE NATIONAL ENSIGN 

Each person in the naval service, upon 
boarding a ship of the Navy, salutes the national 
ensign if it is flying. Each person stops on reaching 
the upper platform of the accommodation ladder 
or the shipboard end of the brow; faces the 
national ensign; renders the salute; and then, in 
turn, salutes the officer of the deck. On leaving 
-^the ship, the person renders the salute in inverse 
order. The officer of the deck returns both salutes. 
When passed by or passing the national ensign 
being carried, uncased, in a military formation, 
all persons in the naval service salute. Persons in 
vehicles or boats follow the procedure prescribed 
for such persons during colors. 



The salutes prescribed above are also rendered 
to foreign national ensigns and aboard foreign 
men-of-war. 



"HAIL TO THE CHIEF" 

The traditional musical selection "Hail to the 
Chief" is designated as a musical tribute to the 
President of the United States. As such, naval 
bands do not perform it as a tribute to other 
dignitaries. Naval personnel give "Hail to the 
Chief" the same honor as that accorded during 
renditions of the national anthem or "To the 
Colors." 



• Under the circumstances prescribed, a 
19-gun salute is fired to the flag of the Secretary 
of State when the Secretary is acting as a special 
foreign representative of the President. Table 8-1 
lists the gun salutes rendered to civil officials of 
the United States when they are on official visits. 



AUTHORITY TO FIRE GUN 
SALUTES TO OFFICERS IN THE 
UNITED STATES NAVAL SERVICE 

As prescribed in Navy Regulations, gun salutes 
for officers and officials entitled to 17 or more 
guns are fired on the occasion of each official visit 
of the individual concerned (fig. 8-1). Gun salutes 



GUN SALUTES 

Gun salutes have been a tradition of navies 
throughout history. The U.S. Navy follows 
specific regulations concerning gun salutes. 

SALUTING SHIPS AND STATIONS 

The Secretary of the Navy or the Secretary's 
duly authorized representative designates certain 
ships and stations as "saluting ships and 
stations." These ships and stations fire gun salutes 
as prescribed in Navy Regulations. Other ships 
and stations do not fire gun salutes, unless 
directed to do so by the senior officer present on 
exceptional occasions when courtesy requires 
them. 

Gun salutes to the flag of the President or the 
Secretary of State are carried out as follows: 

• A 21 -gun salute is fired to the flag of the 
President by the following: 

— Each ship faUing in with a ship dis- 
playing such flag, arriving at a place where such 
flag is displayed ashore, or present when such flag 
is broken 

— A naval station when a ship displaying 
such flag arrives at the naval station or when such 
flag is broken by a ship present 

— A flag or general officer assuming 
command or, while in command, breaking the 
flag of an increased grade in the presence of a ship 
or naval station displaying the flag of the 
President 



Officer 


Gun Salute 


Arrival 


Departure 


Chairman, Joint Chiefs of 
Staff 

Chief of Staff, U.S. Army 

Chief of Naval Operations 

Chief of Staff, U.S. Air 
Force 

Commandant of the 
Marine Corps 


19 
19 
19 

19 

19 
19 
19 
19 
17 
17 


19 
19 
19 

19 

19 


General of the Army .... 
Fleet Admiral 


19 
19 


General of the Air Force 

Generals 

Admirals 

Naval or other military Gov- 
ernor, commissioned as 
such by the President, 
within the area of his 
jurisdiction 

Vice Admiral or 
Lieutenant General 

Rear Admiral or Major 
General 

Rear Admiral or 
Bridgadier General 

Other commissioned 
officers 


19 

17 
17 

17 
15 
13 
11 



Figure 8-1. — Gun salutes rendered to commissioned military 
officers of the United States on the occasions of their 
official visits. 



Table 8-1.— Gun salutes rendered to civil officials of the United States on the occasions of their official visits 



Official 



Gun Salute 



Arrival 



Departure 



Official 



Gun Salute 



Arrival 



Departure 



President 


21 


Ex-President or 
President-elect 


21 


Secretary of State when 
acting as special foreign 
representative of the 
President 


19 


Vice President 




Speaker of the House of 
Representatives 




Governor of a state of the 
United States 




Chief Justice of the United 
States 




Ambassador, High 
Commissioner, or special 
diplomatic representative 
whose credentials give him 
authority equal to or greater 
than that of an Ambassador 




Associate Justices of 
Supreme Court 




US representative to the 
UN 




Secretary of Defense 


19 


Deputy Secretary of 
Defense 


19 


Cabinet officer other than 
Secretary of Defense 




Secretaries of the Army, 
Navy, and Air Force 


19 


Director of Defense 
Research and 
Engineering 


19 


President pro tempore of 
the Senate 




Assistant Secretaries of 
Defense 


17 


General Counsel of the 
DOD 


17 


Undersecretaries of the 
Army, Navy, and 
Air Force 


17 


Assistant Secretaries of the 
Army, Navy, and 
Air Force 


17 



21 
21 

19 
19 

19 

19 

19 



19 
19 

19 

19 

19 
19 
19 

19 
19 

17 
17 

17 

17 



Governor General or 
Governor of a common- 
wealth or possession of 
the United States or area 
under United States 
administration 

Other Undersecretaries of 
Cabinet, the Solicitor 
General, the Deputy 
Attorney General, and 
the Deputy Postmaster 
General 

Members of Congress . . . 

Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister 
Plenipotentiary 

Minister Resident 

Charge d'Affaires 

Career Minister, or 
Counselor of Embassy 
or Legation 

Consul General; or Consul 
or Vice Consul when in 
charge of a Consulate 
General 

First Secretary of Embassy 
or Legation 

Consul; or Vice Consul 
when in charge of a 
Consulate 

Mayor of an incorporated 
city 

Second or Third Secretary 
of Embassy or 
Legation 

Vice Consul when only 
j-epresentative of United 
States, and not in charge 
of a Consulate General 
or Consulate 

Consular Agent when only 
representative of the 
United States 



17 



17 
17 

15 

13 
11 



11 



8-4 



for officers and officials entitled to 15 guns or 
less are not fired unless so ordered by the senior 
officer present or higher authority. 

GUN SALUTES TO THE 
SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT 

When a flag officer embarked in a ship of that 
officer's command arrives in port and is the senior 
officer present or when a flag officer assumes 
command and becomes the senior officer present, 
that officer is saluted by the former senior officer 
present. 

The senior officer of one or more ships 
arriving in port salutes the flag officer who is the 
senior officer present. The arriving senior officer's 
flagship fires a gun salute on the following 
occasions: 

• When a flag officer who is the senior 
officer present assumes command 

• When a flag officer who is the senior 
officer present is reheved of command or 
is advanced in grade 

The senior officer present salutes the relieving 
senior officer present at the following times: 

• When a flag officer embarked in a ship of 
the senior officer's command arrives in 
port and is the senior officer present 

• When a flag officer assumes command and 
becomes the senior officer present 

When a flag officer who is not the senior 
officer present assumes command, that officer 
fires a salute to the senior officer present. 

RETURNING GUN SALUTES 

United States ships and stations observe the 
following regulations in returning gun salutes: 

• A salute fired to the nation by a foreign 
ship arriving in port is returned gun for 
gun. 

• A salute fired to a flag or general officer 
by a foreign ship or station is returned gun 
for gun. 

• A salute fired in honor of the President of 
the United States or the Secretary of State 
when acting as a special representative of 
the President is not returned. 



• A salute fired by the flag or general 
officer's flagship or headquarters in honor 
of the flag or general officer is not 
returned. 

• A salute fired in honor of an anniversary, 
celebration, or solemnity is not returned. 

• Subject to the provisions of Navy Regula- 
tions, a salute fired in honor of a United 
States officer or official is returned with 
the number of guns specified for the grade 
of the flag or general officer rendering the 
salute, or, if not a flag or general officer, 
with seven guns. 

• No return salute may be expected in the 
case of a salute fired by a United States 
ship or station in honor of the following 
officials or occasions. Otherwise, a salute 
fired in honor of a foreign nation or a 
foreign official or officer is returned gun 
for gun. 

— A foreign sovereign 

— A head of state 

— A member of a reigning royal family 

— A special representative of a head of 
state 

— A foreign anniversary 

— A celebration 

— A solemnity 

— An official visit 

• No officer, except a flag or general officer, 
is saluted with guns except in return for 
a gun salute rendered by that officer. 

• No officer of the armed services, while in 
civilian clothes, is saluted with guns, unless 
such officer is at the time acting in an 
official civil capacity. 

• No salute is fired between sunset and 
sunrise, before 0800, or on Sunday except 
when international courtesy so dictates or 
when related to death ceremonies. A gun 
salute in honor of an official or officer 



Official 


Uniform 


Ruffles 

and 

flourishes 


Music 


Guard 


Remarks 


President 

Secretary of State when 
special foreign representative 
of the President. 

Vice President 


As prescribed by 
senior officer 
present. 

Uniform of the day 


4 

4 


National Anthem 

Hail Columbia 
National Anthem 


Full 


Man rail, unless otherwise 
directed by senior officer 
present. 

Crew at quarters. 


Secretary of Defense, Deputy 
Secretary of Defense, or 
Secretary of the Navy; Direc- 
tor of Defense, Research and 
Engineering. 

An Assistant Secretary of 
Defense, Undersecretary, or 
an Assistant Secretary of the 

Navy. 


It 



Figure 8-2. — Passing lionors between sliips and, when practicable, between ships and naval stations. 



who arrives before 0800 is fired at 0800 
unless the day is Sunday or the officer has 
departed meanwhile. If the day is Sunday, 
the salute is fired on Monday; if the 
official or officer has departed meanwhile, 
the salute is not fired. In case of a gun 
salute at 0800, the first gun of the salute 
is fired immediately upon the completion 
of morning colors or the last note of the 
last national anthem. 



PASSING HONORS 

"Passing honors" are those honors, other 
than gun salutes, rendered on occasions when 
ships or embarked officials or officers pass, or 
are passed, close aboard. "Close aboard" means 
passing within 600 yards for ships and 400 yards 
for boats. These rules are interpreted liberally to 
ensure that appropriate honors are rendered. 

PASSING HONORS BETWEEN SHIPS 

Passing honors between ships consists of each 
ship sounding "Attention" and all persons in view 
on deck and not in ranks rendering the hand 
salute. Passing honors are exchanged between 
ships of the Navy and between ships of the Navy 
and the Coast Guard passing close aboard. 



In addition, a ship of the Navy passing close 
aboard a ship or naval station displaying the flag 
of the officials indicated therein renders the 
honors prescribed in figure 8-2. When a ship 
displaying such flag passes close aboard a naval 
station, that station also renders the honors 
prescribed in figure 8-2 when practicable. 



PASSING HONORS TO 
OFFICIALS AND OFFICERS 
EMBARKED IN BOATS 

A ship of the Navy being passed close aboard 
by a boat displaying the flag or pennant of the 
indicated officials and officers renders the honors 
prescribed in figure 8-3. 

Persons on the quarterdeck salute when 
boats pass close aboard in which a flag 
officer, a unit commander, or a commanding 
officer is embarked under the following cir- 
cumstances: 



y 



• When the officer in the boat is in uniform, 
which is indicated by the display of the 
national ensign in United States ports 

• When a miniature of a flag or pennant is 
displayed in addition to the national ensign 
in foreign ports 



8-6 



Official 


Ruffles 

and 

flourishes 


Music 


Guard 


Remarks 


President 


4 


National Anthem 


Full 


"Attention" sounded, and salute by 
all persons in view on deck. If 
directed by the senior officer 
present, man rail. 


Secretary of State when special 
foreign representative of 
President. 


4 






"Attention" sounded, and salute by 
all persons in view on deck. 


Vice President 


4 
4 


Hail Columbia 
Admiral's March 


" 


// 


Secretary of Defense; Deputy 
Secretary of Defense; Secretary of 
the Navy; Director of Defense, 
Research and Engineering; Assist- 
ant Secretary of Defense; and 
Undersecretary or an Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy. 


It 


Other Civil offical entitled to 
honors on official visit. 








It 


Officer of an armed service. 








It 



Figure 8-3. — Passing honors to officials and military officers embarked in boats. 



SEQUENCE IN RENDERING 
PASSING HONORS 

Ships render passing honors in the following 
sequence: 

1 . When the bow of one ship passes the bow or 
stern of the other, the junior sounds attention 
when the bow of one ship passes the bow or 
stern of the other. If the senior is embarked 
in a boat, the junior sounds attention before 
the boat is abreast of the quarterdeck. 

2. The music, if required, sounds off. 

3. "Carry on" is sounded when the prescribed 
honors have been rendered and acknowledged. 



DISPENSING WITH 
PASSING HONORS 

Passing honors are not rendered after sunset 
or before 0800 except when international courtesy 
requires. They also are not exchanged between 
Navy ships engaged in tactical evolutions outside 
port. The senior officer present may direct that 
passing honors be dispensed with in whole or in 
part. 



Passing honors are not rendered by or required 
of ships with small bridge areas, such as sub- 
marines, particularly when in restricted waters. 

CREW AT QUARTERS ON 
ENTERING OR LEAVING PORT 

The crew is paraded at quarters during day- 
light on entering or leaving port on occasions 
of ceremony except when weather or other 
circumstances make it impracticable or un- 
desirable to do so. Ordinarily, occasions of 
ceremony are construed as visits that are not 
operational; as visits at home port when 
departing for or returning from a lengthy 
deployment; as visits to foreign ports not visited 
recently; and as other special occasions so 
determined by a superior. In lieu of parading the 
entire crew at quarters, an honor guard may be 
paraded in a conspicuous place on weather decks. 



DISPLAY OF NATIONAL ENSIGN, 
UNION JACK, AND DISTINCTIVE 
MARK FROM SHIPS AND CRAFT 

Ships and craft of the Navy display the 
national ensign, the union jack, their personal flag 









PERSONAL 








FLAG, 




NATIONAL 


UNION 


COMMAND 


SHIPS OR CRAFT 


ENSIGN 


JACK 


PENNANT, OR 




DISPLAYED 


DISPLAYED 


COMMISSION 

PENNANT 
DISPLAYED 


ACTIVE: 








In commission 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


In service 


Yes 


Yes 


No^ 


INACTIVE: 








In commission, in reserve 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


In service, in reserve 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Out of commission, in 








reserve 


No^ 


No 


No 


Out of service, in reserve 


No' 


No 


No 


SPECIAL STATUS: 








In commission, special 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


In service, special 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Out of commission, 








special 


No* 


No 


No 


Out of service, special 


No* 


No 


No 



^National ensign shall be displayed if necessary to indicate the national character of the ship or craft. 

^Applies to display of commission pennant only. A flag officer or unit commander embarked may 
display a personal flag or command pennant. 

Figure 8-4. — Display of ensign, union jack, and distinctive mark from ships and craft. 



or pennant, or their commission pennant as 
specified in figure 8-4. 

The distinctive mark of a commissioned Navy 
ship or craft is a personal flag or a command 
pennant of an officer of the Navy or a commission 
pennant. The distinctive mark of a commissioned 
hospital ship of the Navy is the Red Cross 
flag. 

A ship or craft does not display more than one 
distinctive mark at one time, nor does it display 
the commission pennant and the personal flag of 
a civil official at one time. 

Except as prescribed in Navy Regulations for 
certain occasions of ceremony and when civil 
officials are embarked, ships display the flag 
or pennant day and night. Ships display the 



distinctive mark at the after masthead or, in 
a mastless ship, from the loftiest and most 
conspicuous hoist. 

When not underway ships display the 
national ensign from the flagstaff and the 
union jack from the jackstaff from 0800 until 
sunset. A ship that enters port at night, 
when appropriate, displays the national ensign 
from the gaff at daylight for a time sufficient 
to estabhsh its nationality. Other ships of 
war customarily display their national ensigns 
in return. 

Unless the senior officer present directs other- 
wise, a ship underway displays the ensign during 
daylight from the gaff under the following 
circumstances. (If the ship has mast-mounted 
booms and stays that would interfere with the 



8-8 



hoisting, lowering, or flying of the ensign, it 
displays the ensign on the triatic stay.) 

• Getting underway and coming to anchor 

• Falling in with other ships 

• Cruising near land 

• During battle 

The union jack displayed from the jackstaff 
is the size of the union of the national ensign 
displayed from the flagstaff. 

Ships display the union jack at a yardarm to 
denote that a general court-martial or court of 
inquiry is in session. 

NATIONAL ENSIGN AT 
COMMANDS ASHORE 

The national ensign is displayed from 0800 to 
sunset near the headquarters of every command 
ashore. When the proximity of headquarters of 
two or more commands makes the display of 
separate ensigns inappropriate, the ensign is 
displayed at the headquarters of the senior. 

DISPLAY OF NATIONAL 
ENSIGN IN BOATS 

Waterborne boats of the naval service display 
the national ensign at the following times: 

• When underway during daylight in a 
foreign port 

• During dress ship or full-dress ship 

• When going alongside a foreign vessel 

• When an officer or official is embarked on 
an official occasion 

• When a flag or general officer, unit 
commander, commanding officer, or chief 
of staff, in uniform, is embarked in a boat 
assigned to the officer's command or in 
one assigned for that officer's personal use 

• At such other times as may be prescribed 
by the senior officer present 

DIPPING THE NATIONAL ENSIGN 

When any vessel, under the United States 
registry or the registry of a nation formally 



recognized by the United States government, 
salutes a ship of the Navy by dipping its ensign, 
it is answered dip for dip. If not already being 
displayed, the national ensign is hoisted for the 
purpose of answering the dip. An ensign being 
displayed at half-mast is hoisted to the truck or 
peak before a dip is answered. 

No ship of the Navy dips the national ensign 
unless in return for such compliment. 

Of the colors carried by a naval force on shore, 
only the battalion or regimental colors are 
dipped in rendering or acknowledging a salute. 

Submarines, or other vessels on which dipping 
would endanger the lives of its personnel, are not 
required to dip the ensign. 



HALF-MASTING THE NATIONAL 
ENSIGN AND UNION JACK 

When the national ensign is half-masted, if not 
previously hoisted, it is first hoisted to the truck 
or peak and then lowered to half-mast. Before it 
is lowered from half-mast, the ensign is hoisted 
to the truck or peak and then lowered. 

When the national ensign is half-masted, the 
union jack, if displayed from the jackstaff, is 
Ukewise half-masted. Personal flags, command 
pennants, and commission pennants are not 
displayed at half-mast except as prescribed in 
Navy Regulations for a deceased official or 
officer. 

When directed by the President, the national 
ensign is flown at half-staff at military facilities 
and aboard naval vessels and at stations abroad. 
It is flown at half-mast whether or not the national 
ensign of another nation is flown full-staff 
alongside that of the United States. 



BOW INSIGNIA AND FLAGSTAFF 
INSIGNIA FOR BOATS 

A boat regularly assigned to an officer for 
personal use carries insignia on each bow as 
follows: 

• For a flag or general officer, the stars as 
arranged in that officer's flag 

• For a unit commander who is not a flag 
officer, a replica of the command pennant 

• For a commanding officer or for a chief 
of staff who is not a flag officer, an arrow 



8-9 



Certain boats display the ensign and the 
personal flag or pennant of an officer on a staff 
fitted at the peak with certain devices. A boat 
assigned for the personal use of a flag or general 
officer, unit commander, chief of staff, or 
commanding officer, or on which a civil official 
is embarked carries a staff fitted with the 
following devices: 

• A spread eagle for an official or officer 
whose official salute is 19 or more guns 

• A halberd 

— for a flag or general officer whose 
official salute is less than 19 guns or 

— for a civil official whose official salute 
is 11 or more guns but less than 19 guns 

• A ball 

— for an officer of the grade, or relative 
grade, of captain in the Navy or 

— for a career minister, a counselor or first 
secretary of embassy or legation, or a 
consul 

• A star for an officer of the grade, or 
relative grade, of commander in the Navy 

• A flat truck 

— for an officer below the grade, or 
relative grade, of commander in the Navy 
or 

— for a civil official not Hsted above and 
for whom honors are prescribed for an 
official visit 



mastless ships make a display as little modified 
from the rainbow effect as possible. 

During dress or full-dress ship in honor of a 
foreign nation, the national ensign of that nation 
replaces the United States national ensign at the 
main, or at the masthead in the case of a single- 
masted ship. During dress or full-dress ship in 
honor of more than one nation, the ensign of each 
nation is displayed at the main, or at the masthead 
in a single-masted ship. 

Should half-masting of the national ensign be re- 
quired on occasions of dress or full-dress ship, only 
the national ensign at the flagstaff is half-masted. 

When full-dress ship is prescribed, the senior 
officer present may direct that dress ship be 
substituted if, in that officer's opinion, the state 
of the weather makes such action advisable. The 
senior officer present may also, under such circum- 
stances, direct that the ensigns be hauled down 
from the mastheads after they have been hoisted. 

Dress ship or full-dress ship is prescribed for 
ships not underway from 0800 until sunset. 
Neither dress ship nor full-dress ship is prescribed 
for ships underway. 

SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT 
AFLOAT PENNANT 

Ships use the "starboard" pennant as the 
senior officer present afloat (SOFA) pennant. 

If two or more Navy ships are docked together 
in port, the ship in which the senior officer 
present afloat (SOFA) is embarked displays the 
SOFA pennant, except when the SOFA's personal 
flag clearly indicates that officer's seniority. It is 
displayed from the inboard halyard of the 
starboard main yardarm. 



DRESS AND FULL-DRESS SHIP 

Flying the largest national ensign assigned to 
the ship from the flagstaff with a national ensign 
displayed at each masthead is known as dress ship. 
A personal flag or command pennant will not be 
substituted with a national ensign. The national 
ensigns displayed at the masthead are of uniform 
size. When a substantial difference in heights of 
the mastheads exists, using different sizes of 
national ensigns is appropriate. 

In addition to dressing of the mastheads, 
displaying a rainbow of signal flags reaching from 
the foot of the jackstaff to the mastheads and 
from those points to the foot of the flagstaff is 
known as full-dress ship. Dress ship and full-dress 
ship requirements are prescribed in the Navy 
Department publication Flags, Pennants, and 
Customs (NTF-13A). Fecuharly masted or 



SPECIAL CEREMONIES, 

ANNIVERSARIES, AND 

SOLEMNITIES 

Navy ships, stations, and activities perform 
special ceremonies in honor of certain memorials, 
solemnities, and events, such as funerals, the 
commissioning of ships, and holidays. Although 
they perform special ceremonies for several 
hoHdays, they observe all national hoUdays. 

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS 

Naval ships, stations, and activities observe 
the following national holidays and such other 
days as may be designated by the President: 

New Year's Day, the 1st of January 

Martin Luther King Day, the third Monday in 
January 



8-10 



President's Day, the third Monday in 
February 

Memorial Day, the last Monday in May 

Independence Day, the 4th of July 

Labor Day, the first Monday in September 

Columbus Day, the second Monday in 
October 

Veterans Day, the 11th of November 

Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in 
November 

Christmas Day, the 25th of December 

Whenever any of the above designated dates 
fall on Saturday, the preceding day is observed 
as a holiday; whenever such dates fall on Sunday, 
the following day is observed. 

CEREMONIES FOR 
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS 

On President's Day (the third Monday in 
February) and on Independence Day (the 4th of 
July), every ship of the Navy in commission, not 
underway, displays full-dress ship. At noon each 
saluting ship and each naval station equipped with a 
saluting battery fires a national salute of 21 guns. 

At noon on Memorial Day (the last Monday 
in May), all saluting ships and all naval stations 



having a saluting battery fire a salute of 21 minute- 
guns. All ships and naval stations display the 
national ensign at half-mast from 0800 until the 
completion of the salute or until 1220 if no salute 
is fired or to be fired. 

When the 4th of July occurs on Sunday, all 
special ceremonies are postponed until the follow- 
ing day. 

SHIPS PASSING 
WASHINGTON'S TOMB 

When passing Washington's Tomb, located in 
Mount Vernon, Virginia, between sunrise and 
sunset, Navy ships perform the following 
ceremony insofar as practicable: The full guard 
and band are paraded, the bell tolled, and the 
national ensign half-masted at the beginning of 
the toUing of the bell. When opposite Wash- 
ington's Tomb, the guard presents arms; persons 
on deck salute, facing in the direction of the tomb; 
and "Taps" is sounded. The national ensign is 
hoisted to the truck or peak and the tolling ceases 
at the last note of "Taps," after which the 
national anthem is played. Upon completion of 
the national anthem, "Carry On" is sounded. 

SHIPS PASSING THE 

USS ARIZONA MEMORIAL 

When passing the USS Arizona memorial in 
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, between sunrise and 
sunset, ships execute passing honors (fig. 8-5). To 




109.14 
Figure 8-5. — Crew members manning the rail of the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) as the ship passes the 

USS Arizona memorial. 



8-11 



execute passing honors, ships sound "Attention" 
and all persons in view on deck and not in ranks 
render the hand salute. 



FUNERALS 

If no chaplain or clergy is available, the com- 
manding officer (CO) or the CO's representative 
conducts the funeral service of a Navy member. 

Six pallbearers and six body bearers escort the 
body of a Navy member during a military funeral. 
The pallbearers are usually of the same grade or 
rating as the deceased. If a sufficient number of 
foreign officers of appropriate grade attend the 
funeral, they may be invited to serve as additional 
pallbearers. 

Those attending a military funeral may wear 
the mourning badge at their discretion. Escorts 
for a military funeral wear the mourning badge 
as prescribed in the U.S. Navy Uniform 
Regulations for their own command. 

Boats taking part in a funeral procession 
display the national ensign at half-mast. If the 
deceased was a flag or general officer; or at the 
time of death, a unit commander; or a com- 
manding officer of a ship, that officer's flag or 
command pennant, or a commission pennant, is 
draped in mourning. It is then displayed at half- 
mast from a staff in the bow of the boat carrying 
the body. 

The casket is covered with the national ensign. 
The ensign is placed on the casket so that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder of 
the deceased. The ensign is removed from the 
casket before it is lowered into the grave or 
committed to the deep. 

Persons in the naval service salute when the 
body is carried past them, while the body is 
being lowered into the grave or committed to the 
deep, and during the firing of volleys and the 
sounding of "Taps." 

Three rifle volleys are fired after the body has 
been lowered into the grave or committed to the 
deep, following which "Taps" is sounded by the 
bugle. In a foreign port, when a ship has not 
obtained permission to land an armed escort, the 



volleys are fired over the body after it has been 
lowered into the boat alongside. 

During burial at sea, the ship is stopped, if 
possible, and the ensign is displayed at half-mast 
from the beginning of the funeral service until 
the body has been committed to the deep. 
Further display of the ensign at half-mast may be 
prescribed, depending on the circumstances, by 
the senior officer present. 

Funeral honors are not rendered between 
sunset and sunrise. When circumstances require 
burial of the dead at night, such funeral services 
as are feasible are conducted. 



SHIP COMMISSIONING CEREMONY 

Although Navy Regulations does not specif- 
ically prescribe the ceremony for commissioning 
a Navy ship, custom has established a formal and 
impressive routine. The crew of the ship being 
commissioned assembles and stands in formation, 
headed by the division officer or department 
heads. Other ship's officers assemble facing the 
ceremony, usually behind the executive officer. 
Distinguished guests and participants in the 
ceremony are seated. The first watch and the 
officer of the deck (OOD) take their stations on 
the quarterdeck. Crew members station them- 
selves at the ready, standing by the national 
ensign, union jack, and commission pennant or 
personal flag halyards. 

The officer making the transfer (usually an 
officer of flag rank) opens the ceremony by 
reading the orders for delivery of the ship to the 
U.S. Navy. "Attention" is sounded by the bugle, 
the national anthem is played, and all flags, 
including the personal flag of the officer making 
the transfer, are hoisted simultaneously. With this 
act the ship is officially commissioned. 

The officer effecting the transfer delivers the 
ship to the new commanding officer by saying, 
"I hereby deliver the USS [name of ship]." The 
new commanding officer reads his or her orders 
and states, "I hereby assume command of the 
USS [name of ship]," and orders the executive 
officer to "set the watch." The executive officer, 
in turn, directs the OOD to set the watch, and the 
ship's boatswain (or chief boatswain's mate in 
small ships) pipes the watch. The OOD and the 
other members of the watch take their assigned 
watch stations. 



8-12 



Customarily the CO delivers a short speech. 
The speech usually touches on the work of the 
building yard, the name of the ship, the history 
of any previous ships of the same name, and other 
items of interest. 

If the state, city, or sponsor intends to make 
a presentation of silver or another gift, this 
portion of the ceremony then takes place. A 
benediction by the ship or yard chaplain concludes 
the ceremony. 

After the ceremony, the officer's wardroom, 
chief petty officer's (CPO's) mess, and crew's 
mess host a reception or luncheon to entertain the 
guests. 

This ceremony provides an impressive and 
fitting way for a new ship to enter the U.S. 

Navy. 



CHANGE-OF-COMMAND CEREMONY 

Following U.S. Navy Regulations, a com- 
manding officer about to be relieved of command 
will, at the time of turning over command, call 
all hands to muster. With the crew at quarters, 
the commanding officer reads the orders of 
detachment and relinquishes command to the 
prospective commanding officer, who then 
assumes command as directed. 

The change-of-command ceremony, which is 
rich in naval tradition, is quite formal. The 
turnover of a Navy command is the formal 
passing of responsibility, authority, and account- 
ability of command from one officer to another. 

With all hands at quarters, with officers and 
crew in ranks, the senior officer participating in 
the ceremony parades and readies for inspection 
an appropriate guard. Guests are seated. 
Although the main purpose of the ceremony is 
the turnover of responsibility from one officer 
to another, it provides the outgoing CO the 
opportunity to say goodbye to the officers and 
enlisted personnel. It also provides an opportunity 
for the new CO to greet the crew. Normally, the 
uniform should be full dress with swords for 
participants and service dress for military guests. 
After the reading of orders, the departing CO 
turns to the relieving officer and says, "Sir 



or Ma'am, I am ready to be relieved." The 
prospective CO steps forward, reads the orders 
of assignment to command, faces the departing 
CO, salutes, and says, "Sir or Ma'am, I reheve 
you." The unit commander, if present, is saluted 
by the new CO, who says, "Sir or Ma'am, I report 
for duty." The new CO makes a few brief 
remarks, usually confined to wishing the 
departing CO well and stating that all orders of 
his or her predecessor remain in effect. After the 
exchange-of-command salute, the old commission 
pennant is lowered and a new one broken. The 
old commission pennant is then presented to the 
departing CO. As with the ship commissioning 
ceremony, the officer's wardroom, CPO's mess, 
and crew's mess usually host a reception. 



SUMMARY 

Few occasions stir the emotions of people 
more than a formal naval ceremony. Most of 
these ceremonies instill a great amount of pride 
in our naval service for all who attend. 

In your naval career you will attend many 
formal ceremonies. No matter what role you fill, 
take a moment to look around you to reflect on 
the traditions and customs that have been carried 
on for many years. These traditions and customs 
will make you proud to be a part of the greatest 
Navy in the world. 



REFERENCES 

United States Navy Regulations, 1990, Depart- 
ment of the Navy, Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D.C., 1990. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Mack, W.P., and R.W. Connell, Naval Cere- 
monies, Customs, and Traditions, 5th ed.. 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1980. 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
Annapohs, Md., 1983. 



8-13 



ENSIGN 



THE NAME GIVEN THE NAVY'S JUNIOR-MOST OFFICER DATES TO 
MEDEVIAL TIMES. LORDS HONORED THEIR SQUIRES BY ALLOWING 
THEM TO CARRY THE ENSIGN (BANNER) INTO BATTLE. LATER 
THESE SQUIRES BECAME KNOWN BY THE NAME OF THE BANNER 
ITSELF. 

IN THE U.S. ARMY THE LOWEST RANKING OFFICER WAS ORIGINALLY 
CALLED "ENSIGN" BECAUSE HE, LIKE THE SQUIRE OF OLD. WOULD 
ONE DAY LEAD TROOPS INTO BATTLE AND WAS TRAINING TO THAT 
END. IT IS STILL THE LOWEST COMMISSIONED RANK IN THE 
BRITISH ARMY TODAY. 



WHEN THE U.S. NAVY 
ON THE TRADITION AND 
TITLE FOR ITS JUNIOR 



WAS ESTABLISHED, THE AMERICANS CARRIED 
ADAPTED THE RANK OF ENSIGN AS THE 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 




X 



8-14 



CHAPTER 9 



UNIFORMS, INSIGNIA, AND AWARDS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the differences between flag officers, 
Hne officers, and staff corps officers. 

2 . Identify the uniforms and corps devices worn 
by naval officers. 

3 . Identify the different types of aiguillettes and 
those personnel authorized to wear them. 

4. Describe the use of mourning badges. 

5 . Identify midshipmen's and officer candidate's 
uniform markings. 

6 . Describe the differences between rates and 
ratings for enlisted personnel. 



8. Identify the various breast insignia worn by 
naval personnel. 

9. Define the terms associated with naval medals 
and awards. 

10. Determine the order of precedence for 
wearing various naval medals and awards and 
the manner in which they are worn. 

1 1 . Describe various uniform modifications that 
may be authorized by your prescribing 
authority. 

12. Identify the Navy's facility for ordering 
uniforms through the mail. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

5 Sep. 1776 Navy adopts its first uniform. 

1 Jul. 1933 Navy Clothing Depot, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., established. 

Every naval officer should be an authority on 
the grades, ratings, and insignia of the Navy. An 
officer should also be able to recognize and 
know the meaning of the insignia worn by other 
branches of the armed forces. 

Because Navy ways might be new to you, 
many questions probably have crossed your mind. 
For example, at times you may have thought. 
What is that officer's rank? What does that 
petty officer's insignia mean? What does that 
collar device stand for? 

This chapter describes the types of uniforms 
and corps/grade devices of naval officers and 



midshipmen. It also describes the uniforms, rating 
insignia, and distinguishing marks of enlisted 
personnel in the Navy. Included are comparisons 
of rank, rate, and grade insignia of all service 
members. 

OFFICER PERSONNEL 

As in other branches of the armed services, 
officers of the Navy have precedence according 
to their grade. Within their grade, officers have 
precedence according to their date of appointment 
to that grade. Officers are junior to those with 
a higher grade. Within grades, officers are junior 
to those with an appointment date prior to theirs. 
Although the word rank is often used inter- 
changeably with grade, this is incorrect. Officers 
hold a grade (captain, commander, etc.); they 
outrank a junior, or they rank from the date of 
appointment to their grade (date of rank). 



9-1 



All commissioned officers (including a chief 
[commissioned] warrant officer) hold a com- 
mission granted by the President and signed by 
the Secretary of the Navy. 



The personal flag of an officer of the line has 
a blue field with white stars. The personal flag 
of a staff corps officer has a white field with blue 
stars. 



OFFICERS' GRADES AND TITLES 

The following shows how naval officers' 
grades correspond to those of the other services: 



Navy 

Admiral 

Vice admiral 

Rear admiral, upper half (UH) 

Rear admiral, lower half (LH) 

Captain 

Commander 

Lieutenant commander 

Lieutenant 

Lieutenant (junior grade) 

Ensign 

Chief warrant officer (W-4) 

Chief warrant officer (W-3) 

Chief warrant officer (W-2) 



Army, Marine Corps, 
Air Force 

General 

Lieutenant general 
Major general 
Brigadier general 
Colonel 

Lieutenant colonel 
Major 
Captain 
First lieutenant 
Second lieutenant 
Same as Navy* 
Same as Navy* 
Same as Navy* 



*The U.S. Air Force does not have a chief warrant officer 
rank. 



Flag Officer 

Officers of the grade of rear admiral and 
above are known as flag officers. Flag officers 
have the privilege of flying a personal flag on the 
ship or station to which they are attached. The 
number of stars decorating the flag indicates the 
officer's grade as follows: 



Rear admiral (LH) 


1 star 


Rear admiral (UH) 


2 stars 


Vice admiral 


3 stars 


Admiral 


4 stars 



Admiral 

The title of admiral comes from the Arabic 
amir-al-bahr, meaning ruler of the sea. The 
Moorish also used the term emir as the title given 
to the senior ranking officer in the Moorish army. 
See figure 9-1 for a description of the term 
admiral. The French and English used the title 
long before the discovery of America, but the 
grade was not established in the U.S. Navy until 
1862 (along with commodore). 

In 1944 Congress established the five-star 
grade of fleet admiral (a comparable grade of 
General of the Army). The first officers appointed 
to this grade were Admirals WilUam D. Leahy; 
Ernest J. King; Chester W. Nimitz; and WilHam 
F. Halsey, Jr. Authority for the grade of fleet 
admiral no longer exists (it expired with the death 
of Admiral Nimitz in 1966). Its reestablishment 
will require another act of Congress. 



Commodore 

Until 1862 all captains in the United 
States Navy commanding or having com- 
manded squadrons of ships were customarily 
addressed as commodore, though never com- 
missioned as such. Commodore became a 
fixed grade in 1862 and then was abandoned 
as a grade on the active Ust in 1899. In 
1943 the grade of commodore was reestablished 
for temporary service in time of war or national 
emergency. 



Line and Staff Corps Officers 

X Navy officers who are eligible to assume 
command of ships (and stations) are designated 
unrestricted line officers, being in the line of 
command. Other officers serve as members of the 
several staff corps or as specialists in various 
fields. 



9-2 




ADMIRAL 

AN ADMIRAL IS THE SENIOR RANKING OFFICER IN THE U.S. 
NAVY, BUT HIS TITLE COMES FROM THE NAME GIVEN THE 
SENIOR RANKING OFFICER IN THE MOORISH ARMY OF MANY 
YEARS AGO. A MOORISH CHIEF WAS AN "EMIR" AND THE 
CHIEF OF ALL CHIEFS WAS THE "EMIR-AL." OUR ENGLISH 
WORD IS DERIVED DIRECTLY FROM THE MOORISH. 



Figure 9-1. — The origin of the term "admiral." 



The staff corps of the Navy consists of the 
following nine members, listed in their order of 
precedence: 

Medical* 

Supply 

Chaplain 

Civil Engineer 

Judge Advocate General 

Dental 



Medical Service* 

Nurse 

U.S. Navy Band (Musicians) 

*The Medical Corps consists of physicians and 
surgeons. The Medical Service Corps is made up 
of pharmacists, medics, administrative officers, 
medical technologists, and so forth. 

While commissioned officers of the staff corps 
have the rights and privileges of their grades, they 
may only assume command in their own corps. 
A medical officer, for example, can command 



9-3 






FULL DRESS WHITE SERVICE DRESS BLUE WINTER BLUE SUMMER KHAKI 



Figure 9-2.— Basic men's uniforms. 






^ 



SERVICE DRESS BLUE SUMMER WHITE WINTER BLUE SUMMER KHAKI 



Figure 9-3. — Basic women's uniforms. 



9-4 



only a medical activity, such as a hospital or 
dispensary. Staff corps officers should not be 
confused with staff officers. Staff officers may 
be either line or staff corps officers assigned to 
the staffs of high-ranking officers. 

UNIFORMS AND CORPS DEVICES 

Naval officers wear various uniforms for 
different occasions, similar to various civilian 
dress requirements. Figures 9-2 and 9-3 show some 
of the uniforms worn by Navy men and women. 
Naval aviators and chief petty officers (CPOs) 
serving as pilots or naval flight officers or 
in aviation support billets wear the aviation 
working green uniform (forest green). Other 
officers and chief petty officers attached to 
aviation commands may also wear it. U.S. Navy 
Uniform Regulations gives full details regarding 
uniforms and insignia. 



Area coordinators prescribe the uniform of the 
day to be worn in their respective geographical 
areas. The senior officer present afloat (SOFA) 
prescribes the uniform of the day for shipboard 
commands outside the geographical limits of the 
area coordinator. The senior officer present (SOP) 
prescribes the uniform of the day for shore 
stations. 

Officers wear certain devices with different 
uniforms to signify their grade. They wear gold 
sleeve stripes on blue coats; black sleeve stripes 
on forest green coats; and shoulder marks on 
white coats, white tropical shirts, and blue over- 
coats. They wear metal grade insignia on the 
shoulder straps of the blue raincoat and overcoat 
and on collars of khaki and blue flannel shirts. 

Above the stripes (inboard of them on 
shoulder boards), line officers wear a five-pointed 
gold star; staff corps officers wear the appropriate 
corps device, as shown in figure 9-4. Women 



LINE 



MEDICAL CORPS 



SUPPLY CORPS 




FIVE-POINTED STAR 



CHAPLAIN CORPS 
(Jewish) 





GOLD OAK LEAF, 

SILVER ACORN IN 

CENTER 

CIVIL ENGINEER 
CORPS 




STAR OF DAVID 

ATTACHED TO THE 

TOP CENTER OF 

TABLETS OF THE LAW 

LEADER, U.S. 
NAVY BAND* 



TWO GOLD SPRIGS OF 

TWO OAK LEAVES 

EACH, SILVER ACORN 

IN EACH SPRIG 




SPRIG OF THREE OAK 

LEAVES AND THREE 

ACORNS 



DENTAL CORPS 




GOLD OAK LEAF WITH 
SILVER ACORN ON 
EACH SIDE OF 
STEM 



CHAPLAIN CORPS 

(Chr,st,an) 




LATIN CROSS 



MEDICAL SERVICE 
CORPS 




GOLD OAK LEAF 
ATTACHED TO A 
SLANTING TWIG 



NURSE CORPS 



JUDGE ADVOCATE 
GENERAL'S CORPS 






GOLD LYRE 



Also Iftoder of U. S. Novol Academy Bond ond 
thos* commissioned in the field of music 



GOLD OAK LEAF 



TWO GOLD OAK LEAVES, 

SILVER MILL RINDE 

IN CENTER 



Figure 9-4. — Commissioned officers' line and staff corps devices. 



9-5 



SECURITY 
TECHNICIAN 




ENCIRCLED 

STAR WITHIN 

A SHIELD 



BOATSWAIN 




CROSSED 

FOUL 
ANCHORS 



OPERATIONS 
TECHNICIAN 







SHIP'S HELM 

CIRCUMSCRIBING 

ARROWS AND SPARK 



ORDNANCE 
TECHNICIAN 




F L AM I NG 

SPHERICAL 

SHELL 



COMMUNICATIONS 
TECHNICIAN 



LIGHTNING BOLTS 



ELECTRONICS 
TECHNICIAN 



HELIUM ATOM 



ENG INEEft ING 

TECHNICIAN/NUCLEAR 

POWER TECHNICIAN 



# Sd 



THREE -BLAOED 
PROPE LLER 



SHIP'S CLERK 




CROSSED 
OUILL 
PENS 



REPAIR 
TECHNICIAN 



V 



CARPENTER' S 
SQUARE 



AVIATION 

BOATSWAIN 



CROSSED FOUL 
ANCHORS. WINGED 



AVIATION 

ORDNANCE 

TECHNICIAN 



AVIATION 
MAINTENANCE 
TECHNICIAN 



AVIATION 
ELECTRONICS 
TECHNICIAN 



AEROGRAPHER 



PHOTOGRAPHER 



FLAMING 

SPHERICAL 

SHELL. WINGED 



TWO-BLADED 

PROPELLER, 

WINGED 



HELIUM ATOM. 
WINGED 



WINGED CIRCLE. 
ARROW THROUGH 



BANDMASTER 




PHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT 




CADUCEUS 



AIR TRAFF IC 

CONTROL 
TECHNICIAN 



WINGED 
MICROPHONE 



INTELLIGENCE 
TECHNICIAN 




YEOMAN'S OUILL 

SUPERIMPOSED 

ON MAGNIFYING 

GLASS 



CRYPTOLOGIC 
TECHNICIAN 




CROSSED OUILL 
PEN AND SPARK 



DATA 

PROCESSING 

DISPOSAL 




OUILL PEN 

SUPERIMPOSED 

ON GEAR 



SUPPLY CLERK 




CIVIL ENGINEER 
CORPS 



SPRIG OF THREE 
OAK LEAVES 


TWO GOLD SPRIGS 

OF TWO OAK LEAVES 

EACH: SILVER ACORN 

IN EACH SPRIG 


EXPLOSIVE 
ORDNANCE 

TECHNICIAN 
DISPOSAL 


AVIATION 
OPERATIONS 
TECHNICAIN 




MINE SUPERIMPOSED 

ON CROSSED BOMB 

AND TORPEDO 



TWO CROSSED ELECTRON 
ORBITS. WINGED. WITH 
LIGHTNING BOLT PASS- 
ING TOWARD WAVES 



Figure 9-5. — Warrant officers' specialty insignia. 



officers wear cap and sleeve insignia identical to 
those of male officers. 

The specialty devices for commissioned 
warrant officers appear in figure 9-5. 

Figure 9-6 shows the gold stripes that indicate 
an officer's grade. Flag officers' sleeve markings 
consist of at least one 2-inch stripe. The addition 
of 1/2-inch stripes above the 2-inch band indicates 
relative seniority by grade — one stripe for rear 
admiral (UH), two for vice admiral, three for full 



admiral, and four for fleet admiral. As shown 
in the figure, the size and number of 1/2-inch and 
1/4-inch stripes indicate the grades of other 
commissioned officers. All chief warrant officers 
wear one broken 1/2-inch stripe. 

Officers wear grade-indicating devices on the 
collars of khaki and winter blue shirts. Line 
officers wear the device on both collar tips. Staff 
corps officers wear the grade device on the right 
collar tip and the corps device on the left. 



9-6 



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9-7 



Naval officers wear the following grade 
devices; they are similar to the grade devices worn 
by Army, Air Force, and Marine officers: 



Grade 

Fleet admiral 

Admiral 

Vice admiral 

Rear admiral (UH) 

Rear admiral (LH) 

Captain 

Commander 



Device 

Five silver stars 
Four silver stars 
Three silver stars 
Two silver stars 
One silver star 
Silver spread eagle 
Silver oak leaf 



Lieutenant commander Gold oak leaf 



Lieutenant 

Lieutenant Gg) 

Ensign 

Commissioned warrant 
officer 



Two silver bars 

One silver bar 

One gold bar 

Dark blue bar with 
silver (W-4, W-3) or 
gold (W-2) breaks 



The Navy authorizes officers to wear two 
types of caps: combination and garrison. The 
combination cap has a stiff visor and rigid- 
standing front. Officers wear it with a detachable 
blue, white, khaki, or aviation green (for aviation 
personnel) cap cover. The blue is prescribed only 
in extremely cold weather. The color of the cap 
cover and the uniform must match except for the 
white cover, which officers may wear with both 
blue and white uniforms. They have the option 
of wearing the garrison cap, which is either green 
or khaki, with a uniform of the same color. When 
authorized by proper authority, they may wear 
a command ball cap with the working uniform. 

Combination caps worn by officers below the 
grade of commander have a plain, black visor. 
Captains' and commanders' visors are partly 
fretted by gold embroidery; flag officers' caps 
bear full visor embroidery. Cap devices consist 
of two crossed fouled anchors with a silver shield 
surmounted by a spread eagle. Chin straps are 
faced with gold lace. 



Personnel wear the rank device on the garrison 
cap on the right side near the front and a 
miniature cap device on the left side. 



AIGUILLETTES AND 
MOURNING BADGES 

Officers wear aiguiilettes when assigned to the 
following duties: 

Personal aide to the President 

Aide to the Vice President 

Aide at the White House 

Aide to the Secretary of Defense 

Aide to the Secretary, Undersecretary, and 
Assistant Secretaries of the Navy 

Aide to the Deputy or Assistant Secretaries of 
Defense 

Aide to flag officers 

Naval attache 

Aide to top ranking representatives of foreign 
nations visiting the United States 

Recruit company commander 

Recruit company commander assistant 

U.S. Navy ceremonial guard 

Officers appointed as aides on the staff of a 
governor of a state or territory may wear 
aiguiilettes on official occasions. 

Aides to the President, to the Vice President, 
at the White House, and to foreign heads of state 
wear them on the right side; all others wear them 
on the left. Officers wear them on the outside of 
overcoats or reefers. 

Service aiguiilettes consist of loops of 
gold cord with a blue silk insertion. The 
one worn by an aide to the President has 
no insertion. The aiguillette cord fastens on 
the shoulder and then loops around the shoulder 
just under the armpit. The number of loops 
indicates the wearer's duty assignment or status 
(fig. 9-7). 



9-8 



SERVICE AIGUILLETTES 




AIDE TO THE 
PRESIDENT 
(4 LOOPS) 




AIDE TO THE 
VICE PRESIDENT; 
AIDE TO ADMIRAL 
OR OFFICIAL OF 

HIGHER RANK; 

NAVAL ATTACHES 

AND ASSISTANT 

NAVAL ATTACHES 

(4 LOOPS) 






AIDE TO VICE 

ADMIRAL 

(3 LOOPS) 



AIDE TO A REAR USNA - 
ADMIRAL OR 'OFFICIAL HOP COMMITTEE MEMBERS' 
OF LOWER RANK; TO A RECRUIT COMPANY 
GOVERNOR OF A STATE COMMANDERS; RECRUIT 



OR TERRITORY 
(2 LOOPS) 



COMPANY COMMANDER 

ASSISTANTS; AND U.S. 

NAVY CEREMONIAL GUARD 

(1 LOOP) 

(COLORS VARY) 




USNA - 

MIDSHIPMEN 

OFFICERS OF 

THE WATCH 

(2 LOOPS) 



MANNER OF WEARING 







Figure 9-7. — The number of loops in the aiguillettes indicates the status of the wearer. 



Dress aiguillettes consist of two single plaits 
of aiguillette cord with two loops. At the end of 
the plaits are approximately 3 inches of plain cord 
to which two gilt metal pencils are secured. The 
metal pencils are approximately 3 1/2 inches long 
and mounted with two silver anchors. Aides wear 
them on various uniforms for special or 
ceremonial occasions or when prescribed. 

U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen wear 
aiguillettes as prescribed by the Commandant of 
Midshipmen; they pin them on the shoulder at the 
arm seam. 

Mourning badges, made of black crepe, are 
3 inches wide; officers wear them on the left sleeve 
of the outer coat, halfway between the shoulder 
and elbow. Officers wear mourning badges when 
serving as honorary pallbearers at military 
funerals, when attending military funerals in 
an official capacity, and at other prescribed 
times. Those attending civilian funerals may wear 
mourning badges if desired. 



MIDSHIPMEN'S AND OFFICER 
CANDIDATE'S UNIFORM 
MARKINGS 

Naval Academy midshipmen are classified as 
officers of the line but are officers only in a 
quahfied sense. They rank just below chief 
warrant officers. They wear the following 
uniforms: service dress, full dress, dinner dress, 
working, infantry, and tropical. Their service 
dress and working uniforms are similar to those 
of commissioned officers. 

Midshipmen wear a 3/8-inch gold chin strap 
and a gold fouled anchor device on the 
combination cap. They wear a miniature cap 
device on the left side of the garrison cap. 

Midshipmen wear a pin-on gold anchor on 
each lapel of the blue service blouse. Outstanding 
midshipmen of each class wear a pin-on gold star 
above each collar anchor on the full dress and 



9-9 







MIDSHIPMAN 


MIDSHIPMAN 


MIDSHIPMAN 


MIDSHIPMAN 


FIRST CLASS 


SECOND CLASS 


THIRD CLASS 


FOURTH CLASS 




A 


CLASS STRIPES 





i i i I i 




CAPT 



CDR 



LCDR LT 

B RANK STRIPES 



LTJG 



ENS 



Figure 9-8. — USNA midshipmen class/rank stripes and shoulder marks. 



service dress blue uniform. Midshipmen wear class 
insignia (fig. 9-8, view A) as follows: 

• First class wear one horizontal gold stripe 
around each sleeve. 

• Second class wear two diagonal gold 
stripes on the left sleeve only. The stripes 
extend between the elbow and cuff with the 
higher end along the rear seam and the 
lower end along the front. 

• Third class wear one diagonal gold stripe 
on the left sleeve. 

• Fourth class wear no sleeve stripes. 



Midshipmen wear gold fouled anchors, an 
eagle, and bar insignia on collar tips of 
blue drill shirts, khaki shirts, and green utilities 
as follows: 



• Midshipmen first class of other than 
officer rank wear the eagle insignia on both 
collars. 



^ 



• Midshipmen second class wear the anchor 
insignia on both collars. 

• Midshipmen third class wear the anchor 
insignia on the right collar only. 



9-10 



NROTC MIDSHIPMEN 






CAPT 



CDR 



LCDR 






LTJG 



ENS 



AVIATION OFFICER CANDIDATE AND OFFICER CANDIDATE GRADE STRIPES 





COR 



LCDR 







LTJG 



ENS 



CANDIDATE 



Figure 9-9. — Grade stripes for NROTC midshipmen and officer candidates. 



• Midshipmen fourth class wear no insignia 
on the collar. 

• Midshipmen officers wear from one to six 
bars representing the ranks of midshipman 
ensign through midshipman captain. 

Instead of sleeve stripes denoting class, 
midshipmen officers of the first class wear gold 
stripes to denote grade, as shown in figure 9-8, 
view B. 

The uniform of NROTC midshipmen is 
similar to the uniforms of officers and USNA 
midshipmen. Figure 9-9 shows the variation in 
grade stripes. 

Officer candidates wear uniforms similar to 
officer service dress, working blue, and khaki 
uniforms. Midshipmen first and second class wear 
corps or line insignia on service dress uniforms 
and gold anchor devices on each collar tip of the 
blue and khaki shirts. Midshipmen third and 
fourth class wear no insignia. 



ENLISTED PERSONNEL 

In the enlisted ranks, a field of work or an 
occupation is called a rating; levels within the 



rating are rates. In the case of a Boatswain's Mate 
second class (BM2), for example. Boatswain's 
Mate is the rating and second class is the 
rate. 



RATES AND RATINGS 

Newcomers without previous naval experience 
normally enter the service as recruits in paygrade 
E-1 , the basic paygrade in the armed forces' rating 
structure. From the recruit level they begin to 
absorb training in a broad occupational group and 
to advance in rate or rating when qualified. After 
completing recruit training and qualifying for 
advancement to the apprentice level (paygrade 
E-2), they must again qualify for the next higher 
level (paygrade E-3). After advancing to seaman 
(or fireman, airman, constructionman, hospital- 
man, or dentalman), they then work to quaUfy 
for the lowest petty officer rate of a particular 
rating, depending on their ability and inclinations. 
At this level E-3s begin the occupational career 
they will follow for the remainder of their naval 
service. Within most ratings, personnel can choose 
specialties. For example, the Gunner's Mate rating 
includes Gunner's Mate (Guns) and Gunner's 
Mate (Missiles) specialties. Normally, once 
advanced to that rating, the person specializes 
only in that field. 



9-11 



ENLISTED 



PAY 

GRADE 



E-1 



E-2 



E-3 



E-4 



E-5 



E-6 



E-7 



E-8 



E-9 



NAVY 



SENIOR PETTY OFFICERS COLLAR DEVICES 



SEAMAN 
RECRUIT 



SEAMAN 
APPREN- 
TICE 



SEAMAN 



PETTY 

OFFICER 

THIRD 

CLASS 



PETTY 

OFFICER 

SECOND 

CLASS 




CHIEF 

PETTY 

OFFICER 





MASTER 
CHIEF 
PETTY 
OFFICER 
OF THE 
NAVY 



PRIVATE 



MARINES 



PRIVATE 

FIRST 
CLASS 



LANCE 
CORPORAL 



CORPORAL 



SERGEANT 



STAFF 
SERGEANT 



GUNNERY 
SERGEANT 



FIRST 
SERGEANT 



MASTER 
SERGEANT 



SERGEANT 
MAJOR 



MASTER 
GUNNERY 
SERGEANT 



SERGEANT 

MAJOR 

OF THE 

MARINE 

CORPS 



PRIVATE 



A 



PRIVATE 



ARMY 



PRIVATE 
FIRST 
CLASS 



CORPORAL 



^ 



SPECIALIST 



SERGEANT 



STAFF 
SERGEANT 



SERGEANT 
FIRST 
CLASS 



FIRST 
SERGEANT 



MASTER 
SERGEANT 




^ 



SERGEANT 

MAJOR 

OF THE 

ARMY 



ALL STARS SILVER 



SERGEANT 



AIR 
FORCE 



^^^ 



AIRMAN 
BASIC 



Al RMAN 
FIRST 
CLASS 

STARS LIGHT BLUE 



SENIOR 
AIRMAN 



STAFF 
SERGEANT 




TECHNICAL 
SERGEANT 




MASTER 
SERGEANT 




^, 




^ 



CHIEF 

MASTER 

SERGEANT 



1^, 



^ 



CHIEF 
MASTER 

SERGEANT 
OF THE 

AIR FORCE 



AUTHORIZED ONLY WHILE SERVING AS THE SENIOR ENLISTED MEMBER OF ANY BRANCH OF MILITARY SERVICE. 

Figure 9-10. — Insignia of U.S. armed forces enlisted personnel. 



9-12 



The following shows the normal path of 
advancement by paygrades: 



General Title 
Seaman recruit 
Fireman recruit 
Airman recruit 
Constructionman recruit 
Hospitalman recruit 
Dentalman recruit 

Seaman apprentice 
Fireman apprentice 
Airman apprentice 
Constructionman apprentice 
Hospitalman apprentice 
Dentalman apprentice 

Seaman 

Fireman 

Airman 

Constructionman 

Hospitalman 

Dentalman 

Petty officer third class 
Petty officer second class 
Petty officer first class 
Chief petty officer 
Senior chief petty officer 
Master chief petty officer 



Paygrade 



E-1 



E-2 



E-3 



E-4 
E-5 
E-6 
E-7 
E-8 
E-9 



Figure 9-10 shows a comparison by paygrade 
insignia of enlisted personnel of the Navy, 
Marines, Army, and Air Force. 

Let us trace the advancement of a typical 
enlisted naval careerist, Tom Gaskins, who 
speciaHzes in the occupational field of Gunner's 
Mate (Guns) (GMG). Gaskins first enlists as 
a seaman recruit (SR). After receiving basic 
training at a recruit training center, he expresses 
interest in deck seamanship. Upon completion 
of his training, he is transferred to sea 
duty. Aboard ship he receives general training 
in seamanship and, in time, qualifies for 
advancement to seaman apprentice (SA), then to 
seaman (SN). 

Meantime, having demonstrated an interest 
in the rating of Gunner's Mate (Guns) (GMG), 
Gaskins receives an assignment to gunnery 
maintenance duties in the weapons department. 
Having shown himself proficient in that field 
of work, Gaskins receives authorization from 
his commanding officer to participate in the 
Navy wide advancement examination for GMG3. 
Gaskins can participate in this examination 
only after he has met certain requirements, 
such as length of time in service and paygrade. 
If successful, he then has recurring opportunities 
to compete for successive advancement to GMG2, 
GMGl, and GMC. Gaskins retains the specialty 
rating (Guns) until he advances to chief. 
Thereafter, he becomes eligible to compete 
for advancement to senior and master chief 
petty officer, the latter being the highest 
enlisted rate. He even has a possibility of 
being selected as the master chief petty officer 
of the Navy, a billet held by only one Navy 
enlisted person at a time. 

Subject to standard instructions, personnel 
in the lower paygrades may freely change 
laterally from one group to another before 
receiving intensive training in one particular 
field. This allows time for each person to 
find his or her choice of work in the Navy. 
However, once a person has advanced to the 
petty officer level, lateral changes are permitted 
less frequently. 



UNIFORMS 

The jumper-style uniform, worn since the 
turn of the century, is still the prescribed 



9-13 





Figure 9-11. — Typical uniforms for enlisted personnel below 
CPO. 



uniform for male personnel E-1 through E-6 
(fig. 9-11). 

Uniforms for chief petty officers, like officers, 
are of the distinctive and traditional double- 
breasted coat and tie style shown in figure 9-12. 
The differences between officers' and chief petty 
officers' uniforms are in identifying insignia. 

Chief petty officers wear a visor cap similar 
to the junior officer type. The chin strap is black 
leather, and the insignia is a gold fouled anchor 
on which are superimposed the silver letters USN. 
The number of stars atop the anchor reflects the 
rate of a senior or master chief petty officer: one 
star for senior and two for master (with a third 
star for the master chief petty officer of the Navy). 

Petty officers wear, midway between shoulder 
and elbow of the left sleeve, a rating badge. The 
badge consists of a perched eagle, the specialty 
mark of their rating (see figs. 9-13 and 9-14), and 
chevrons, indicating the rate. Senior and master 
chief petty officers wear stars above the eagle of 
the rating badge to indicate their rate, as shown 
in figure 9-10. In addition to the rating badge. 





Figure 9-12. — Uniforms for CPOs. 



CPOs also wear miniature fouled anchors on each 
collar tip of the khaki, working blue, and tropical 
white shirt. 

The color of a rating badge varies according 
to the uniform on which it is worn. EnUsted 
personnel generally wear scarlet chevrons on blue 
uniforms and blue on all others. 

The service stripes (hashmarks) on the left 
sleeve below the rating badge identify the number 
of years an enlisted person has served in the armed 
forces. CPOs wear 7-inch-long diagonal service 
stripes; E-6 and below wear 5-inch-long diagonal 
stripes. Each stripe represents 4 years of service 
in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, Army, 
Air Force, or Naval Reserve. All enhsted 
personnel below CPO wear red hashmarks on blue 
uniforms and blue on others. Personnel who have 
completed 12 years of active service (broken or 
unbroken) in the Navy and Naval Reserve with 
^ood conduct wear gold chevrons and hashmarks 
%ith the blue and white uniforms. 

Personnel below paygrade E-4 wear 3-inch- 
long rectangular group-rate marks on the left 
sleeve in place of the PO rating badge (fig. 9-13). 
The color of the stripes, alone or in combination 
with a speciahy or striker's mark, indicates the 



9-14 



E-2 



E-3 





WHITE STRIPES 



RED STRIPES 



LT. BLUE STRIPES 




GREEN STRIPES 



WHITE STRIPES 











GENERAL SEAMAN- ^ 

SHIP 
SHIP OPERATIONS 
SHIP MAINTENANCE 
WEAPONS CONTROL 
ORDNANCE SYSTEMS 
SENSOR OPERATIONS 
DATA SYSTEMS 
ADMINISTRATION 
LOGISTICS 
MEDIA 
MUSICIAN 
CRYPTOLOGY 
COMMUNICATIONS 
INTELLIGENCE 



MARINE ENGINEER- 
ING 
SHIP MAINTENANCE 



CONSTRUCTION 



AVIATION MAINTEN- 
NANCE/WEAPONS 

AVIATION GROUND 
SUPPORT 

AIR TRAFFIC CON- 
TROL 

WEAPONS SYSTEMS 
SUPPORT 

LOGISTICS 

MEDIA 

METEOROLOGY 

AVIATION SENSOR 
OPERATIONS 



WHITE STRIPES 



E-1 PERSONNEL 

DO NOT WEAR RATE INSIGNIA'S 



HEALTH CARE 



HEALTH CARE 




E-4 



PETTY OFFICER 
3RD CLASS 




E-5 



PETTY OFFICER 
2ND CLASS 




E-6 



> 



PETTY OFFICER 
1ST CLASS 




E-7 



CHIEF PETTY 
OFFICER 




E-8 



SENIOR CHIEF 
PETTY OFFICER 




E-9 



MASTER CHIEF 
PETTY OFFICER 



Figure 9-13.— Enlisted rate insignia. 



9-15 



MA 
MASTER AT ARMS 

$ 

tw 

tLECTRONIC 

WARFARE 
TECHNICIAN 

OT 

OCEAN SYSTEMS 

TECHNICIAN 

<^ 

SM 
SIGNALMAN 

-^ 

ST 

SONAR 

TECHNICIAN 

"Q. 

05 
OPERATIONS 
SPECIALIST 



QM 
QUARTERMASTER 



BM 
BOATSWAIN'S MATE 



DECK 
GROUP 



"-^3^ 



WT 
WEAPONS 
TECHNICIAN 



MT 

MISSILE 

TECHNICIAN 



TM 

TORPEDOMAN 

MATE 



MN 
MINEMAN 



GM 
GUNNERS MATE 

FC 

CONTROL^ 



FIRE CONTROLMAN 



FT 
FIRE CONTROL 
TECHNICIAN 



WEAPONS/ 

ORDNANCE 

GROUP 



ET 

Electronics 
technician 



DS 

DATA SYSTEMS 

TECHNICIAN 



h 



IM 
INSTRUMENTMAN 

#= 

OM 
OPTICALMAN 



ELECTRONICS 8 

PRECISION 

INSTRUMENT 

GROUP 



m 

RP 

REIIGIOUS PROGRAM 

SPECIALIST 

^^^^ ^ 

RM JO 

ADIOMAN JOURNAL!: 

X ^ 

" NC 

»PTOLOGIC NAVY COUNS 
•CHNICIAN 



YN 
YEOMAN 



SX 

STOREKEEPER 



X 



POSTAL CIERK 5HIPS SERVICEMAN 



P 
iSOl 



^ 



PN DK 

PERSONNEIMAN DISBURSING CLERK 



3 



IS MS 

INTELLIGENCE MESS MANAGEMENT 
SPECIALIST SPECIALIST 



^ 



OP 
DATA PROCESSING LN 

TECHNICIAN LEGALMAN 



ADMINISTRATIVE 
a CLERICAL GROUP 



X 



LITHOGRAPHER 



^ 



DM 
DRAFTSMAN 
ILLUSTRATOR 



MU 
MUSICIAN 



MISCELLANEOUS 
GROUP 



f SEAMAN J 

(SEAMAN A 
APPRENTICE J 

ZEZ 

CSEAMAW A 
RECRUIT y 



Figure 9-14. — Navy enlisted rating insignia. 



9-16 



M 



DAMAGE CONIROIMAN 



i>< 



GS 

GAS TURBINE 

SVSKM TECHNICIAN 



MM 
INISTS 

o 

EN 
JGINEMA 



ELECTRICIAN S MATE 



MM 
MACHINISTS MATE 



EN 
ENGINEMAN 



HUH MAINTENANCE 
TECHNICIAN 



MR II- 

MACHINERV INTERIOR 

REPAIRMAN COMMUNICATIONS 

ELECTRICIAN 



fO* 



BT 
BOILER PM 

TECHNICIAN PATTERNMAKER 



ENGINEERING 8 
HULL GROUP 



c 



D 



CONSTRUCTION 
MECHANIC 

/l > V 

!0 
EQUIPMENT 
OPERATOR 

4 

UI 

UIILITIESMAN 

CE 
STRUCT 
iCTRICI 

sw 

EELWORK 



CE 

CONSTRUCTION 

ELECTRICIAN 



SW 

SIEELWORKER 



EA 

ENGINEERING 

AID 



CONSTRUCTION 
GROUP 

















AG 






AEROGRAPHER S 


"^-^ 




MATE 

I 


AT 
AVIATION 


-1- 


ELECTRONICS 
TECHNICIAN 


AO 
AVIATION 


PHOTOGRAPHER S 
MATE 


[ 


ORDNANCEMAN 


AK 


AVIATION 
ANTISUBMARINE 


AQ 
AVIATION 


AVIATION 
STOREKEEPER 


WARFARE 
TECHNICIAN 


FIRE CONTROL 
TECHNICIAN 


^S^^ 


-^^^^f^ 


^i^ 


AE 
AVIATION 


AM 
AVIATION 


AC 
AIR 


ELECTRICIAN S 
MATl 


STRUCTURAL 

MECHANIC 


CONTROLLER 


^mA/m^ 


^*f^ 


^1^55^ 


^1 

AZ 


1 


AB 


AVIATION 


AD 


AVIATION 


MAINTENANCE 


AVIATION 

MACHINISTS 

MATE 


BOATSWAIN S 
MATE 


ADMINISTRATION 
MAN 


^t^ 


^^ 


AS 


AW 


PR 


AVIATION 


AVIATION 


SURVIVAL 


SUPPORT 


ANTISUBMARINE 


AIRCREW 


EQUIPMENT 


WARFARE OPERATOR 


EQUIPMENTMAN 


TECHNICIAN 




AVIATION 






GROUP 













T 

HM 




HOSPITAL CORPSMAN 1 




MEDICAL 






GROUP 




V 




J 



I HOSPITALMAN I 

^ I ^ 

(HOSPITALMAN A 
APPRENTICE^ 

I ^ 

(hospitalmanA 
recruit j 



DENTAL TECHNICIAN 



DENTAL 
GROUP 



(CONSTRUC 
^ MA 



ictionA 



(FIREMAN A ^ 

APPRENTICE^ I 



ONST 
K 
APPRE 



^ucTio^ 

MAN I 

^ENTiCEV 



(FIREMAN A ^CONSTRUCTION^ 

"ECRUIT J V RECRUIT J 



I AIRMAN 1 

I '; 

(AIRMAN A 
APPRENTICE J 

(AIRMAN A 
RECRUIT J 



I DENTALMAN J 

I 



DENTALMAN 
APPRENTICE 



\_ RECRUIT J 



Figure 9-14.— Navy enlisted rating insignia— Continued. 



9-17 



general occupational field to which a nonrated 
person belongs, as follows: 

Seaman White stripes on blue uniforms 

Hospitalman and navy blue stripes on 

Dentalman white uniforms 

Fireman Red 

Airman Emerald green 



Constructionman Light blue 



Graduates of apprenticeship training schools 
wear the appropriate device indicating the broad 
occupational field they are entering. As shown in 
figure 9-15, they wear the airman insignia for 
aviation ratings; fireman, for engineering ratings; 
and seaman, for deck, weapons, and other related 
fields. 

After demonstrating they have met the 
requirements to enter into a rating, either through 
formal schooling or on-the-job training, graduates 
may receive authorization from their commanding 
officers to wear the rating insignia specialty 
mark or designated striker's mark. This device is 
the same specialty mark petty officers wear on 
their rating badge, shown earUer in figure 9-14. 
The striker's mark replaces the apprenticeship 
device. 



BREAST INSIGNIA AND 
IDENTIFICATION BADGES 

The breast insignia indicates special quahfica- 
tions or designations earned. We describe some 





SEAMAN 



FIREMAN 




AIRMAN 



Figure 9-15. — Apprenticeship insignia. 



of these insignia (fig. 9-16) in" the following 
paragraphs. 

Persons below flag rank who have, or had, 
command of commissioned ships or aviation 
squadrons at sea wear the Command at Sea 
insignia. Officers currently in command wear the 
insignia on the right breast. Those not presently 
in command, but who have held command, wear 
it on the left breast below any ribbons, medals, 
or other insignia. 

Officers below flag rank who have, or had, 
command ashore or served as a project manager 
wear the Command Ashore/ Project Manager 
insignia. They wear this insignia in the same 
manner as that prescribed for the Command at 
Sea insignia. 

Personnel currently serving, or having previ- 
ously served, as an officer in charge of small craft 
wear the Small Craft insignia. They wear this 
insignia in the same manner as that prescribed for 
the Command at Sea insignia. 

Personnel wear the insignia described in the 
following paragraphs on the left breast above any 
ribbons, medals, or insignia: 

Personnel who have qualified in all phases of 
surface warfare wear the Surface Warfare 
insignia. 

Personnel who have qualified to serve in 
submarines wear the Submarine insignia. In 
addition to the basic insignia, personnel serving 
as submarine medical, engineering, and supply 
officers wear another submarine insignia that 
identifies their specialty. Those who successfully 
take part in combat patrols also wear an 
additional submarine insignia. 

Personnel quaUfied to serve in fUght wear 
different Aviation insignia that indicate their 
specialty. Aviators (pilots), flight officers, flight 
surgeons, flight nurses, aircrewman, and combat 
aircrewmen each wear a different Aviation 
insignia that identifies their specialty. 

Personnel quaHfied in underwater and beach 
reconnaissance, demolition, and special warfare 
tactics wear Special Warfare insignia. They are 
usually associated with underwater demoHtion or 
Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) team detachments. 

Personnel qualified in the identification and 
jsafe disposal of ordnance wear Explosive 
Ordnance Disposal insignia. Those who wear this 
insignia have the ability to identify and dispose 
of the many different types of ordnance produced 
by the United States, our aUies, and our enemies. 

Personnel who successfully complete a patrol 
on a fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) wear 



9-18 





COAAMAND AT SEA 



COMAAAND ASHORE/PROJECT 
MANAGER 




SUBMARINE 




NAVAL AVIATOR 




SPECIAL WARFARE 




DIVER FIRST CLASS 




SUBMARINE COMBAT PATROL 




NAVAL PARACHUTIST'S 



SSBN DETKRENT PATROL 



AIRCREW 




SURFACE WARFARE (OFFICER) 

ENLISTED INSIGNIA HAS 

CROSSED CUTLASSES 




EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL 





DIVER SECOND CLASS 



MASTER DIVER 





CAREER COUNSELOR 



NAVY FLEET /FORCE /COMMAND MASTER CHIEF 
(COMMAND BADGE SHOWN) 



Figure 9-16. — Breast insignia. 



SSBN Deterrent Patrol insignia. Gold stars 
mounted on the scroll indicate each successful 
patrol subsequent to that for which the original 
insignia was awarded. 

Personnel qualified in various classes of 
diving wear the Diver insignia. 

Figure 9-16 shows the identification badges 
worn by command, force, or fleet master chiefs 
and command career counselors. 

The insignia worn by officers and enlisted 
personnel are identical with the exception of 



color. Officers wear gold insignia; enlisted 
personnel wear silver. 

In addition to the foregoing, naval astro- 
nauts, aerospace physiologists/experimental 
psychologists, and diving officers wear spe- 
cial insignia. Those presently or previously 
engaged in presidential service or assigned to 
certain staffs, such as the organization of 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff or the staff of the 
Secretary of Defense, display identification 
badges. 



9-19 



MEDALS AND AWARDS 

According to legend, Alexander the Great 
began the custom of awarding medals for 
heroism on the battlefield more than 2,000 
years ago. Thus, a historic precedent exists 
for medals worn by military personnel the world 
over. The bewildering array of ribbons on the 
left breast of the dress uniform of veterans 
often seems quite puzzling to the newcomer in 
the Navy. These distinctive ribbons represent 
medals that are too cumbersome to be worn 
at all times. Personnel wear them in horizontal 
rows of three each, arranged in order of 
precedence from the center of the body to 
the left shoulder and from top row to bottom 
row. 

Fundamentally, the military presents decora- 
tions and awards for the purpose of publicly 
recognizing and rewarding its personnel for the 
following acts or services: 

Extraordinary performance of duty 

Exceptionally meritorious service 

Conspicuously outstanding acts of heroism 

Other acts or services beyond that normally 
expected 

Acts or services that distinguish the individual 
or unit among those performing similar acts 
or services 



TYPES OF MEDALS AND AWARDS 

An award is an all-inclusive term covering any 
decoration, medal, badge, ribbon, or an attach- 
ment thereof bestowed on an individual. 

A unit award is an award made to an operating 
unit and worn only by members of that unit who 
participated in the cited action. 

1 

A service award is an award made to those 
persons who have participated in designated wars, 
campaigns, expeditions, and so forth, or who have 
fulfilled, in a creditable manner, specified service 
requirements. 

A decoration is an award bestowed for a 
specific act of gallantry or meritorious service. 



A medal is an award presented to an individual 
for performance of certain duties, acts, or 
services. It consists of a suspension ribbon, made 
of distinctive colors, from which a medaUion 
hangs. 

A miniature medal is a replica of a large 
medal, made to a scale one-half of the original 
size. 

A badge is an award for some special 
proficiency apart from the duties of the 
individual's grade or rate. It consists of a 
medallion hung from a bar or from bars. 

A ribbon or ribbon bar consists of a portion 
of the suspension ribbon of a medal and is worn 
instead of the medal. The dimensions of all 
ribbons are 1 3/8 inches by 3/8 inch. 

An attachment is any appurtenance, such as 
a star, clasp, or device, worn on the suspension 
ribbon of a medal or on the ribbon (ribbon bar). 



ORDER OF PRECEDENCE 

Navy personnel wear awards in a set 
precedence according to the following categories: 

1. Military decorations 

2. Unit awards 

3. Nonmilitary decorations 

4. Campaign and service awards 

5. Foreign decorations, non-U. S. awards, 
foreign unit awards, and foreign service 
awards 

6. Marksmanship awards 

7. Awards of military societies and other 
organizations 



Military Decorations 

The following list contains the military decora- 
tions, in their order of precedence, authorized for 
wear on the naval uniform: 

^ Medal of Honor 

Navy Cross 

Defense Distinguished Service Medal* 

Distinguished Service Medal 



9-20 



Silver Star Medal 

Defense Superior Service Medal* 

Legion of Merit 

Distinguished Flying Cross 

Navy and Marine Corps Medal 

Bronze Star Medal 

Purple Heart 

Defense Meritorious Service Medal* 

Meritorious Service Medal 

Air Medal 

Joint Service Commendation Medal* 

Navy Achievement Medal 

Combat Action Ribbon 

*Not a Navy decoration — listed for precedence 
only. 

Unit Awards 

The following list contains the unit awards, 
in their order of precedence, authorized for wear 
after all military decorations: 

Presidential Unit Citation 
Joint Meritorious Unit Award 
Navy Unit Commendation 
Meritorious Unit Commendation 
Navy E Ribbon 

Nonmilitary Decorations 

The following list contains certain nonmilitary 
decorations, but not necessarily in their order of 
precedence, authorized for wear on the naval 
uniform after all unit awards. (We only list those 
which personnel may earn while a member of the 
naval service. See Uniform Regulations, 
paragraph 10307, for a complete hsting.) 

Presidential Medal of Freedom 
Gold Lifesaving Medal 
NASA Distinguished Service Medal 
National Sciences Medal 



Campaign and Service Awards 

The following list contains some of the 
campaign and service awards, in their order of 
precedence, authorized for wear on the naval 
uniform after all nonmilitary decorations: 

Prisoner of War (POW) Medal 

Good Conduct Medal 

Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal 

Fleet Marine Force Ribbon 

China Service Medal 

U.S. Antarctic Expedition Medal 

Navy Occupation Service Medal 

Medal for Humane Action 

National Defense Service Medal 

Korean Service Medal 

Antarctica Service Medal 

Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal 

Vietnam Service Medal 

Humanitarian Service Medal 

Sea Service Deployment Ribbon 

Naval Arctic Service Ribbon 

Naval Reserve Sea Service Ribbon 

Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service 
Ribbon 

Navy Recruiting Service Ribbon 

Armed Forces Reserve Medal 

Naval Reserve Medal 

Merchant Marine Vietnam Service Bar 

Foreign Decorations and 
Non-U. S. Service Awards 

Personnel who have been specifically authorized 
to accept military decorations from foreign govern- 
ments (see SECNAVINST 1650. IE) may wear 



9-21 



them in the order of their receipt after all U.S. 
service awards. If you possess two or more awards 
from the same country, the rules of the country 
concerned determine the order of precedence of 
those particular awards. 

U.S. military personnel who received foreign 
awards for service in Vietnam may wear them in 
the following order of precedence: 

National Order of Vietnam 

Military Merit Medal 

Army Distinguished Service Order 

Air Force Distinguished Service Order 

Navy Distinguished Service Order 

Army Meritorious Service Medal 

Air Force Meritorious Service Medal 

Navy Meritorious Service Medal 

Special Service Medal 

Gallantry Cross 

Air Gallantry Cross 

Hazardous Service Medal 

Lifesaving Medal 

Armed Forces Honor Medal 

Staff Service Medal 

Technical Service Medal 

Training Service Medal 

Civil Actions Medal 

The following foreign unit awards, listed in 
their order of precedence, do not require 
individual legislative authorization. Wear them 
immediately after all foreign personal decorations: 

Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation 

Korean Presidential Unit Citation 

Vietnam Presidential Unit Citation 

Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit 

Citation (Civil Actions Medal)* 

*Wear the initial award (ribbon with frame 
and palm) only. 



The following non-U. S. service awards take 
precedence immediately after foreign unit awards. 
The precedence of non-U. S. service awards for 
which naval personnel are eligible to qualify is as 
follows: 

United Nations Service Medal 

United Nations Medal 

Inter-American Defense Board Medal/Ribbon 

Foreign service awards take precedence 
immediately after non-U. S. service awards. 

MARKSMANSHIP AWARDS 

The following list contains the only marks- 
manship badges, in their order of precedence, 
authorized for wear on the naval uniform: 

U.S. Distinguished International Shooter 
Badge 

Distinguished Marksman Badge 

Distinguished Pistol Shot Badge 

National Trophy Match Rifleman Excellence 
in Competition Badge (Gold) 

National Trophy Match Pistol Shot Excellence 
in Competition Badge (Gold) 

Interservice Rifle Excellence in Competition 
Badge (Gold) 

Interservice Pistol Shot Excellence in Competi- 
tion Badge (Gold) 

Navy Rifleman Excellence in Competition 
Badge (Gold) 

Fleet Rifleman Excellence in Competition 
Badge (Gold) 

Fleet Pistol Shot Excellence in Competition 
Badge (Gold) 

(National, Interservice, Navy and Fleet Badges 
in silver and bronze continue in the above 
order with silver taking precedence over 
bronze) 

Expert Rifleman Medal 

Expert Pistol Shot Medal 

Navy Rifle Marksmanship Ribbon (Expert, 
Sharpshooter, 

Marksman) 

President's Hundred Award — Rifle (enlisted 
personnel only) 



^ 



9-11 



AWARDS OF MILITARY SOCIETIES 
AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 

The following organizations issue awards 
authorized for wear on the naval uniform. 
Wear medals and ribbons, in the order earned, 
after all U.S. service awards. Wear badges, 
in the order earned, after marksmanship 
badges. 

Army and Navy Union of the United States 

American Legion Citizenship and Scholarship 
Medal 

Veterans of Foreign Wars or other officially 
recognized 

Veterans' Organizations 

Medical Scientific Societies 

Naval Reserve Association 

The Reserve Officers Association (ROA) 

Wear medals, ribbons, and badges adopted by 
these societies only while actually attending 
meetings or conventions or while participating in 
parades or other ceremonies as a member of these 
organizations. 




FULL 



DRESS 
(MEN) 



BLUE 




FULL DRESS WHITE 
(MEN - OFFICER & 
CPO) (CPOs WEAR 
COLLAR INSIGNIA) 



MANNER OF WEARING AWARDS 



You must wear medals, ribbons, and attach- 
ments on appropriate uniforms and in the manner 
explained in the following paragraphs. 



Large Medals 

Wear full-size medals on full dress uniforms. 
Wear the holding bar of the lowest row of 
medals approximately 1/4 inch above the 
left breast pocket and clear of the lapel. 
Ensure the bottoms of the medals dress 
in a horizontal line, as shown in figure 
9-17. When wearing more than one row, 
arrange medals so that no row contains 
a lesser number than the row above it. 
As far as possible, except for the top row, 
wear the same number of medals in all rows 




FULL DRESS WHITE/BLUE 
(WOMEN - OFFICER & CPO) 



Figure 9-17. — Proper display of large medals. 



9-23 





Prescribed Number 


Number of Medals Per Row 


Number of Medals 


Top 


2d 


3d 


4th 


to be Worn 


of Rows 


Row 


Row 


Row 


Row 


1-5 


1 row only 


1-5 








6 


2 


3 


3 






7 


2 


3 


4 






8 


2 


4 


4 






9 


2 


4 


5 






10 


2 


5 


5 






11 


3 


3 


4 


4 




12 


3 


4 


4 


4 




13 


3 


4 


4 


5 




14 


3 


4 


5 


5 




15 


3 


5 


5 


5 




16 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


and so on 













Figure 9-18. — Manner of wearing medals. 



(as in fig. 9-18), three medals side by side, or 
up to five medals overlapping. Overlap medals 
equally with the right, or inboard, medal showing 
in full. Mount upper rows of medals so as to cover 
the suspension ribbons of the medals below. 
Arrange awards by seniority from top down and 
from inboard to outboard. You may wear all 
medals; but if you possess five or more, wear a 
minimum of five. Wear the Medal of Honor, 
worn when either large or miniature medals are 
prescribed, from a suspension ribbon placed 
around the neck. 



Miniature Medals 

Wear miniature medals with formal dress and 
dinner dress uniforms. On male formal and dinner 
dress jackets, position the holding bar of the 
lowest row of medals on the left lapel, 3 inches 
below the notch (fig. 9-19) and centered on the 



lapel. If the bar exceeds a length of 2 3/4 inches, 
extend the bar over the outboard edge of the lapel. 
When worn on a male officer's blue or white coat, 
center the lowest bar immediately above the left 
breast pocket. On a female officer's uniform, 
center the lowest bar on the left pocket flap of 



y" 




DINNER DRESS JACKET 
(MEN) 



Figure 9-19. — Proper display of miniature medals. 



9-24 



the blue or white service coat. On other uniforms, 
attach the bar in the same relative position. 

Wear up to five miniatures on one holding 
bar. When wearing more than five, arrange in two 
or more rows as shown in figure 9-18. 



Service Ribbons 

Wear service ribbons in their order of 
precedence (from top down and from inboard to 
outboard) with all service dress uniforms. Allow 
no intervals between ribbons or rows of ribbons. 
Do not impregnate with preservatives that change 
their appearance or wear with transparent covers. 

On uniforms, center the lower edge of the 
bottom row of ribbons approximately 1/4 inch 
above the left breast pocket. 

Wear three ribbons or less in a single 
horizontal row. When authorized to wear three 
or more ribbons, wear them in rows of three 
each. If not in multiples of three, place the 
lesser number in the uppermost row and center 
over the row beneath. If you possess three or 
more, wear a minimum of three; you may wear 
all if desired. 



Attachments 

A variety of stars, devices, and clasps are 
authorized for wear on the suspension ribbons of 
medals and service ribbons. 

STARS. — Stars are made of gold, bronze, or 
silver. You wear them as follows: 

Wear a gold star instead of a second or 
subsequent award of a military decoration, except 
for the air medal. 

Wear a 3/16-inch bronze star for the second, 
third, and fourth award of a campaign or service 
medal. 

Wear a silver star instead of five gold or 
bronze stars, except for the air medal. 

Center a single star on the ribbon. If wearing 
more than one star, place them in a horizontal 
Une close to and symmetrically about the center 
of the ribbon. Locate the silver star as near the 
center of the ribbon as symmetry permits. When 
wearing a star in addition to a silver star or letter 
device, wear on your right. Wear a second star 
to your left, and so on. When medals overlap, 
you may wear all stars to your left. Place stars 
on the ribbon with two rays pointing down. 



LETTER DEVICES.— Wear metal letter 
devices, when authorized, centered on the 
appropriate ribbon. 

Individuals awarded the Legion of Merit, 
Bronze Star Medal, Joint Service Commendation 
Medal, Navy Achievement Medal, or the 
Commendation Medal for acts or services 
involving direct participation in combat opera- 
tions may be authorized to wear a bronze 
letter V. 

Personnel who qualify may wear the bronze 
S on the medal, signifying their quahfication as 
a sharpshooter, or the bronze E, signifying their 
expertise, on their Pistol or Rifle Marksmanship 
medals and ribbons, as appropriate. They wear 
a silver E upon qualifying for the third E. 

CLASPS. — Wear clasps, when authorized, 
only on suspension ribbons of large medals. 
However, you may display stars or other devices 
worn instead of clasps on the suspension ribbons 
of miniature medals and on ribbon bars. 



Miscellaneous Devices 

The following miscellaneous devices are also 
authorized for wear on the naval uniform: 

Fleet Marine Force Combat Operations 
Insignia: Beginning with World War II, Navy 
personnel who have been attached to Fleet Marine 
Force units in active combat with an armed enemy 
may wear a bronze miniature Marine Corps 
emblem with the appropriate World War II Area 
Campaign Medal, Korean Service Ribbon, Armed 
Forces Expeditionary Medal, and Vietnam Service 
Medal. 

Hour Glass: Naval Reserve personnel may 
wear this device instead of a second or subsequent 
Armed Forces Reserve Medal for each succeeding 
10 years of service. (The device is a representation 
of an hourglass superimposed with the roman 
numeral X.) 

Antarctica Wintered Over Disk: This device 
consists of a bronze disk inscribed with an outline 
of the Antarctic Continent. You may wear it on 
the suspension ribbons of the miniature Antarctica 
Service Medal and on the corresponding ribbon 
bar (wear a Wintered Over clasp with the large 
medal). 



9-25 



Strike/Flight Numerals: Personnel receiving 
Strike/Flight awards of the Air Medal wear a 
bronze numeral on the medal indicating the total 
number of awards of this type received after 
9 April 1962. 



AUTHORIZED UNIFORM 
MODIFICATIONS 

If authorized by your local prescribing 
authority, you may adopt certain uniform 
modifications. You may wear the following 
accessories and clothing: 

• CAP COVERS 

— Vinyl cap covers 

— A plastic rain cover over the combina- 
tion cap with the lightweight raincoat 

• COLLAR INSIGNIA 

— Collar devices with the aviation green 
working uniform when wearing a coat 

— Collar devices on the windbreaker and 
the raincoat if you are an officer 

• CUFF LINKS 

— Mother-of-pearl cuff links with the 
formal dress uniform 

— Gold cuff links with the dinner dress 
uniform 

• CUMMERBUND 

— Wraparound or front-only style cummer- 
bunds with dinner dress jacket uniforms 
(You must wear the wraparound style 
with tropical dinner dress blue 
uniforms.) 

• EARRINGS (Authorized for women only) 

— Small single-pearl earrings with dinner 
dress or formal uniforms (Wear only 
one earring in each ear with all 
uniforms.) 

• GLOVES (Carry gloves with the fingers 
forward when not wearing them) 

— White gloves as prescribed depending on 
the uniform composition for men and 
women 

— Lined black gloves when wearing the 
overcoat, reefer, raincoat, or bluejacket 
with indicated uniforms in cold weather 



^ 



• MEN'S NECKTIE 

— The aviation green working uniforms 
without the black, four-in-hand necktie 
when the work situation or industrial 
safety considerations make wearing the 
tie impractical or unsafe 

• NAME TAGS 

— A name tag when authorized by the 
commander or commanding officer 

• SCARFS 

— A blue scarf at sea if climatic conditions 
warrant 

— A white scarf with overcoats, raincoats, 
reefers, or pea coats 

• LONG-SLEEVE WORKING KHAKI 
SHIRTS 

— Long-sleeve working khaki shirts when 
aboard ship or as otherwise deemed 
appropriate by your prescribing authority 

• MEN'S WHITE NONEPAULETTED 
SHIRT 

— The white nonepauletted shirt instead of 
the formal white shirt (turn-down collar) 
with the dinner dress blue uniform 

• WOMEN'S WHITE LONG-SLEEVE 
SHIRT 

— The white long-sleeve shirt with the 
service dress blue uniform 

• SHOES 

— Gymnasium shoes with working khaki 
or dungaree uniforms when authorized 
(They may be prescribed for boat 
crews.) 

— Safety shoes with any working uniform 

• SWEATER 

— A blue cardigan sweater with the service 
dress blue, winter blue, winter working 
blue, summer khaki, working khaki, 
and summer white uniforms in working 
spaces 



9-26 



MEN'S TIE CLASP/TIE TACK 



SUMMARY 



—A tie clasp or tie tack with any uniform 
requiring the wear of a four-in-hand 
necktie (When wearing the uniform 
coat, ensure the tie tack or clasp is not 
visible. The use of insignia and devices 
on tie tacks should be limited to those 
to which you have some proprietary 
entitlement.) 

You may also adopt the following uniform 
modifications if authorized by your local prescrib- 
ing authority: 

• COATS 

—Remove the service dress blue coat in 
working spaces 

• UMBRELLA 

—Carry a plain, black umbrella with any 
uniform 

Women must abide by the following skirt- 
length regulations: 

• WOMEN'S SKIRT LENGTH 

—Wear skirts no longer than 1 1/2 inches 
below the crease of the back of the knee 
and no higher than 1 1/2 inches above 
the crease. 

—Wear floor-length formal dress skirts 



MAIL-ORDER UNIFORMS 

The following mail-order facilities provide 
uniform items: 

Uniform Support Center 
P.O. Box 15065 
Norfolk, VA 23521-0065 

Naval Uniform Made-to-Measure Program 
Naval Resale and Services Support Office 
Fort Wadsworth 
Staten Island, NY 10305-5097 

For further ordering information, refer to 
U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, NAVPERS 
15665G, page XIV. 



The uniform promotes a feeling of unity and 
contributes smartness to the appearance of an 
individual or a group. The insignia worn upon the 
uniform can indicate the corps, grade, rate, and 
specialty, as well as other distinguishing features, 
such as awards, campaign ribbons, and service 
stripes to which the wearer is entitled. 

The following excerpt, taken from an address 
delivered to a graduating group of midshipmen, 
truly expresses the meaning of the uniform: 

Have an exalted pride in the uniform you wear 
and all that it represents. Wear it correctly; 
wear it proudly. Salute it with respect when 
you meet it; behave in it in a seemly manner; 
protect it when it is offended or in danger. It 
represents the fleet, the Nation, your home, 
and your family. It is a symbol of all that is 
dear to you and of all that men are wiUing to 
die for. 

The United States Navy has had a basic 
uniform policy for many years. The purpose of 
the uniform policy is to ensure that naval 
personnel have attractive, distinctive, and 
practical uniforms. 

To clarify any questions that may arise 
concerning uniforms, consult U.S. Navy Uniform 
Regulations (NAVPERS 15665G), which provides 
the basic naval uniform policy. 



REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 12043, 
Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 
Fla., 1992. 

U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, NAVPERS 
15665G, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1987. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Bearden, Bill, and Bill Wedertz, The Bluejacket's 
Manual, 20th ed.. United States Naval 
Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1978. 



9-27 




PEA COAT 



SAILORS WHO HAVE TO ENDURE PEA-SOUP WEATHER OFTEN 

DON THEIR PEA COATS BUT THE COAT'S NAME ISN'T 
DERIVED FROM THE WEATHER. 

COAT WORN IN COLD, MISERABLE WEATHER 
WAS ONCE TAILORED FROM PILOT 
COARSE, STOUT KIND OF TWILLED 
THE NAP ON ONE SIDE. THE CLOTH 
WAS SOMETIMES CALLED P-CLOTH FOR THE INITIAL LETTER 
OF THE WORD AND THE GARMENT MADE FROM IT WAS CALLED 
A P-JACKET - LATER A PEA COAT. THE TERM HAS BEEN 
USED SINCE 1723 TO DENOTE COATS MADE FROM THAT 
CLOTH. 



THE HEAVY TOP 

BY SEAFARING MEN 
CLOTH - A HEAVY, 
BLUE CLOTH WITH 



^ 



9-28 



CHAPTER 10 



NAVAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Describe the historical foundation of the U.S. 
Naval Academy. 

2. Describe the appointment process to the Naval 
Academy. 

3. Identify the eligibility criteria for appointment 
to the Naval Academy. 

4. Identify the eligibility requirements for entering 
the NROTC Program. 

5. Describe the NROTC organization on the 
college campus. 



6. Identify the purpose and curriculum of Of- 
ficer Candidate School. 

7. Identify the purpose and curriculum of Aviation 
Officer Candidate School. 

8. Identify the purpose and curriculum of the 
Naval Postgraduate School. 

9. List the degrees offered by the Uniformed 
Services University of the Health Sciences. 

10. Identify the mission and historical founda- 
tion of the Naval War College. 



Career Navy officers who, after being com- 
missioned, feel that their academic life is over are 
sadly mistaken. Formal education is a recurring 
part of their entire career. The use officers 
make of it determines to a great measure their 
success. 

The Navy places importance on formal officer 
education for two primary reasons. First, the 
overall mission of the Navy and the personnel 
needed to accompUsh this mission have increased 
tremendously in scope and complexity. Therefore, 
the Navy must thoroughly train the people 
primarily responsible for this mission. The 
second — and equally important — reason is that 
every career officer's eventual aim is to command. 
Succession to command presumes a sound 
knowledge of the operations of the unit to be 
commanded. 

In this chapter we will look at some of the 
educational institutions used to train naval 
officers. We will discuss both commissioning 
source schools and continuing education schools, 



You may have the opportunity to attend some of 
these schools during your naval career. 



UNITED STATES 
NAVAL ACADEMY 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

10 Dec. 1815 Navy establishes school for its 
officers. 

10 Oct. 1845 The Naval School opens at An- 

napolis, Maryland (now the 
Naval Academy). 

11 Jul. 1846 First Naval Academy graduate, 

Richmond Aulick, receives com- 
mission as a passed midshipman. 

5 Feb. 1852 Navy dedicates chapel built at 
Annapolis, Maryland; first to be 
built on Navy property. 



10-1 



5 May 1861 Naval Academy transfers to 
Newport, Rhode Island; returns 
to Annapolis, Maryland, on 9 
August 1865. 

11 Sep. 1872 James Henry Conyers, first black 
midshipman, enters Naval 
Academy. 

26 Jun. 1884 Congress authorizes commission- 
ing of Naval Academy graduates 
as ensigns. 

29 Nov. 1890 Navy beats Army 24-0 in first 
Army-Navy football game. 

2 Apr. 1898 Naval Academy adopts coat of 

arms. 

3 Jun. 1949 The Naval Academy graduates its 

first black, John Wesley Brown. 

28 May 1980 Naval Academy graduates its 
first women officers. 

During the first 50 years of the United States 
Navy's existence, it had no organized, efficient 
Navywide system for training its prospective 
officers. Midshipmen received most of their 
training aboard ship under the ship's chaplain. 
They received some training, however, from time 
to time at various schools ashore. 

Despite growing evidence of the need for a 
naval academy, efforts to establish it were 
rebuffed until 1845. At that time the Honorable 
George Bancroft, distinguished historian and 
educator, became Secretary of the Navy in 
President Polk's cabinet. With the establishment 
of a naval academy in mind. Secretary Bancroft 
made several adroit moves, including obtaining 
Fort Severn from the War Department. Fort 
Severn occupied 10 acres on a neck of land called 
Windmill Point at Annapolis. There, in late 1845, 
he set up a naval school for midshipmen. The 
school was officially designated as the United 
States Naval Academy some 5 years later. 

Under Commander Franklin Buchanan, its 
first superintendent, the new school got under way 
on 10 October 1845. The original seven-member 
faculty consisted of four officers and three 
civilians. 

The school opened with a student body of 
60, whose members were divided into a junior 
and senior class. They were housed in several 
small buildings, popularly named Apollo Row, 



Rowdy Row, the Gas House, Brandywine 
Cottage, and the Abbey. The names of the 
buildings reflected the principal characteristics of 
their residents or, in the case of Brandywine 
Cottage, the ship from which the residents came. 
The subjects studied included gunnery, naval 
tactics, engineering, chemistry, mathematics, 
astronomy, French, and English. 

Some of the students had come to the new 
school without any previous sea duty and were 
designated "acting midshipmen." Most students, 
however, had appointments as midshipmen and 
had several years of sea duty. (The acting 
midshipmen were more comparable to today's 
midshipmen than the latter.) 

During the first few years, many of the 
midshipmen had difficulty taking their studies or 
the school discipline seriously. This difficulty 
probably resulted because of their previous sea 
duty experience, their ages (ranging up to 27 
years), and their being used to unrestricted liberty 
when ashore. This is reflected by the following 
reportedly true stories. 

One incident concerned the midshipmen living 
at the Abbey, who supposedly led exemplary lives. 
One night, however, the officer of the day found 
the Abbey deserted. Upon investigation the 
officer discovered a tunnel that went under the 
yard wall immediately adjacent to and toward 
Annapolis. The next day the school ended the use 
of the Abbey as a midshipmen's residence. 

On another occasion, the midshipmen were 
reported to have hung Professor Henry H. 
Lockwood in effigy from the Academy flagstaff 
one St. Patrick's Day. For this, the ringleaders 
were ordered to appear before a court-martial 
board for insulting a superior officer. They 
claimed in defense the professor was not 
superior to students since he was not an officer. 
(Congress eventually remedied this situation by 
raising instructors to the equivalent ranks of 
officers.) 

Another story about this period deals with the 
linguistic prowess shown by one Midshipman 
Nelson during the annual examinations. Professor 
Arsene Girault, instructor in French, had patiently 
tried to teach Nelson to speak something 
resembling that language. When time for the 
exam arrived, however. Nelson knew he could do 
nothing of the kind. Therefore, he memorized a 
series of phrases out of the French textbook. 

During the examination, with half a dozen 
commodores present, the Professor, speaking in 
French, asked, "Mr. Nelson, what is your native 
state?" 



10-2 



Nelson, not understanding a word of the 
question, replied with one of his memorized 
phrases, "Thank You, I am very well." 

The startled Professor glared at him and 
continued, "What course have you just finished?" 

"I am 24 years of age," replied Nelson. 

One of the commodores present during the 
examination was Commodore Matthew C. Perry, 
who did not understand a word of French. As the 
situation reached an impasse. Commodore Perry 
arose from his seat and congratulated Girault on 
his success in teaching the midshipman to speak 
French with such fluency and accuracy. 

Initially the course of study at the Academy 
took 5 years. Of these, midshipmen spent only 
the first and last at Annapolis; they spent the 
intervening 3 years at sea. During 1850 and 1851 
the school was reorganized as the U.S. Naval 
Academy, and the course of study was changed 
to 4 consecutive years. Summer practice cruises 
replaced the omitted sea service. Thus, today's 
basic 4-year curriculum first appeared at the Naval 
Academy over 100 years ago, long before it 
became general practice in American under- 
graduate education. 

With the reorganization that changed the 
Naval School to the Naval Academy, the school's 
executive officer became the commandant of 
midshipmen. The school also adopted a naval 
uniform for acting midshipmen and inaugurated 
the marking scale of 4.0. 

The reorganization also provided that the 
holder of a certificate of graduation was entitled 
to a midshipman's warrant. After 2 years of sea 
duty, the midshipman could return for an 
examination for lieutenant. Only Naval Academy 
graduates were to receive the warrants — the first 
step toward regulating the quality and quantity 
of officers in the fleet. 

In 1851 the method of appointing midshipmen 
in proportion to the members of the House of 
Representatives was established. In 1852 the 
proviso requiring an Academy aspirant to receive 
the recommendation of his Congressman was 
added. 

In 1855 the original "fourth class" entered the 
academy. Almost simultaneously the "my plebe" 
tradition developed. With this tradition the new 
third classmen selected particular members of the 
incoming class over whom they kept a watchful 
eye. This eventually became a first classman 
privilege. Until the advent of the squad system 
in 1965, the closest relationship at the Naval 
Academy was between the first classmen and the 
plebes. 



Attrition during the early years was heavy. 
Only 269 midshipmen of the first 1 ,209 completed 
the course of study. George Dewey entered with 
a class of 75; after their annual examination in 
June 1855, only 38 were retained. Of these, the 
future hero of Manila Bay ranked 35th! At 
graduation, however, he ranked fifth in his class 
of 15. 

The 1850s also saw two other firsts at the 
Academy. Franklin Pierce became the first 
President of the United States to visit the 
Academy when he attended a naval ball there in 
1856. Two years later the school's first literary 
society was formed. It honored James Lawrence, 
whose words, "Don't give up the ship!" adorn 
Memorial Hall. 

The coming of the Civil War brought the 
young school trying years in 1860 and 1861. As 
states seceded from the Union, the tension 
mounted. Finally, one day in April 1861, all hands 
were ordered to muster aboard the Constitution, 
the school ship. Lieutenant Christopher R. P. 
Rogers, commandant of midshipmen, addressed 
the group and ordered all those who desired to 
resign to fall out of ranks. Many did and, amid 
sad farewells, went off to join the Confederacy. 

Officers at the Academy also went their 
respective ways, including the brothers William 
and Foxhall Parker. WiUiam had argued they 
should remain with the Union because of 
education and Navy ties; Foxhall argued for 
the Confederacy because of family and state 
connections. They separated after their discussion; 
but each had been so persuasive that, unknown 
to each other, William resigned and Foxhall 
remained with the Union. 

The rapidly expanding Union Navy urgently 
needed junior officers. Therefore, the first, 
second, and third class midshipmen who remained 
at the Academy were sent off to war. Shortly there- 
after the fourth class, aboard the Constitution, 
sailed for Newport, Rhode Island, which became 
the home of the Academy for the duration of the 
War. 

Organized athletics were introduced to the 
Academy during the post-Civil War period. 
In 1867 the Academy formed class baseball 
teams and held the first of a series of annual 
Thanksgiving athletic carnivals. The athletic 
program included track and field competition, 
baseball, rowing, and gymnastics. In 1870 the 
Academy began competing against outside crews 
in rowing. Football was being played at the 
Academy by 1880; and in 1882 the school's foot- 
ball team played its first outside game, defeating 



10-3 



the Clifton Football Club of Baltimore 8-0. Eight 
years later came the first football game between 
Annapolis and West Point, with the Navy winning 
24-0. 

The Naval Academy Athletic Association was 
founded in 1892, and in 1894 Walter B. Izard of 
the Academy set a new world record for the 
50-yard swim. 

Following the Spanish-American War, an 
extensive building program began. Under this 
program, nearly all the existing buildings at the 
Academy were eventually replaced with the 
French Renaissance-style buildings that stand 
today. The first steps toward this program began 
in 1895 when the Academy's buildings were 
condemned as a menace to health and safety. 
Following this. Colonel Robert Means Thompson, 
class of 1868 and a member of the Board of 
Visitors, engaged a noted architect named Ernest 
Flagg. Flagg drew a plan for new buildings as well 
as a completely new arrangement of the yard. 
Congress approved, and in 1899 the architect's 
plans began to be carried out. 



By this time, the original 10-acre yard had 
been expanded greatly through various acquisitions 
(fig. 10-1). The mansion and gardens of the 
Governor of Maryland were purchased in 1866, 
and 10 acres were purchased from St. John's 
College a year later. In 1868 the 65 acres now 
occupied by the Naval Academy cemetery and the 
naval hospital were purchased. More land was 
needed, however, and most of this was provided 
by the mud dredged out of Chesapeake Bay. 

During the early 1900s, a number of buildings 
were completed under the new plan. Dahlgren 
Hall and MacDonough Hall were completed in 
1903; Isherwood Hall and the officer's club in 
1905; and Bancroft HaU in 1906. The Administra- 
tion Building, Mahan Hall, Sampson Hall, and 
Maury Hall were completed in 1907. 

Bancroft Hall, built as the dormitory for all 
midshipmen, is the main building at the Academy. 
Six wings have been added to the building since 
1906 to keep pace with the brigade expansion. 
Within Bancroft Hall is Memorial Hall, which 
pays tribute to American naval heroes. Its most 




109.15 



Figure 10-1.— An aerial view of the U.S. Naval Academy. 



10-4 



stirring exhibit is the faded blue flag on which is 
sewn in uneven white letters the undying words 
of Captain James Lawrence, "Don't give up the 
ship." 

The Naval Academy Chapel, with its great 
dome that dominates the yard, was completed in 
1908. One striking feature of the chapel is the 
stained-glass windows. Of these, the three main 
windows are memorials to Admirals Porter and 
Farragut and Rear Admiral Sampson. The two 
flanking windows portray the mission of the 
chapel. One shows Sir Galahad with his sheathed 
sword before him. The other portrays Christ 
showing a newly commissioned ensign the beacon 
he must follow as an officer. The bronze doors 
of the chapel, another of its noteworthy features, 
were the gifts of Colonel Robert Means 
Thompson. 

The original chapel was constructed in the 
form of a Greek cross. In 1939 an extension was 
added to increase its capacity, which changed the 
construction to the form of a Christian cross. 
Another notable feature of the chapel is the votive 
ship that hangs from a chain in the arch of the 
nave. It was presented to the Academy in 1941 
by alumni who had served in the Construction 
Corps. (The idea of exhibiting a ship model in a 
church goes back to ancient days. The model 
symbohzes the dedication of seafaring men to 
their God.) 

Beneath the chapel lies the crypt containing 
the sarcophagus (marble coffin) of John Paul 
Jones. Completed in 1913, the sarcophagus is 
surrounded by eight columns of Pyrenean 
marble. Inlaid in a circle in the marble floor 
around it are the names of the seven ships Jones 
commanded or captured during the revolutionary 
war: Serapis, Alliance, Providence, Bonhomme 
Richard, Alfred, Ariel, and Ranger. 

Until brought to Annapolis in 1905, Jones' 
remains had been in France since his death over 
a century before. The reinterment in 1906 was one 
of the most impressive ceremonies in the 
Academy's history. For the occasion a large crowd 
filled Dahlgren Hall to honor the memory of the 
"Father of the American Navy" and to hear 
President Theodore Roosevelt. The President 
closed the day with these ringing words, "The 
man who never surrenders never has to make 
excuses!" 

Attending the Academy during this period of 
growth were several midshipmen who later led the 
Navy during World War II, the period of the 
Navy's greatest expansion. Among them were 
Ernest F. King, WiUiam F. Halsey, Chester 



Nimitz, Raymond Spruance, Harold R. Stark, 
Richmond K. Turner, and Marc A. Mitscher. 

An important change at the Academy at this 
time concerned the summer practice cruises. 
Ever since 1851 these cruises had normally taken 
place in practice ships assigned to the Academy. 
These included such famous sailing ships as the 
Constitution and the Constellation and the last 
square rigger built (1900) for the U.S. Navy, the 
Chesapeake. In 1904, however, part of the 
midshipmen embarked in the coast squadron of 
the North Atlantic Fleet. This procedure was 
repeated yearly until 1912. At that time the Navy 
began the present system of holding summer 
practice cruises only in ships of the fleet. 

An act of Congress in 1902 restored to 
Academy students the nautical title "mid- 
shipmen." They had been given this title from 
1862 to 1870 and are called by this title today. 
(From 1845 to 1862 they had been called "acting 
midshipmen on probation"; from 1870 to 1882, 
"cadet midshipmen"; and from 1882 to 1902, 
"naval cadets.") 

In 1898 the Academy adopted a coat of arms. 
The coat of arms consists of a trident, the motto 
"Ex Scientia Tridens," a book, and a shield 
exhibiting a Roman galley coming bows on into 
action. The trident is the ancient symbol of sea 
power. The motto "Ex Scientia Tridens," which 
means "From knowledge, sea power," represents 
the purpose of the Academy. The book depicts 
scholastic ideas. 

In 1907 the Academy's bandmaster. Lieutenant 
Charles A. Zimmerman, and a choir member. 
Midshipman First Class Alfred H. Miles, 
composed the Navy's battle song, "Anchors 
Aweigh." The midshipmen first sang it at 
the Army-Navy football game in 1907 as the 
Navy won its second successive victory over West 
Point. 

During this period the Academy strived to 
develop its midshipmen into gentlemen with the 
strictest sense of dignity and honor. A regulation 
about dancing serves as an example of the close 
attention the Academy gave to this task. This 
regulation, formulated in 1913 by the Department 
of Discipline (the forerunner of today's Executive 
Department), presented the following restrictions: 

1. None of the modern dances will be 
performed under any circumstances. 

2. Midshipmen must keep their left arm 
straight during all dances. 

3. A space of 3 inches must be kept between 
the dancing couple. 



10-5 



4. Midshipmen must not take their partner's 
arm under any circumstances. 

5. Midshipmen will not leave the ballroom 
floor until the dance has been completed 
and all officers and their guests have left. 

The Department of Discipline also strictly 
regulated smoking. For many years, midshipmen 
were not permitted to smoke in their rooms. 
Later, first classmen were given the privilege of 
keeping their smoking articles in Recreation Hall; 
there they could gather after dinner to smoke and 
talk. The custom gave Recreation Hall its more 
popular name "Smoke Hall." 

A significant and colorful event in the life of 
a midshipman — the Ring Dance — had its origin 
in the 1920s. For some time first classmen had 
observed the custom of throwing second classmen 
into Dewey Basin as soon as the latter had become 
ehgible to wear their class rings. (They became 
eligible to wear their class rings after passing their 
final exams for the year.) In 1924 this custom 
resulted in the tragic drowning of a second 
classman, so it was replaced by the Ring Dance. 

The Ring Dance has several special features. 
One is the Ring Dance Dinner, the only occasion 
when midshipmen may entertain their ladies at 
dinner in the mess hall. The most important 
feature, however, is the presentation of the rings. 
At the scene of the dance, on a carpeted dais, 
stands a huge golden ring modeled after the class 
ring. The ring is surmounted by a glowing globe 
that simulates the jewel of the ring. As each 
couple approaches the replica of the ring, the lady 
dips the midshipman's ring, suspended from a 
ribbon, into a compass binnacle. The binnacle 
is filled with water from the Severn River 
and the seven seas, symbolic of the rhidshipman's 
present and future home. The couple then passes 
through the repUca where she places the ring 
on his finger. It is a moment charged with 
romance, especially if he presents her with a 
miniature class ring, regarded as equivalent to an 
engagement ring. They then kiss and seal the 
ceremony. 

In 1926 an exciting and historical Army-Navy 
football game took place at Soldier's Field in 
Chicago. The largest crowd ever to watch a foot- 
ball game — 110,000 persons — saw Navy come 
from behind to tie Army 21-21. Midshipman 
Tom Hamilton (now Rear Admiral Thomas J. 
Hamilton, Ret.) was the Navy's hero as he 
kicked the tying point that gave Navy an 
undefeated season and a claim to the national 
title. 



In 1930 six midshipmen were awarded Rhodes 
Scholarships — a record number. In that same 
year, the Association of American Universities 
accredited the Academy as a member. Following 
that, Congress passed a law in 1933 authorizing 
the Academy to grant bachelor of science degrees 
to all graduates, beginning with the class of 1931. 
Subsequently, in 1939 Congress authorized the 
award of the B.S. degree to all living graduates. 

After the entry of the United States into World 
War II, the Academy accelerated its course of 
study. The class of 1942 graduated 6 months early 
in December 1941, and the class of 1943 joined 
them in the fleet the following June. Throughout 
the war, the three remaining classes (plebes, 
youngsters, and finishers) pursued a program that 
placed greater emphasis on professional and 
technological courses. 

The brilhant role played by Academy 
graduates in all theaters in World War II forms 
an indelible page in the nation's and Navy's 
history. 

The ending of World War II caused a minor 
mishap to one noted landmark in the Academy 
yard — the Japanese Bell. In 1845 the Regent of 
Napha, Ryukyu Islands, presented this bell to 
Commodore Matthew C. Perry during his 
expedition to Japan. After his death, his widow 
presented it to the Naval Academy (in 1859) 
according to his wish. Traditionally, the bell is 
rung only after a victory over Army in football. 
An exception to this was made on V-J Day in 1945 
when the bell was struck with such enthusiasm 
that it cracked. Today a replica of the Japanese 
Bell stands outside Bancroft Hall, the original 
having been returned to Okinawa in 1987. 

Today these traditions and many others 
remain at the Naval Academy. Plebes still come 
through the Academy gates in July and do not 
leave the yard again until the end of August. 
White-capped midshipmen in dress blue and brass 
buttons still pass in review on Worden Field, and 
drum rolls still thunder in the courtyard of 
Bancroft Hall during meal formations. 

Academy graduates continue to distinguish 
themselves in military roles as well as in public 
Hfe. President Jimmy Carter (class of 1947) was 
a successful businessman, a state governor, and 
the first Academy graduate to hold the highest 
office in the land. 

Along with the continuing traditions at the 
Naval Academy, exciting changes, academically 
and physically, reflect the trends and needs 
of the times. Midshipmen no longer march to 
classes, just as they are no longer locked into 



10-6 



the same rigid academic pattern. New emphasis 
on broadening their academic opportunity has 
expanded the old basic core curriculum into 
majors ranging from aerospace engineering, to 
history, to oceanography. A little more than a 
decade ago, all midshipmen took the same 40 
courses. Today's midshipmen can select from 
more than 500 courses, including political science, 
languages, and computer science. 

The professional changes at Annapolis are 
also important. Along with the emphasis on 
broadening the academic curriculum, the 
Academy provides more intense officer training. 
Upperclassmen have more of the responsibility for 
plebe training and for leadership of the entire 
4,500-person brigade of midshipmen. 

New buildings — modern, yet in harmony with 
the classic structures from the past — now Hne the 
Severn River. The twin towers of the science and 
mathematics buildings, Michelson and Chauvenet 
Halls, have been in use since 1971. The 
560,000 — volume Nimitz Library, dedicated in the 
fall of 1973, contains complete audiovisual and 
closed-circuit television facilities. Rickover Hall, 
the Academy's engineering studies complex, is as 
extensive a laboratory facility as any in the 
nation. 

On the waterfront rises the Robert Crown 
Sailing Center, dedicated in April 1974. Built from 
privately donated funds, the center houses the 
Intercollegiate Sailing Hall of Fame. It also 
provides facilities for the Academy's program of 
varsity and intramural saihng training. Venerable 
Dahlgren Hall, for years an armory and drill hall, 
has been converted with private donations into 
the Midshipman Activity Center. This center 
contains a hockey-size skating rink, snack bar, 
and other recreational facilities. 

The new Brigade Activity Center, which 
opened in 1990, can seat the entire brigade. It 
houses a theater and concert hall and is used for 
brigade professional programs. 

Today's Academy boasts improved facilities 
along with a sophisticated professional training 
program to meet the more complex needs of 
today's nuclear Navy. These improvements and 
the increased versatility of the academic program 
and extracurricular activities provide midshipmen 
with a well-balanced education. 

Beginning with the class of 1980, the Academy 
offered this education to women as well as men. 
Under a new law passed by Congress, the Naval 
Academy admitted the first women midshipmen 
with the plebe class that reported in July 
1976. 



Instead of the 7 founding professors, the 
Academy faculty now numbers more than 610. 
Half of the faculty are naval officers who serve 
on a rotating basis, bringing fresh thinking from 
the fleet. The other half are civilians, ensuring 
continuity and input from the academic 
community. 

Some 50 young men crowded into the old 
barracks of the 10-acre Fort Severn in 1845 to 
open the new national Naval School. Now more 
than 4,500 midshipmen walk the 309 acres of 
today's Naval Academy. 

APPOINTMENT PROCESS 

Appointments are granted to applicants to the 
Naval Academy by either their Congressman or 
the Vice President. The Vice President and each 
Congressman may have five of their appointees 
in the Academy at any one time. They may 
allocate these on the basis of 1 principal and 9 
alternate appointments or award them com- 
petitively with 10 applicants vying for each 
vacancy. 

Remaining appointments are strictly com- 
petitive and are awarded on the basis of those 
considered best qualified as set in the Academy's 
"Whole-Person Evaluation." Competitive appoint- 
ments are available in the following general 
classes: 



1. Presidential 



2. Regular Navy and 
Marine Corps 

3. Naval and Marine 
Corps Reserve 

4. NROTC students and 
graduates of honor 
military and naval 
schools 



100 each year to sons 
and daughters of mem- 
bers of the Regular 
and Reserve compon- 
ents of the armed ser- 
vices who are on active 
duty and have served 
continuously on active 
duty for at least 8 
years; retired person- 
nel; and those who 
died while in receipt of 
retired pay 

85 enlisted members 
per year 

85 enlisted members 
per year 

20 annually (normally 
10 from each cate- 
gory) 



10-7 



5. Deceased and dis- 
abled veterans 



6. District of 
Columbia 

7. Virgin Islands, 
Guam, American 
Samoa, Puerto 
Rico, and Canal 
Zone 

8. American 
Republics 



Congressionally 
qualified alternates 



40 for the sons and 
daughters of members of 
the armed forces who 
were killed in action or 
died of, or have a 100 per- 
cent disability resulting 
from, wounds or injuries 
received or diseases con- 
tracted in, or preexisting 
injury or disease aggra- 
vated by, active service 

5 at any one time 



1 at any one time 



20 at any one time; no 
more than 3 from any 
one country 

The first 150 vacancies of 
an unfilled class quota 
for congressionally ap- 
pointed alternates 



Candidates receiving Vice Presidential and 
Congressional appointments and those who are 
children of holders of the Medal of Honor receive 
direct appointments. 

To bring an entering class up to strength, the 
Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) may appoint 
additional nominees. SECNAV appoints these 
from the remaining qualified alternates and 
competitors in their order of merit. Three- 
fourths of these appointments must be filled by 
congressionally qualified alternates. 

By law, a small number of nationals from 
certain foreign countries may attend. They are not 
eligible for commissions, but receive the same 
training and are governed by the same regulations 
as other students. 

Applicants should submit a pre-candidate 
questionnaire to the Naval Academy in the late 
spring of their junior year of high school. The 
Naval Academy will open a pre-admission file 
upon receipt of this questionnaire and will 
provide an initial evaluation to the applicant by 
early summer. 



For more information, you may request a 
pre-candidate questionnaire by writing to the 
following address: 

Director, Candidate Guidance 
Code 304 

U.S. Naval Academy 
AnnapoHs, MD 21402-5018 

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 
FOR APPOINTMENT 

In addition to the competitive appointment 
process, applicants must meet the following 
eligibility criteria to gain entry to the Naval 
Academy: 

• Be a U.S. citizen 

• Be of good moral character 

• Be unmarried and have no dependents 

• Be at least 17, but not over 22, years of 
age on 1 July of year entering 

• Be physically qualified in accordance with 
Navy standards 

• Have minimum SAT scores of 520 (verbal) 
and 600 (math); have minimum ACT 
scores of 25 (English) and 31 (math) 



NAVAL RESERVE OFFICER 
TRAINING CORPS 

The Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps 
(NROTC) Program was founded in 1926. This 
program produces Navy officers from NROTC 
units in operation at many colleges and universities 
throughout the United States. The annual output 
is approximately 1,500 new officers commissioned 
mainly in the unrestricted line. 

The NROTC Program is highly competitive. 
It educates and trains qualified young men and 
women for service as commissioned officers of 
the Regular Navy and Marine Corps. NROTC 
tnidshipmen lead essentially the same campus life 
as other undergraduates. They make their own 
arrangements for enrollment and room and 
board, and they pursue academic studies leading 
to a bachelor's degree. They may also participate 
in any extracurricular activities that do not 
interfere with their NROTC obligations. 



10-8 



ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 

There are currently two major NROTC 
programs. The first is the Scholarship Program, 
with 8,000 authorized scholarships. It provides for 
tuition, books, instructional fees, and a $100-per- 
month subsistence allowance during the academic 
year for a maximum of 40 academic months. 
Scholarship students incur a service obligation 
at the end of their sophomore year. Students 
incur a 4-year active-duty obligation upon 
commissioning. 

The second program is called the College 
Program. Although this program has no 
enrollment limit, it averages between 2,000 and 
3,000 students annually. The program pays a 
$100-per-month subsistence allowance during the 
junior and senior year of college. Students must 
serve 3 years of active duty upon commissioning. 

Applicants for both programs must meet the 
following eligibility requirements: 

• Be a U.S. citizen 

• Be accepted for admission as a civilian 
student to one of the NROTC participating 
colleges or universities 

• Be at least 17 years of age, but have not 
reached 27 1/2 by 30 June of the year of 
college graduation 

• Be physically qualified in accordance with 
Navy standards 

• Be of good moral character 

• Have minimum SAT scores of 450 (verbal) 
and 500 (math); have ACT scores of 19 
(Enghsh) and 23 (math) 

NROTC ORGANIZATION 

The NROTC organization of a college or 
university is centered in a Department of Naval 
Science. A Navy captain or Marine Corps colonel 
with the title of Professor of Naval Science 
normally heads the NROTC organization. The 
instructors. Navy and Marine Corps officers, hold 
academic ranks as assistant professors. The 
officers selected for this important duty must 
possess academic ability and have diversified 
duty experience. Their experience adds to the store 
of academic knowledge that they impart to the 
midshipmen. It also provides a realistic 



framework from which they can instill in their 
students a highly motivated interest in the naval 
service. 

Normally, the Navy instructors teach eight 
naval professional courses and provide weekly 
laboratory periods for practical work in these 
courses. In early fall and late spring, instructors 
use this lab time for close-order drill. 

Future Marine Corps officers make their 
choice between the Navy or the Marine Corps 
during the first 2 years. For the last 2 years, their 
program of instruction and training differs from 
that given prospective Navy officers. 

NROTC scholarship students may select, with 
the approval of academic authorities, a field of 
study leading to a baccalaureate degree, subject 
to certain limitations. Exempted as majors, for 
example, are studies in such academic fields as 
music, theology, and others deemed of Hmited 
value to naval officers. 

The Navy requires that midshipmen acquire 
a background in physics and mathematics and a 
general proficiency in written and oral expression. 
Students are encouraged to participate in any of 
the school's extracurricular activities as long as 
they do not conflict with Navy classes and drills. 

NROTC midshipmen have about the same 
summer cruise obligations as their contemporaries 
from the Naval Academy. 



OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL 

Officer Candidate School (OCS) was founded 
in 1951 at Newport, Rhode Island, in response 
to an increased demand for naval officers during 
the Korean conflict. OCS continues today as a 
major source of recruitment of male and female 
officers for the United States Navy. It provides 
college graduates from the civilian and Navy 
enlisted communities an opportunity for a naval 
commission. 

"Leadership is our most important product" 
stands as the motto of OCS. The school places 
officer candidates in positions of responsibility 
and closely evaluates their leadership potential in 
addition to academics. The pace of OCS is 
strenuous and demanding. In 16 weeks, officer 
candidates must complete a highly concentrated 
course in the fundamentals of naval science. Naval 
science subjects studied include seamanship, 
navigation, naval engineering, naval warfare, 
military justice, and principles of leadership. 
Additionally, students weekly participate in 6 
hours of physical training activities. 



10-9 



To reenforce principles learned in the class- 
room, the school requires students to engage in 
"hands-on" training. This includes underway 
experience on yard-patrol craft and time in mock- 
ups of ship's bridges and combat information 
centers. It also includes training on the USS 
Buttercup, a damage control trainer that simulates 
a sinking ship. 

Upon successful completion of the course of 
instruction, officer candidates receive a com- 
mission as an ensign in the United States Naval 
Reserve. They then serve 4 years on active duty 
and 2 years in an inactive Reserve status. The top 
10 percent of each graduating class receive 
recognition as distinguished naval graduates and 
are offered a Regular U.S. Navy commission. 

AVIATION OFFICER 
CANDIDATE SCHOOL 

The Navy began the Aviation Officer 
Candidate School (AOCS) Program in 1955. It 
provides an avenue to commissioned service for 
applicants interested in serving as naval aviators, 
naval flight officers, intelligence officers, or 
aviation maintenance duty officers. 

Candidates selected for AOCS attend 14 weeks 
of indoctrination training at Pensacola, Florida. 
Subjects of instruction include seamanship, 
organizational operations, naval administration, 
sea power, military law, naval leadership, 
aeronautics, engineering, and navigation. Upon 
successful completion they receive their com- 
missions as ensigns. 

Members desiring pilot training continue their 
flight training for 12 to 18 months after com- 
missioning. Following successful completion of 
the additional flight training, candidates are 
designated naval aviators and accept a 7-year 
active-duty obligation. 

Naval flight officer (NFO) candidates, after 
commissioning, will continue their training 
leading to designation as NFOs. NFOs incur a 
6-year active-duty obligation following their 
designation. 

Candidates selected for the intelligence 
program and the aviation maintenance duty 
officer program undergo additional training 
following commissioning. They must serve on 
active duty for 4 years from their date of 
commissioning. 

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) was 
officially estabhshed at Monterey, California, in 



1951, although the original postgraduate school 
dates back to the early 1900s. 

The current total educational emphasis of this 
school is on graduate-level programs; the school 
meets 80 percent of the Navy's graduate educa- 
tion requirement. NPS has over 40 programs of 
study, ranging from the traditional engineering 
and physical sciences to the rapidly evolving space 
science programs. No other university offers 
Navy-oriented graduate curricula with such a 
broad span of topics. Studies include aircraft 
combat survivability, fiber optics, robotics, 
artificial intelligence, data base systems, and 
lightweight satellites. 

Lieutenant and lieutenant commander selection 
boards screen officers for NPS. The boards also 
determine the officers' areas of study, based on 
the officers' designators and academic profile 
codes. Potential NPS students discuss with their 
detailers how the school can fit into their careers 
and whether or not they wish to attend. 

NPS is accredited by the Accrediting Com- 
mission for Senior Colleges and Universities of 
the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. 



UNIFORMED SERVICES 

UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH 

SCIENCES 

The Uniformed Services University of the 
Health Sciences was established to educate career- 
oriented medical officers for the military services. 
The university currently incorporates the F. 
Edward Hebert School of Medicine graduate and 
continuing education programs. It is located on 
the Naval Medical Command Reservation in 
Bethesda, Maryland. 

A faculty committee on admissions makes 
student selections. The committee bases its 
selections upon candidates' motivation and 
dedication to a career in the uniformed services 
and an overall appraisal of their personal and 
intellectual characteristics. Applicants must be 
U.S. citizens and meet the physical and personal 
qualifications for commissioning. They also must 
give evidence of a strong commitment to serving 
as a uniformed medical officer. The graduating 
medical student must serve a period of obligation 
of not less than 7 years. 

The university's F. Edward Hebert School of 
Medicine now has an enrollment of over 600 
officers in training for their M.D. degrees. It 
has an additional enrollment of over 100 



10-10 




134.130 
Figure 10-2. — One of the foremost seaman of his day, Rear Admiral Luce was the driving influence behind the institution 
of the U.S. Naval War College in 1884 and the use of fleet exercises as battle practice for our expanding naval armada. 



individuals in one of its basic sciences graduate 
programs. 

The university's fully accredited graduate 
program is available to both civilian and military 
apphcants. Graduates may receive the Ph.D. 
degree in one of the biomedical sciences, the 
master of public health degree, or the master of 
tropical medicine and hygiene degree. In addition, 
the university serves as the focus for a vigorous 
continuing medical education program that 
supports the military services. The university 
offers unique training opportunities both at 
the Bethesda campus and at military bases around 
the world, where such training is otherwise 
unavailable. 



NAVAL WAR COLLEGE 

The Naval War College was estabhshed to 
provide mihtary officers a chance to study their 
profession in mid-career, much as many civilian 
professionals frequently do. The mission of the 
Naval War College is to enhance the professional 
capabilities of its students. It helps students in 
both command and management positions increase 
their ability to make sound decisions. It also helps 
them to conduct research leading to the develop- 
ment of advanced strategic and tactical concepts 
for the future employment of naval forces. 

The Naval War College was established on 6 
October 1884 by order of the Secretary of the 
Navy. Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce (fig. 10-2) 



10-11 




109.16 



Figure 10-3. — The U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island. 



was appointed as the first president of the Naval 
War College in Newport, Rhode Island (fig. 10-3). 

Luce's conception of the nature and needs of 
the naval profession shaped the War College from 
its start. He appreciated the interrelationship of 
naval power, technology, and international 
politics and the need for senior officers to 
understand such complex issues. Luce organized 
the War College as a place of original research 
on all questions about war, the statesmanship 
connected with war, or the prevention of 
war. 

Luce's original format has carried through 
over the years. Over the last 100 years, the Naval 
War College has shaped its educational require- 
ments to meet the professional and environmental 
needs of the Navy. 



SUMMARY 

We live in a volatile and complex world in 
which sudden and unexpected changes in world 
leadership frequently occur. In addition, 
technological innovations frequently occur in 
computer science, artificial intelligence, and 



robotics. The Navy must have the abihty to 
apply new technologies and to respond quickly 
to new challenges. The Navy must also be able 
to develop sound national and international policy 
and efficiently manage its hmited resources. In 
short, it must be able to convert invention into 
combat readiness. This requires an educated 
officer corps with the intellect and vision to 
capitalize on evolving technology and develop- 
ments. The various naval educational institutions 
discussed in this chapter help to provide the 
trained and educated professionals required to fill 
these needs. 



REFERENCES 

Navy Fact File, 8th ed.. Office of Information, 
Washington, D.C., 1988. 

'"^aths to a Commission," All Hands, Number 
863 (February 1989): 42-47. 

The United States Government Manual 1989/90, 
Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1989. 



10-12 



MIND YOUR Ps AND Qs 



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A MARK 

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SO HE W 

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FEW OF US WHO HAVE NOT AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER BEEN 
"MIND OUR Ps AND Qs," OR IN OTHER WORDS, TO BE- 
ODDLY ENOUGH, "MIND YOUR Ps AND Qs" HAD NAU- 
NGS AS A METHOD OF KEEPING BOOKS ON THE WATER- 



S OF SAIL WHEN SAILORS WERE PAID PITTANCE, SEAMEN 
LE IN TAVERNS WHOSE KEEPERS WERE WILLING TO EX- 
NTIL PAYDAY. SINCE MANY SALTS WERE ILLITERATE, 
A TALLY OF PINTS AND QUARTS CONSUMED BY EACH 
HALKBOARD BEHIND THE BAR. NEXT TO EACH PERSON'S 
WAS MADE UNDER "P" FOR PINT OR "Q" FOR QUART 
AMAN ORDERED ANOTHER DRAUGHT. 

EACH SEAMAN WAS LIABLE FOR EACH MARK NEXT TO HIS 
AS FORCED TO "MIND HIS Ps AND Qs" OR GET INTO 
UBLE. TO ENSURE AN ACCURATE COUNT BY UNSCRUPULOUS 
ORS HAD TO KEEP THEIR WITS AND REMAIN SOMEWHAT 
ETY USUALLY ENSURED GOOD BEHAVIOR; HENCE, THE 
IND YOUR Ps AND Qs." 




10-13 



CHAPTER 1 1 

THE ARMED FORCES 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Describe the authority of the President in using 
the military to maintain national security. 

2. Identify the members and function of the 
National Security Council. 

3. List the three primary provisions of the 
National Security Act. 

4. Identify the key members and the mission of 
the Department of Defense. 

5. Identify the role of the Secretary of Defense. 

6. Identify the three elements that make up the 
TRIAD and the role of the U.S. Navy and 
U.S. Air Force in support of the TRIAD. 

7. Identify the members and functions of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

8. Describe the difference between a unified 
command and a specified command. 

9. Identify the mission and function of the U.S. 
Army. 



10. Identify the mission and function of the U.S. 
Air Force. 

1 1 . Identify the mission and function of the U.S. 
Coast Guard. 

12. Identify the key members of the Navy 
Department. 

13. Identify the responsibilities of the Chief of 
Naval Operations. 

14. Identify the duties of the master chief petty 
officer of the Navy. 

15. Identify the purpose of the shore estabUsh- 
ment. 

16. Identify the key members of the operating 
forces. 

17. Identify the administrative and operational 
chain of command for operating units. 

18. Describe the composition of a task force. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

14 Jun. 1775 The American Continental Army 
(now called the United States 
Army) is estabUshed by the Con- 
tinental Congress more than a 
year before the Declaration of 
Independence. 

4 Aug. 1790 The Revenue Marine is established 
(now called the United States 
Coast Guard). 

18 Sep. 1947 Department of the Air Force is 
established. 



As you will recall from chapter 1, the U.S. 
Navy constantly prepares to conduct prompt and 
sustained combat operations at sea in support of 
U.S. national interests. This preparation is the 
primary mission of the U.S. Navy as part of the 
Department of Defense (DOD). Meeting the 
objectives of this mission requires a well-organized 
Navy. This chapter presents information on DOD 
and U.S. Navy organization. 

The Navy's authority to act in the interest of 
security stems from congressional legislation. 
Congress enacted legislation to ensure the security 
of the United States. The legislation authorized 
a Department of Defense, including three military 



11-1 




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11-2 



departments, each under its own Secretary: Army, 
Navy (including the Marine Corps), and Air 
Force. The three Secretaries function under the 
direction, authority, and control of the Secretary 
of Defense. See figure 11-1 for the DOD organiza- 
tional chart. 

Congress also created the Joint Chiefs of Staff 
(JCS) to integrate planning and operations among 
the armed services. The Chiefs of Staff of the 
separate services make up the JCS. A chairman, 
considered to be the senior member of the armed 
services, heads the JCS. 

The legislation also estabUshed unified and 
specified commands. This action unified the 
strategic direction of the combatant forces into 
an efficient team of land, naval, and air forces. 
A unified command consists of significant 
components of two or more miHtary services. A 
specified command normally consists of forces 
from only one service. 

As you read this chapter, you will learn more 
about the DOD, the three military services, the 
JCS, and unified and specified commands. If you 
are unfamiliar with these subjects, this will be a 
good introduction. If you have a good under- 
standing of these subjects, this will serve as a good 
review. 



• In 1845 President Polk deployed the Navy 
to the coast of Mexico to quell trouble 
caused by the annexation of Texas. He 
asked Congress to declare war on Mexico 
5 months later, and Congress did. 

• In 1862 President Lincoln personally 
assumed command of successful miHtary 
operations against Confederate forces in 
Norfolk, Virginia. 

• In 1896 President McKinley ordered the 
naval blockade of Cuba. Congress 
declared war on Spain 3 days later. 

• In 1941 President Franklin Roosevelt 
declared an unlimited national emergency 
and ordered the U.S. Navy to "sink on 
sight" foreign submarines found in our 
"defensive waters." 

• In 1962 President Kennedy ordered a naval 
quarantine of Cuba based on Soviet 
mihtary activity on that island. 

• In 1965 President Johnson ordered naval 
air action against North Vietnamese gun- 
boats and support facilities. 



NATIONAL SECURITY 

National security is a matter of concern for 
all Americans, but no U.S. citizen faces more 
responsibility than the President of the United 
States. The National Security Council (NSC), 
under the President, shares in this responsibility. 
The NSC sits at the pinnacle of our nation's 
defense structure. 

THE PRESIDENT 
(COMMANDER IN CHIEF) 

The power of the President in the capacity of 
COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMED 
FORCES is extensive. That power increases in the 
event of war or some other national emergency. 
For example, the President may declare an 
emergency and call out the military Reserves or 
even order the armed forces into military action 
before Congress actually declares war. Often a 
President has referred a matter to Congress after 
the fact. The following actions are examples: 

• In 1801 President Jefferson sent naval 
squadrons to the Mediterranean and then 
informed Congress. 



• In 1979 President Carter ordered units of 
the U.S. Sixth and Seventh Fleets to the 
Indian Ocean to assist in hostage evacua- 
tion operations and as deterrents against 
Iranian actions. 

These and other less significant actions of our 
Presidents have established presidential authority 
and control of U.S. military forces. 

NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL 

The National Security Act of 1947 established 
the National Security Council. The President 
chairs the Council. 

The statutory members, in addition to the 
President, consist of the Vice President and the 
Secretaries of State and Defense. The Chairman 
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as the statutory 
mihtary adviser to the Council. The Director of 
Central Intelligence serves as the intelligence 
adviser. 

The National Security Council advises the 
President about the integration of domestic, 
foreign, and miHtary policies relating to national 
security. 



11-3 



THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
(DOD) 

In 1949 Congress amended the National 
Security Act of 1947 to create the Department of 
Defense (DOD). In enacting this amendment, 
Congress set forth the following three primary 
provisions: 

• The establishment of a Department of 
Defense, including the three Military 
Departments of the Army, the Navy 
(including naval aviation and the United 
States Marine Corps), and the Air Force 
under the direction, authority, and control 
of the Secretary of Defense 

• The separate organization of each military 
department under its own Secretary 

• The establishment of unified or specified 
combatant commands and a clear and 
direct line of command to such commands 

We discussed the awesome power of the 
President of the United States as Commander in 
Chief earlier in this chapter. The Commander in 
Chief must be kept abreast of all matters affecting 
the ability of the Department of Defense to 
properly defend the United States and its allies. 

The Department of Defense is the largest 
government agency in the United States. It spends 
a major portion of the national budget and 
employs nearly 4 million people (military and 
civiHan). The DOD was created to carry out the 
military poHcies of the United States. 

MISSION 

Simply stated, the mission of the DOD is to 
maintain and employ armed forces to accomplish 
the following: 

• Support and defend the Constitution of the 
United States against all enemies 

• Protect the United States, its possessions, 
and areas vital to its interests 

• Advance the policies and interests of the 
United States 

• Safeguard the internal security of the 
United States 

SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 
(SECDEF) 

The Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) functions 
as a member of both the President's cabinet and 
the National Security Council. The Secretary of 
Defense is delegated all the functions vested in the 



President regarding the DOD, including powers, 
duties, and authorities. In this capacity, SECDEF 
exercises "direction, authority, and control over 
the Department of Defense" and reports to the 
President on all military matters concerning the 
department. SECDEF, therefore, serves as the 
principal assistant to the President in all matters 
relating to the DOD. The Deputy Secretary of 
Defense assists SECDEF by supervising and 
coordinating the activities of the department and 
substituting for SECDEF during absence or 
disability. 



STRATEGIC NUCLEAR 
DETERRENCE 

The United States uses a TRIAD of three 
closely related strategic nuclear forces as a 
deterrent against a potential enemy. These 
nuclear forces consist of the U.S. Navy's SEA- 
LAUNCHED BALLISTIC MISSILES and the 
U.S. Air Force's INTERCONTINENTAL BAL- 
LISTIC MISSILES (ICBMs) and LONG- 
RANGE BOMBERS. 

The probability of a strategic nuclear attack 
on the United States is very low. However, should 
we ever experience such an attack, the conse- 
quences would be catastrophic. The TRIAD has 
been developed and maintained to deter nuclear 
attack. Similarly, the Soviet Union has developed 
and is maintaining powerful strategic forces of its 
own. Our objective is to obtain a condition of 
essential equivalence — a condition in which the 
following situations occur: 

1. Soviet strategic nuclear forces do not 
become effective instruments of political 
leverage or coercion. 

2. Nuclear stabihty is maintained. 

3 . Advantages in strategic force characteristics 
possessed by the Soviets are offset by 
advantages of the United States in other 
characteristics. 

4. U.S. strategic forces are not, nor are they 
perceived to be, inferior in performance to 
those of the Soviet Union. 

^. The credibility of our TRIAD as perceived by 
potential opponents and aUies is very important. 
If they perceive that our TRIAD does not exist 
or is weak, regardless of the facts, it will no longer 
serve to deter an attack. 

This condition of essential equivalence should 
produce a mutual deterrence that is so stable it 
will not be upset in a crisis. The United States 



11-4 



seeks to maintain this stability through a 
combination of specific, equitable, and verifiable 
arms-control agreements. 

The focus on relations between the United 
States and the Soviet Union is necessary because 
both nations are the greatest military powers in 
the world today. For the foreseeable future, the 
two countries will continue to cooperate and 
compete. The precise mixture of cooperation and 
competition will depend on the place, the issue, 
and how each sees its own national interests in 
a particular case. 

The Soviets appear willing to strike some 
bargains that can reduce the chances of mutual 
destruction. At the same time, because their 
interests and objectives are different from ours, 
tensions have risen in the past and will continue 
to do so in the future. 

The unique qualities of each leg of the TRIAD 
combined provide a level of flexibility that could 
not be attained by each one alone. The TRIAD 
enhances our employment options, comphcates 
the Soviet's hedge against possible Soviet 
violations of arms-control limitations, and reduces 
the impact of new technological advances. 

U.S. NAVY'S ROLE 

Deterrence of war has been the sole mission 
of and fundamental reason for the existence of 
the fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) since 
its inception in 1960. The SSBN program is the 
Navy's highest priority. It is an essential corner- 
stone of the national security policy, functioning 
as a survivable and dependable leg of the strategic 



deterrent TRIAD. The submarine leg of the 
TRIAD consists of older SSBNs armed with 
Poseidon C-3 or Trident C-4 missiles and new 
Trident submarines carrying Trident C-4 and D-5 
missiles. These submarines spend about 55 percent 
of their time at sea, with their missiles targeted 
at sites in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. 
Tridents carry 24 submarine-launched ballistic 
missiles (SLBMs) compared with 16 in earlier 
submarines. 

U.S. AIR FORCE'S ROLE 

Our land-based intercontinental ballistic 
missiles (ICBMs) are unsurpassed in readiness and 
immediate reaction capability. They can be 
launched quickly, and they have a high capability 
of survival. The Strategic Air Command's 
(SAC's) ICBM force consists of Minuteman 
missiles and Titan II missiles, which are being 
retired. SAC is modernizing its missile forces with 
new Peacekeeper ICBMs, which are being 
deployed in Minuteman silos. The Peacekeeper 
is more accurate, carries more warheads, and 
places at risk the most difficult Soviet targets. 

SAC's manned bombers are the most flexible 
element of the TRIAD. They are the only leg of 
the TRIAD that can be recalled and reused. 
Bombers can be used as a manned penetration or 
as a cruise missile launch platform. Bombers can 
also be used in support of conventional opera- 
tions. SAC can use B-52 and FB-1 1 1 bombers to 
penetrate Soviet defenses. New B-IB bombers 
(fig. 11-2) are being placed into service to 
modernize SAC's aging B-52 forces. 




134.131 



Figure 11-2.— U.S. Air Force B-IB bomber. 

11-5 



JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF (JCS) 

Before we describe the functions of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff (JCS), let's review a little history. 
The Joint Chiefs of Staff resulted from the 
establishment of a supreme British-American 
military body for the strategic direction of World 
War II. This British- American body of military 
officers was known as the Combined Chiefs of 
Staff. 

Our own JCS took form from the British 
Chiefs of Staff, who were colleagues and counter- 
parts of U.S. representatives. The JCS soon began 
to function as the corporate leadership for the 
United States military structure. At the national 
level, the JCS absorbed and extended the 
functions of the Joint Army and Navy Board. 
This joint board handled interservice cooperation 
and joint war planning in the prewar period. 

During World War II the JCS existed to assist 
the President in the exercise of his powers as 
Commander in Chief. The organization that 
developed to support the JCS during World War 
II included a few standing committees composed 
of full-time working members. However, the 
majority of committees were manned by officers 
who served in this JCS function as part-time 
members. This function was an extension of 
their primary assignments in the War or Navy 
Departments. 

With few modifications, the wartime JCS 
organization continued to operate in the postwar 
period until the effective date of the National 
Security Act of 1947. This act established the JCS 
as a permanent agency within the National 
Military Establishment. It appointed the members 
as "the principal military advisers to the President 
and Secretary of Defense." 



military command over the JCS or any of the 
armed forces. 

One additional member, the Vice Chairman, 
is appointed in the same manner as the Chairman. 
The Vice Chairman participates in all meetings 
of the JCS but may vote only when acting as 
Chairman. 

FUNCTION 

The members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are 
the principal mihtary advisers to the President, 
the National Security Council, and the Secretary 
of Defense. Subject to the authority and 
direction of the President and SECDEF, the duties 
of the JCS include the following: 

• Preparing strategic plans and providing 
strategic direction of the armed forces 

• Preparing joint logistic plans and assigning 
logistic responsibilities to the armed forces 

• Establishing unified commands 

• Reviewing major material and personnel 
requirements of the armed forces 

• Formulating policies for joint training of 
the armed forces 

• Formulating policies for coordinating 
military education of members of the 
armed forces 

• Providing representation of the United 
States on the Military Staff Committee of 
the United Nations 



COMPOSITION 

The JCS consists of the Chairman of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff; the Chief of Staff, United States 
Army; the Chief of Naval Operations; the Chief 
of Staff, United States Air Force; and the 
Commandant of the Marine Corps. 

The President appoints the Chairman, with the 
advice and consent of the Senate. The Chairman 
serves at the pleasure of the President for a 2-year 
term and may be reappointed in the same 
manner for an additional 2-year term. During 
time of war, the number of reappointments is 
unlimited. While holding office, the Chairman of 
the JCS outranks all other officers of the armed 
forces. However, the Chairman may not exercise 



• Performing other duties as the President 
or SECDEF prescribes 



UNIFIED COMMANDS AND 
SPECIFIED COMMANDS 

The United States' concept of the Military 
EstabHshment is that it is an efficient team of 
land, naval, and air forces. This concept is based 
on the principle of effective use of military power. 
This principle requires close integration of the 
efforts of the separate military services. Unity of 
effort among the services at the national level 
results from a joint effort. The Secretaries of the 
Army, Navy, and Air Force; the JCS; and the 



11-6 



various military departments work together in this 
joint effort. 

Under the National Security Act, each military 
department and service must coordinate with the 
others. Each is responsible for organizing, 
training, equipping, and providing forces to fulfill 
certain specific combat functions and for 
administering and supporting these forces. 

Our country must have the full use and 
exploration of the weapons, techniques, and 
capabilities of each department and service to 
attain its national security objectives. Unified 
commands and specified commands provide us 
with the ability to combine our forces effectively. 

UNIFIED COMMANDS 

A unified command has a broad continuing 
mission and is composed of significant com- 
ponents of two or more services under a single 
commander. A situation in which either or both 
of the following criteria apply requires a unified 
command: 

1. A broad continuing mission exists that 
requires significant forces of two or more 
services and a single strategic direction. 

2. Any combination of the following situa- 
tions exists when significant forces of two 
or more services are involved: 

a. A large-scale operation requires positive 
control and tactical execution by a large 
and complex force 

b. A large geographic area requires single 
responsibility for effective coordination 
of operations 

c. Limited logistic resources require a 
single point of command 

The unified commands include the following: 

U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) 

U.S. Southern Command 
(USSOUTHCOM) 

U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) 

U.S. Atlantic Command (USLANTCOM) 

U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) 

U.S. Transportation Command 
(USTRANSCOM) 

U.S. Special Operations Command 
(USSOCOM) 

U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) 



The authority (the President, Secretary of 
Defense, etc.) establishing a unified command 
appoints a unified commander. This authority 
also determines the unified command's structure 
and assigns its forces, missions, and general 
geographic area of responsibility. 

The commander of a unified command has a 
joint staff with members in key positions from 
each service having component forces under the 
unified command. The joint staff requires a 
balance in the composition of the forces and 
character of the operations. This balance ensures 
an understanding by the commander of the 
tactics, techniques, capabilities, needs, and 
Hmitations of each component force. 

Each component of a unified command is 
normally commanded directly by an officer of 
that component. Operational command by a 
unified commander is usually exercised through 
the service component commanders or through 
the commanders of subordinate unified com- 
mands. (A unified commander may establish 
subordinate unified commands.) In exercising 
operational command, a unified commander 
regards the knowledge and responsibilities of 
assigned service component commanders. 

The responsibilities of the commander of a 
unified command include the following: 

• Maintaining the security of the command 
and protecting the United States, its 
possessions, and its bases against attack or 
a hostile outbreak 

• Carrying out assigned missions, tasks, and 
responsibilities 

• Assigning tasks to and directing coordina- 
tion among subordinate commands to 
ensure unity of effort in the accomplish- 
ment of assigned mission(s) 

SPECIFIED COMMANDS 

A specified command is a command with a 
broad continuing mission. It is normally composed 
of forces from only one service but may include 
units and staff representation from other services. 

The authority that establishes a specified 
command appoints the specified commander and 
the force structure. This authority also assigns the 
missions and defines the commander's general 
geographic area of responsibility. 

Units of other services assigned to a specified 
command normally are told the purpose and 



11-7 



duration of the assignment. Such assignment, in 
itself, does not change the specified command to 
a unified command. If, however, the assignment 
is major and of long duration, a unified command 
is normally established instead of a specified 
command. 

The commander of a specified command has 
the same responsibilities as the commander 
of a unified command; however, the specified 
commander cannot establish subordinate unified 
commands. 

The only specified commands in existence at 
the time of this writing are the Strategic Air 
Command (SAC) and the U.S. Forces Command 
(USFORCOM). 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

The primary responsibility of the Department 
of the Army is to prepare land forces, as 
necessary, for war. The Department of the Army 
is also responsible for expansion of peacetime 
components of the Army to meet the needs of 
war. The Army includes land combat and service 
forces and aviation and water transport. 

MISSIOiN 

The mission of the Department of the Army 
is to organize, train, and equip active-duty and 
Reserve forces for the preservation of peace, 
security, and the defense of our nation. The 
Army's mission focuses on land operations; its 
soldiers must be trained with modern arms and 
equipment and be ready to respond quickly. 

FUNCTION 

The following are the primary functions of the 
Department of the Army: 

• To organize, train, and equip forces 
for the conduct of prompt and sustained 
combat operations on land — specifically, 
forces to defeat enemy land forces and to 
seize, occupy, and defend land areas 

• To organize, train, equip, and provide 
Army air defense units as required to 
defend the United States against air attack 

• To organize, train, equip, and provide 
Army forces, in coordination with the 
other services, for joint amphibious and 
airborne operations 



• To develop, in coordination with other 
U.S. military services, doctrines, tactics, 
techniques, and equipment for amphibious 
operations 

• To organize, train, equip, and provide 
forces for the support and conduct of 
special operations 

• To develop, in coordination with other 
U.S. military services, doctrines, pro- 
cedures, and equipment employed by 
Army and Marine forces in airborne 
operations 

• To provide forces to occupy territories 
abroad and establish a military govern- 
ment pending the transfer of this respon- 
sibiHty to other authority 

• To perform functions relating to the 
management and operation of the Panama 
Canal 

• To perform projects for improvement of 
navigation, flood control, beach erosion 
control, and other water resource develop- 
ment in the United States, its territories, 
and its possessions 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 

The primary responsibility of the Department 
of the Air Force is to prepare the Air Force, as 
necessary, for war. It is also responsible for the 
expansion of peacetime components of the Air 
Force to meet the needs of war. The Air Force, 
within the Department of the Air Force, includes 
both combat and service aviation forces. 

MISSION 

The mission of the Air Force is to preserve, 
in conjunction with the other armed forces, the 
peace and security of the United States by 
providing air-combat, air-service, aerospace, 
missile, and airlift forces. 

FUNCTION 

The primary functions of the Air Force are 
as follows: 

• To organize, train, and equip Air Force 
personnel to conduct prompt and sustained 
combat operations in the air. Specifically, 
the Air Force defends the United States 



11-8 



against air attacic. The functions of the Air 
Force support the doctrines established by 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff. These doctrines 
include gaining and maintaining general air 
supremacy, defeating enemy air forces, 
controlling vital air areas, and establishing 
local air superiority. 

• To develop doctrines and procedures, in 
coordination with other U.S. miHtary 
services, for the unified defense of the 
United States against air attack. 

• To organize, train, and equip Air Force 
personnel for strategic air warfare. 

• To organize, train, and equip Air Force 
personnel for joint amphibious and air- 
borne operations in coordination with 
other U.S. military services. 

• To furnish close combat and logistical air 
support to the Army. This air support 
includes airlift, support, and resupply of 
airborne operations; aerial photography; 
tactical reconnaissance; and restraint of 
enemy land power and communications. 

• To provide air transport for the armed 
forces. 

• To develop, in coordination with other 
U.S. military services, doctrines, pro- 
cedures, and equipment for air defense 
from land areas, including the continental 
United States. 

• To formulate doctrines and procedures for 
organizing, equipping, training, and 
employing Air Force troops. 

• To provide an organization capable of 
furnishing adequate, timely, and rehable 
intelligence for the Air Force. 

• To furnish aerial photography for car- 
tographic purposes. 

• To develop tactics, techniques, and equip- 
ment for amphibious operations in 
coordination with other U.S. mihtary 
services. 

• To develop doctrines, procedures, and 
equipment employed by Air Force troops 
in airborne operations with other U.S. 
military services. 



• To restrain enemy sea power through air 
operations. 

• To conduct antisubmarine warfare and 
protect shipping. 

• To conduct aerial minelaying operations. 

Air Force responsibilities in support of space 
operations include the following: 

— Organizing, training, equipping, and pro- 
viding forces to support operations 

— Developing, in coordination with other U.S. 
military services, tactics, techniques, and 
equipment employed by Air Force person- 
nel for use in space operations 

— Conducting individual and unit training of 
Air Force space operations forces 

— Participating with other U.S. military ser- 
vices in joint space operations, training, and 
exercises 



THE UNITED STATES 
COAST GUARD 

The United States Coast Guard has a dual role 
that is unique among the services. By statute, 
organization, and operation, the Coast Guard is 
a military service and a branch of the armed forces 
always; but normally it operates as a service in 
the Department of Transportation. In time of war 
or when the President so directs, it becomes a 
service in the Navy but continues to perform its 
normal specialized duties. 

The Coast Guard is the nation's oldest 
continuous seagoing service. Established in 1790 
as the United States Revenue Marine (later 
renamed the Revenue Cutter Service), the service 
was an arm of the Treasury Department, under 
then Secretary Alexander Hamilton. 

The Revenue Marine was primarily a law 
enforcement agency. Its responsibility was to 
collect custom duties from ships entering United 
States waters. 

Although the original role of the service was 
law enforcement, revenue cutters and crews took 
part in almost every conflict involving the United 
States. These involvements established the military 
readiness of the service. 



11-9 



In the mid-1800s Congress established the U.S. 
Lifesaving Service, an organization of local 
stations scattered along the U.S. coast. Shortly 
after the turn of the century, the Lifesaving 
Service and the Revenue Cutter Service merged 
to form the U.S. Coast Guard. This merger 
provided the Coast Guard with its traditional 
image — the hfesavers. 

In 1939 the Coast Guard joined the Light- 
house Service and assumed the responsibility 
for establishing and maintaining aids to nav- 
igation in U.S. waters. This responsibility 
has grown to such an extent that today the 
Coast Guard maintains nearly 50,000 navigational 
aids, including worldwide electronic navigation 
systems. 



MISSION 

The mission of the U.S. Coast Guard is 
twofold. During peacetime the Coast Guard's 
modern-day mission is an interesting mixture. 
Various peacetime roles include the following: 

• Enforcement of maritime laws and treaties 

• Search and rescue operations 

• Enforcement of U.S. drug and contraband 
laws 

• Installation and maintenance of aids to 
navigation 

• Ice-breaking operations that keep commer- 
cial vessel traffic moving in domestic 
waters and support scientific research in 
the Arctic and Antarctica 

As the primary maritime law enforcement 
agency of the United States, the Coast Guard is 
responsible for enforcing maritime regulatory laws 
concerning the following: 

• Safety regulations for all U.S. commercial 
vessels, offshore structures, and recreational 
boating 

• Port safety and security, including ports, 
harbors, and their approaches 

• The movement of vessels in ports and 
waterways during crisis situations 



• Marine environmental protection to 
prevent and contain spills of oil and other 
hazardous substances 

Because the Coast Guard is a military 
service — one that has ships, planes, and boats — it 
also has a military readiness mission. The Coast 
Guard works closely with the Navy, undergoes 
regular refresher training for its major cutters, and 
participates in joint operational exercises. 

With the advent of World War II, the Coast 
Guard assumed the responsibilities of in-port 
safety and security and commercial vessel safety. 
The Coast Guard has continued to grow and 
shoulder additional responsibilities. In the last 
30 years, the Coast Guard has acquired respon- 
sibilities for polar and domestic ice breaking, 
cleanup and protection of the marine environ- 
ment, and recreational boating safety. In 1967 the 
Coast Guard became part of the newly formed 
Department of Transportation. 

In wartime the U.S. Coast Guard has always 
served with pride. Today, during a wartime 
condition, the U.S. Coast Guard would operate 
directly under the Chief of Naval Operations. It 
would still have the same mission as it did during 
World War II, plus added roles. The Coast Guard 
would assume convoy duties as well as anti- 
submarine warfare missions. Its cutters are well 
suited for convoy duties as they have a long 
cruising range and room for armament. 

The air search and rescue section of the Coast 
Guard would fly rescue missions and would also 
be used for reconnaissance flights. They also 
would be used as antisubmarine aircraft. The 
Coast Guard's mission in wartime would strain 
its limited assets. 



FUNCTION 

The primary functions of the Coast Guard are 
as follows: 

• Enforcing all applicable federal laws upon 
the high seas and in waters that are 
subject to the jurisdiction of the United 

^ States 

• Safeguarding against destruction or loss 
from sabotage or other subversive acts all 
vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront 
facilities in the United States and its 
territories 



11-10 



• Extending medical aid to crews of vessels 
at sea, caring for and transporting 
shipwrecked and destitute persons, and 
engaging in flood-relief work 

• Removing and destroying derelicts, 
wrecks, and other dangers to navigation, 
and assisting marine commerce by opening 
ice-blocked channels and ports 

• Investigating marine disasters 

• Regulating the transportation of explosives 
on vessels 

• Issuing and enforcing the rules for lights, 
signals, speed, steering, saihng, passing, 
anchorage, movement, and towHnes of 
vessels 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT 

The Navy Department assists the Secretary of 
the Navy in carrying out the responsibilities of that 
office. SECNAV is responsible, under the 
Secretary of Defense, for the policies and control 
of the Navy. This includes its organization, 
administration, operation, and efficiency. The 
Navy Department includes the Undersecretary of 
the Navy, Assistant Secretaries, the Chief of Naval 
Operations, the Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, and the Judge Advocate General. 
Remember, the Department of the Navy is the 
entire organization, which includes the Navy 
Department, the shore establishment, and the 
operating forces. The Navy Department, which 
is only one part of the Department of the 
Navy, is an administrative group that assists 
SECNAV. 



• Establishing and maintaining marine aids 
to navigation such as lighthouses, lights, 
radio beacons, radio direction-finder 
stations, buoys, and Vessel Traffic Services 
(VTSs), as required to serve the needs of 
commerce and of the armed forces 

• Conducting surveillance operations for the 
preservation of marine life and the 
prevention of environmental pollution 

• Conducting operations for drug 
interdiction 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY 

The Department of the Navy (fig. 11-3) is 
made up of the Navy Department (the executive 
offices); Headquarters, United States Marine 
Corps; and all operating forces of the Navy and 
Marine Corps and their Reserve components. It 
also includes all shore (field) activities, head- 
quarters, forces, bases, installations, and other 
activities under the control or supervision of the 
Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV). 

Notice, on the left of the figure, that the 
Department of the Navy is divided into three 
major sections: the Navy Department, the shore 
establishment, and the operating forces. 

The mission and function of the Navy were 
described in chapter 1. 



Chief of Naval Operations 

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the 
senior military officer of the Department of the 
Navy. The CNO takes precedence over all other 
officers of the naval service, except an officer of 
the naval service who is serving as Chairman of 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CNO is the 
principal naval adviser to the President and 
to the Secretary of the Navy on the conduct 
of the activities of the Department of the 
Navy. The Chief of Naval Operations is the 
Navy member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 
The CNO is responsible for keeping the 
Secretary of the Navy fully informed on 
matters considered or acted upon by the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. As a member of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is responsible 
to the President and the Secretary of Defense 
for duties external to the Department of the Navy 
as prescribed by law. 

The Chief of Naval Operations, under the 
direction of the Secretary of the Navy, exercises 
command over the operating forces of the Navy 
(consistent with the operational command vested 
in the commanders of unified or specified 
combatant commands). These forces include the 
several fleets, seagoing forces. Fleet Marine 
Forces, Military Sealift Command, and other 
forces and activities as may be assigned by the 
President or SECNAV. The CNO also exercises 
command over the Bureau of Naval Personnel 
and such shore activities as may be assigned by 
the Secretary of the Navy, In addition, the Chief 



11-11 





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CHIEF Of NAVAL OPERATIONS 
OP-00 



VICE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS 
OP-O? 



(SPECIAL ASSISTANTS! 



0P-09C SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS SUPPORT 

0P-09F SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR SAFETr MATTERS 

0P-09G SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR INSPECTION SUPPORT 

0P-09J SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR LEGAL SERVICES 

0P-09L SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT 

0P-09N SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR NAVAL INVESTIGATIVE HATTERS 
AND SECURITY 



(DIRECTION OF 



NAVAL 
INTELLIGENCE 



CHIEF OF 

THE BUREAU OF 

HEOICINE I 

SURGERY 



DIRECTOR 

OF 

SPACE. 

COMMAND 

AND 
CONTROL 



ASSISTANT 

VICE 

CHIEF OF 

NAVAL 

OPERATIONS 



DIRECTOR 

NAVAL 

NUCLEAR 

PROPULSION 

PROGRAM 



STAFF OFFICES) 



DIRECTOR 

OF 

NAVAL 

RESERVE 



OCEANO- 

GRAPHER 

OF THE 

NAVY 



DIRECTOR 

OF 

REL IGIOUS 

MINISTRIES/ 

CHIEF 

OF 

CHAPLAINS 

OF THE 

NAVY 
OP-097 



(ASSISTANT CHIEFS OF NAVAL OPERATIONS AND DEPUTY CHIEFS OF NAVAL OPERATIONS) 



DCNO 
(MANPOWER, 
PERSONNEL 

AND 
TRAINING)/ 
CHIEF OF 

NAVAL 

PERSONNEL 

OP-01 



ACNO 
(UNDERSEA 
WARFARE) 



ACNO 
(SURF ACER 
WARFARE) 



DCNO 
(LOGISTICS) 



ACNO 

(AIR 

WARFARE ) 



DCNO 

(PLANS. 

POLICY. 

i 

OPERATIONS) 



DCNO 

(NAVAL 

WARFARE ) 



NOTE 1: DESIGNATED AS PRINCIPAL STAFF EXECUTIVE FOR JCS HATTERS 

NOTE 2: DESIGNATED AS PRINCIPAL STAFF EXECUTIVE FOR OTHER THAN JCS MATTERS 



(NOTE 1 ) 



DIRECTOR 

OF 

RESEARCH 

AND 

DEVELOPMENT 

REQUIREMENTS. 

TEST 

AND 

EVALUATION 

0P-098 



DCNO 

(NAVY 

PROGRAM 

PLANNING) 



Figure 11-4. — Office of the Ciiief of Naval Operations. 



of Naval Operations has the following specific 
responsibilities: 

• To organize, train, equip, prepare, and 
maintain the readiness of Navy operational 
forces 

• To determine and direct the efforts 
necessary to fulfill current and future 
requirements of the Navy for manpower, 
material, weapons, facilities, and services 

• To exercise leadership in maintaining a 
high degree of competence among Navy 
officers and enlisted and civilian personnel 

• To maintain the morale and motivation of 
Navy personnel and the prestige of a Navy 
career 

• To plan and provide health care for 
personnel of the naval service and their 
dependents 

• To direct the organization, administration, 
training, and support of the Naval Reserve 



• To monitor the Department of the Navy 
to determine and maintain efficiency, 
discipline, and readiness 

• To determine the need for and to provide 
for the conduct of research, development, 
testing, and evaluation that meets long- 
range objectives, immediate requirements, 
and fiscal limitations 

• To formulate Navy strategic plans and 
policies and participate in the formulation 
of joint and combined strategic plans and 
policies 

• To budget for commands and offices 
assigned to the command of the Chief of 
Naval Operations and other activities and 
programs as assigned 

As shown in figure 11-4, staff assistants, the 
Vice CNO and the Vice CNO's assistant. Directors 
of Major Staff Offices (DMSOs), and Deputy 
Chiefs of Naval Operations aid the CNO in 
carrying out these responsibilities. One of the 



11-13 



principal assistants and advisers to the CNO is the 
master chief petty officer of the Navy (MCPON). 

The Master Chief Petty Officer 

of the Navy 

The office of the master chief petty officer of 
the Navy was established upon a recommendation 
derived from the Secretary of the Navy's task 
force on Navy/Marine Corps personnel retention 
in 1966. The function of the office was to provide 
a direct, unofficial channel of communication 
between enlisted personnel and the senior pohcy 
level of the Department of the Navy. With a tour 
length established at 4 years, the office was 
formally estabhshed 1 March 1967. 

The charter of the master chief petty officer 
of the Navy outlines the specific duties of the 
MCPON as follows: 

1 .The MCPON is assigned to the immediate 
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. 
The MCPON serves as the senior enUsted 
representative of the Navy and acts as the primary 
enlisted adviser to the CNO. The MCPON advises 
the Chief of Naval Personnel in all matters 
pertaining to both active-duty and retired enlisted 
members and their dependents. 

2. The MCPON serves in an advisory capacity 
on various boards pertaining to enlisted members, 
including: 

• Board of Managers, Navy Relief 
Society 

• Board of Administrators of the Central 
Nonappropriated Funds 

• Board of Equal Opportunity for 
Women 

• Rating Review Board 

• Navy Wives Club of America (Liaison) 

• Fleet Reserve Association (Liaison) 

• Navy Resale System Advisory Board 

3. The MCPON, when called upon, testifies 
before congressional committees and subcommit- 
tees. The MCPON also accompanies the Chief of 
Naval Operations and the Chief of Naval Person- 
nel on occasional official trips and the Navy 
Inspector General on selected inspection trips. The 



MCPON also travels extensively throughout the 
fleet and serves as the Navy enlisted representative 
of the Department of the Navy at special events, 
celebrations, and ceremonies. 

4. The MCPON makes recommendations to 
help develop effective leadership and training at 
all enhsted levels and to help attain high standards 
of conduct and general appearance within the 
enlisted community. The MCPON acts at all times 
to maintain and promote the chain of command 
and its associated chain of communications. 
Further, the MCPON is concerned with existing 
or potential situations, procedures, and practices 
that affect the use, morale, retention, career 
enhancement, human goals programs, and general 
well-being of the enlisted men and women of the 
Navy and their dependents. 

The MCPON does not work alone. Assisted 
by a staff, the MCPON relies on the quality and 
experience of the fleet, force, and command 
master chiefs. With their solid support, the 
MCPON carries out the duties of the office. 



THE SHORE ESTABLISHMENT 

To Ust and describe every type of shore 
activity operated by the Navy is beyond the scope 
of this manual. Primarily, the major shore 
commands (fig. 1 1-5) are responsible for training, 
supplying, maintaining, and supporting the 
operating forces. They accomplish this through 
the delivery of materials, services, and personnel 
to the operating forces. All of the major shore 
commands answer directly to the Chief of Naval 
Operations in carrying out their missions. 



THE OPERATING FORCES 

The operating forces of the Navy are combat 
or combat-support oriented. Combatant and 
certain supporting forces are assigned under the 
commander of a unified or specified command. 
The operating forces of the Navy (fig. 11-6) in- 
clude the following: 

^ 1. The Pacific and Atlantic fleets, including 
forces and commands by type as follows: 

a. Fleet Marine Forces 

b. Naval Air Forces 

c. Naval Surface Forces 

d. Submarine Forces 

e. Training Commands 



11-14 



SPACE & NAVAL 

WARFARE SYSTEMS 

COMMAND 



NAVAL SEA 
SYSTEMS COMMAND 



NAVAL AIR 
SYSTEMS COMMAND 



NAVAL SUPPLY 
SYSTEMS COMMAND 



CHIEF OF NAVAL 
OPERATIONS 



iUREAU OF MEDICINE 
AND SURGERY 



NAVAL EDUCATION 
& TRAINING COMMAND 



NAVAL LEGAL 
SERVICE COMMAND 



NAVAL FACILITIES 
ENGINEERING COMMAND 



NAVAL INTELLIGENCE 
COMMAND 



NAVAL SECURITY 

AND INVESTIGATIVE 

COMMAND 



NAVAL SECURITY 

GROUP 

COMMAND 



NAVAL 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

COMMAND 



NAVAL SPACE 
COMMAND 



NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY 
COMMAND 



NAVAL DATA 

AUTOMATION 

COMMAND 



Figure 11-5. — The major shore commands. 



COMMANDER- 


IN-CHIEF. 


U.S. NAVAL 


FORCES EUROPE 



COMMANDER. 

U.S. NAVAL 

FORCES 

CENTRAL 

COMMAND 



CHIEF OF 
NAVAL OPERATIONS 



COMMANDER- 

IN-CHIEF, 

U.S. ATLANTIC 

FLEET 



COMMANDER, 

U.S. NAVAL 

FORCES 

SOUTHERN 

COMMAND 



COMMANDER- 
IN-CHIEF. 
U.S. PACIFIC 
FLEET 



COMMANDER, 
OPERATIONAL 

TEST AND 

EVALUATION 

FORCE 



COMMANDER, 

NAVAL RESERVE 

FORCE 



COMMANDER, 
MILITARY 
SE AL IFT 
COMMAND 



COMMANDER, 

MINE 

WARFARE 

COMMAND 



Figure 11-6. — Operating forces reporting to the CNO. 



2. U.S. Naval Forces Europe 

3. Mine Warfare Command 

4. Military Sealift Command 

5. Operational Test and Evaluation Force 

6. Naval Reserve Force 



7. U.S. Naval Forces Central Command 

8. U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command 

9. Shore activities of the Department of the 
Navy assigned to the operating forces. 

The operating forces have two organizational 
chains of command: a permanent administrative 



11-15 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



SECRETARY OF THE NAVY 



CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS 



FLEET COMMANDER IN CHIEF 



FORCES REPORTING 
DIRECTLY TO CNO 



CINCLANTFLT 
CINCPACFLT 



TYPE COMMANDER 



GROUP COMMANDER 



SHIP SQUADRON/AIR WING COMMANDER 



SURFACE . 

AIR. SUBMARINE, 

TRAINING 



CARRIER 

CRUISER-DESTROYER 
AMPHIBIOUS 
SERVICE 



INDIVIDUAL UNIT COMMANDING OFFICER 



Figure 11-7. — Administrative chain of command for operating units. 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF' 



I NATIONAL 

COMMAND 
' AUTHORITY 



J 



COMMANDER OF UNIFIED OR SPECIFIED COMMAND 



FLEET COMMANDER IN CHIEF 
(NAVAL COMPONENT COMMANDER) 



CINCPAC 
CINCLANT, ET AL 



CINCPACFLT 
CINCLANTFLT 



NUMBERED FLEET COMMANDER 
(OPERATIONAL FLEET COMMANDER) 



TASK FORCE COMMANDER 



COMSECONOFLT 
COMTHIROFLT 
COMSIXTHFLT 
COMSEVENTHFLT 



TASK GROUP COMMANDER 



TASK UNIT COMMANDER 



TASK ELEMENT COMMANDER 



INDIVIDUAL UNIT COMMANDING OFFIQER 



•THE MEMBERS OF THE JCS ARE OPERATIONAL ADVISERS WITH RESPECT TO THE UNIFIED AND 
SPECIFIED COMMANDS AND EXERCISE OPERATIONAL COMMAND OR CONTROL OF FORCES. ONLY 
WHEN DIRECTED BY THE PRESIDENT OR SECRETARY OF DEFENSE. 



Figure 11-8. — Operational chain of command. 



11-16 



chain and a task-oriented operational chain that 
can be structured to meet particular requirements. 
Fleet organization can be illustrated by these 
chains, as shown in figures 1 1-7 and 11-8. For an 
example, a destroyer may administratively belong 
to a squadron (DESRON) that is part of a cruiser- 
destroyer group (CRUDESGRU), which, in turn, 
is part of the surface force (SURFLANT) that 
reports to the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet 
(CINCLANTFLT). Operationally the same 
destroyer may be deployed as part of a task 
element, unit, group, and force that is part of the 
Seventh Fleet answering to the Commander in 
Chief, Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT). 

A task force is a subdivision of a fleet 
composed of several types of ships according to 
operational necessity. Thus, a task force may 
include battleships, aircraft carriers, cruisers, 
amphibious craft, and auxiliary vessels such as 
tenders or supply ships. When a fleet is large 
enough and its duties are extensive enough to 
require division into many task forces, the task 
forces are usually grouped into task fleets. A task 
force (TF) is divided into task groups (TGs). Task 
groups are assigned numbers corresponding to the 
particular task force of which they are a part. For 
instance, TF 77 may have a task group assigned 
to reconnaissance, and its designated number will 
be TG 77.3. Task groups may be even further 
subdivided into task units (TUs) and task elements 
(TEs). For example: TU 77.3.1 is Task Unit 1 of 
Task Group 3 of Task Force 7 of the Seventh 
Fleet. 

Fleet Marine Forces are type commands under 
the administrative control of the Commandant of 
the Marine Corps. These forces operate under the 
respective fleet commander in chief as do other 
type commands. 

The Military Seahft Command, operated by 
the Navy for all armed services, consists of ships, 
tankers, and commercial vessels manned by civil 
service and contract personnel. The prime 
mission of the Military Sealift Command is to 
provide immediate sealift capability in an 
emergency. These ships transport service person- 
nel, their dependents, combat troops, and material 
throughout the world. 

A shore activity may be placed under the 
command of the operating forces if it is outside 
the jurisdiction of an area coordinator or if it 
provides support only to units of operating forces. 
Some of the activities so assigned include naval 
air facilities, communication facilities, naval and 
submarine bases, ship repair facilities, naval repair 
facilities, and supply depots. 



The operating forces are responsible for naval 
operations necessary to carry out the department's 
role in upholding and advancing the national 
policies and interests of the United States. 



SUMMARY 

Organization is not a new concept. In its 
simplest form, organization is the orderly 
arrangement of assets. As a naval officer, you 
must understand the organization of our Navy. 

Our Constitution authorized the building and 
support of our Navy as well as the Army. The 
Constitution also stated that the President of the 
United States would be the commander in chief 
of the Army and Navy. You have read the 
examples of Presidential acts that exemplify the 
power of the commander in chief. 

In 1949 the National Security Act (NSA) was 
amended, thus establishing the Department of 
Defense as we know it today. This act established 
the position of Secretary of Defense and gave the 
position presidential cabinet rank. The NSA also 
estabhshed the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The 
Joint Chiefs of Staff are the top individuals from 
each service who advise the Secretary of Defense 
and the President on all military matters. The 
naval representative is the Chief of Naval 
Operations (CNO). The CNO is a member of the 
Department of the Navy (DON), and so are you. 

The Department of the Navy is composed of 
three major parts: the Navy Department, the 
shore estabUshment, and the operating forces. 

From this chapter, you can follow the chain 
of command from your activity to the commander 
in chief. You can also see how the other branches 
of the military fit into this chain, as well as their 
mission and functions, thus covering the basic 
defense structure of our nation. 



REFERENCES 

Military Requirements for Petty Officer First 
Class, NAVEDTRA 12046, Naval Education 
and Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1991. 

Military Requirements for Petty Officer Second 
Class, NAVEDTRA 12045, Naval Education 
and Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1991. 



11-17 



Military Requirements for Petty Officer Third 
Class, NAVEDTRA 12044, Naval Education 
and Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1991. 

Military Requirements for Senior and Master 
Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 12048, 
Naval Education and Training Program 
Management Support Activity, Pensacola, 
Fla., 1991. 

United States Department of Defense, Functions 
of the Department of Defense and Its Major 
Components, DoD Directive 5 100. 1 , Office of 
the Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C., 
1987. 



The United States Government Manual 1989/90, 
Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1989. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
AnnapoHs, Md., 1983. 

U.S. Department of Defense, The Armed Forces 
Officer, DoD GEN-36A, American Forces 
Information Services, Washington, D.C., 
1988. 




SEA CHANTIES WE 
THEY WORKED AT HEA 
SONGS' RHYTHMS CAU 
HENCE CAUSING A CO 
SOME BELIEVE THE T 
"CHANTER" WHICH ME 
SHOULD BE "SHANTIE 
ALONG THE MOBILE, 
LEARNED BY SAILORS 

WHATEVER THE OR 
CLASSES. SHORT-DR 
NEEDED; LONG-DRAG 
LONG-HAUL JOBS; AN 
CONTINUOUS ACTION 
ONE MAN, THE CHANT 
SANG THE MAIN LINE 
VOICES STRONGLY ON 
BINED PULL MADE TH 

A GOOD CHANTY-M 
ALTHOUGH HE HAD NO 
OF ALL DUTIES TO C 



SEA CHANTIES 

RE SONGS SUNG IN THE DAYS OF SAIL BY CREWS AS 

VING THE LINES OR TURNING THE CAPSTAN. THE 

SED EVERYONE TO PUSH OR PULL SIMULTANEOUSLY, 

NCERTED EFFORT AND BETTER RESULTS. 

ERM IS A DERIVATION OF THE FRENCH WORD 

ANS "TO SING." OTHERS MAINTAIN THE SPELLING 

S," CLAIMING THE NAME REFERS TO THE SHANTIES 

ALA. WATERFRONT WHERE MANY OF THE TUNES WERE 

IGIN, CHANTIES WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE DISTINCT 
AG CHANTIES, USED WHEN A FEW STRONG PULLS WERE 
CHANTIES, LONGER SONGS TO SPEED THE WORK OF 
D HEAVING CHANTIESv USED FOR JOBS REQURING 
SUCH AS TURNING THE CAPSTAN. 

Y-MAN, STOOD HIGH ABOVE THE WORKING CREW AND 
S WHILE THE REST OF THE CREW ADDED THEIR 

THE SECOND LINE. ON THE LAST WORD, A COM- 
E ROPES "COME HOME," 
AN WAS HIGHLY PRIZED BY OFFICERS AND CREW ALIKE. 

OFFICIAL TITLE OR RATE, HE WAS USUALLY RELIEVED 
OMPOSE NEW VERSES FOR SEA CHANTIES. 



11-18 



CHAPTER 12 



COMPONENTS OF THE NAVY 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1. Identify the basic parts of fixed-wing and 
rotary-wing aircraft. 

2. Describe the method of identification of 
various types of naval aircraft. 

3. Identify the various aircraft used by the Navy. 

4. Describe the planning and conduct of an air 
strike. 

5. Describe the capabilities and the Navy's use 
of surface action groups. 

6. Explain the Navy's role in fire support 
missions. 

7. Explain the role of combat air patrol aircraft 
in antiair warfare. 



8. Describe the capabilities of Navy ships to 
counter enemy missiles. 

9. Identify the roles of surface ships, aircraft, 
and submarines in antisubmarine warfare. 

10. Describe the shipboard antisubmarine war- 
fare organization. 

1 1 . Describe how sonar is used in the detection 
of submarines. 

12. Identify the phases of an amphibious 
operation. 

1 3 . Identify the methods of communication used 
by the Navy. 



Essential to the Navy in the performance of 
its mission are various components and warfare 
areas. In this chapter, we discuss some of these 
components and warfare areas and some of the 
organizations that assist in their planning and 
operations. We discuss other branches or elements 
of the Navy that also provide support to these 
components and warfare areas in other chapters. 

NAVAL AVIATION 

SIGNIFICANT DATES 

4 Mar. 1911 Congress provides $25,000 to de- 
velop aviation for naval purposes. 

8 May 1911 Navy orders first airplane. 

20 Jan. 1914 Navy estabhshes first school for 
naval air training in Pensacola, 
Florida. 



26 Oct. 1922 First carrier landing occurs on a 
ship underway aboard USS 
Langley. First catapult launch 
from an aircraft carrier occurs 
1 month later. 

28 Nov. 1929 LCDR Richard E. Byrd makes 
first flight over South Pole; 
becomes the first pilot to fly over 
both Poles. 

23 Jul. 1947 First delivery of a "pure-jet" 
fighter, the FJ-1 Phantom, to a 
Navy squadron takes place. 

9 Apr. 1959 Under Project Mercury, the 
astronaut program selects four 
naval aviators among seven 
persons as prospective astro- 
nauts. 



12-1 



The history of naval aviation goes back to the 
turn of the century when an Army-Navy board 
studied designs for the Langley "flying machine." 
Afterward, members of the board agreed that 
aircraft could be developed for use in warfare. 

The first naval officer selected for flight 
training was Lieutenant T. G. Ellyson. In 
December 1910 Ellyson received orders to undergo 
instruction with Glenn Curtiss, producer of the 
first practical hydroplane. Curtiss also trained the 
pilot who made the first shipboard takeoff from 
USS Birmingham in 1910 — Eugene Ely. Ely later 
made the first successful aircraft landing on the 
deck of a ship, the armored cruiser Pennsylvania. 

In July 1911 the Navy received its first 
airplanes — a Wright landplane for training and 
a Curtiss hydroplane. The next year Lieutenant 
Ellyson proved the feasibiUty of the newly 
devised compressed-air catapult by flying a plane 
shot from a barge. 

From that time until the present, the Navy has 
tried four distinct approaches to integrating 
aeronautics with the fleet. It has used carriers, 
flying boats, hghter-than-air craft, and pontoon 
aircraft that operated from noncarrier ships. 
Using these approaches has taken naval aviation 
through two eras. During the first era propeller- 
driven combat aircraft flew from small, straight- 
deck carriers while pontoon planes operated from 
large men-o-war. Great flying boats flew antisub- 
marine warfare (ASW) patrols and were serviced 
by seaplane tenders, and huge rigid and nonrigid 
lighter-than-air craft roamed the skies. The second 
era exists today. This era of modern naval 
aviation consists of jet-powered aircraft; giant 
carriers; helicopters; and large, long-range patrol 
planes. During both of these eras, naval aviation 
has enjoyed success. 

Soon after the attack on Pearl Harbor on 
7 December 1941, American carriers dispelled any 
doubts about the effectiveness of shipboard 
aviation. Carriers that fortunately were absent 
from the scene that fateful morning delivered 
forceful retaliatory blows on enemy installations 
in the Pacific. 

Naval aviation has come a long way since its 
beginning in 1910. As naval aircraft have become 
increasingly more advanced over the years, they 
have been used in many ways. Today's naval 
aircraft fall under one of two categories: fixed 
wing or rotary wing. 

FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT 

A fixed-wing aircraft may be divided into three 
basic parts: fuselage, wings, and empennage. 



The fuselage is the main body of the aircraft, 
containing the cockpit and, if there is one, the 
cabin. On virtually all naval fighter and attack 
aircraft operational today, engines are mounted 
within the fuselage, as are some of the fuel tanks. 

Wings are the primary lifting devices of an 
aircraft, although the fuselage and tail provide 
some lift. Several devices located on the trailing 
(rear) edge of the wings help control the aircraft. 
Flaps give extra lift on takeoff and slow the 
aircraft in flight or landing. Ailerons control 
the roll, or bank, of the aircraft. Trim tabs 
aerodynamically unload the control surfaces to 
relieve some of the pilot's work. 

Auxiliary lifting devices, resembling flaps, 
located on the leading (front) edge of the wing 
increase the camber (curvature) of the wing for 
added lift on takeoff. 

Most Navy jet aircraft carry their bomb loads 
on pylons (called stations) under the wings and, 
in some cases, under the fuselage. Some jets have 
missile stations on the sides of the fuselage. Fuel 
cells are fitted inside the wings; additional tanks 
are fitted on the outside of the wings for extra 
range. Larger jets may have their engines slung 
beneath the wings in pods. On some low-wing air- 
craft, the main landing gear retracts into the wings 
while the nose wheel retracts into the fuselage. On 
most high-wing aircraft, such as the A-7, all gears 
retract into the fuselage. 

The empennage consists of the stabilizing fins 
mounted on the tail section of the fuselage. The 
vertical stabilizer, upon which is generally 
mounted the rudder, controls yaw (the direction 
of the nose about the vertical axis). The horizon- 
tal stabilizer, on the trailing edge of which are the 
elevators, determines the pitch (chmb or dive). 
Some supersonic aircraft may have a full delta 
wing. These aircraft have no horizontal stabilizer, 
and their elevators and ailerons are combined 
into control surfaces called elevons. In aircraft 
with internally mounted jet engines, exhausts are 
normally located in the tail. High-performance 
jets have afterburners that give additional thrust 
at the cost of greatly increased fuel consumption. 

Rudder, ailerons, and elevators are collectively 
grouped as control surfaces. The ailerons and 
elevators are controlled by the "stick" or a similar 
device in the cockpit. The rudder is controlled by 
foot pedals. On high-performance aircraft, aero- 
dynamic pressures on these surfaces become too 
great for a pilot to overcome manually; hence, 
all high-speed models today have power-assisted 
controls. Figure 12-1 shows representative types 
of fixed-wing aircraft. 



12-2 




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12-3 



Fighter Class 



Attack Class 



Fighters are high-performance aircraft 
generally employed to gain air superiority. They 
may be deployed defensively as interceptors, 
offensively as escorts for bombers or during 
ground support missions, or independently to 
counter enemy aircraft. Some are capable of 
carrying sufficient payloads for collateral bomb- 
ing missions. 

F-14A TOMCAT.— The F-14A Tomcat is a 
supersonic, twin-engine, variable-sweeping wing, 
two-place fighter. It replaced the venerable F-4 
Phantom II series of fleet air defense fighters (the 
last one of which was phased out in 1986). It can 
track up to 24 targets simultaneously with its 
advanced AWG-9 weapons control system. It can 
attack six targets with Phoenix (AIM-54A) 
missiles, while continuing to scan the airspace. Its 
armament also includes a mix of other air 
intercept missiles, rockets, and bombs. F-14s 
provided air cover for the joint strike on Libyan 
terrorist-related targets in 1986. 

The F-14 is the world's foremost all-weather, 
day-night fleet air defense fighter. The F-14A was 
introduced in the mid-1970s. The upgraded 
F-14A+ version, with its new GE F-110 engines, 
is now widespread throughout the fleet. It is more 
than a match for threat fighters in the close-in, 
air combat arena. The follow-on F-14D is 
designed to close emerging gaps in the carrier 
battle group's outer air capability against new- 
generation Soviet bombers and cruise missiles. 

F/A-18 HORNET.— The single-seat F/A-18 
Hornet is the nation's first strike fighter. It was 
designed for traditional strike applications, such 
as interdiction and close air support, without 
compromising its fighter capabihties. With its 
excellent fighter and self-defense capabilities, the 
F/A-18 concurrently increases strike mission 
survivability and supplements the F-14 Tomcat 
in fleet air defense. It thus acts as a true force 
multiplier, providing operational commanders the 
flexibility to employ it in either its fighter or its 
attack role. 

F/A-18s can operate both from aircraft 
carriers and ground bases. They were part of the 
two-carrier battle force that conducted a joint 
strike on selected Libyan terrorist-related targets 
in 1986. They provided fleet air defense and, 
together with carrier-based A-7 Corsairs, used 
antiradiation missiles to neutralize air defenses. 



Although attack planes are used for low-level 
bombing, ground support, or nuclear strikes, they 
do not need the speed of fighters. They have good 
stabiUty, can carry heavy payloads, and can carry 
enough fuel to remain on station long enough to 
render extended support to troops, if needed. 
Attack aircraft normally operate under conditions 
of good visibility, but the A-6 has the equipment 
needed for all-weather and night attacks. 

A-6E INTRUDER —The A-6E is an all- 
weather, two-seat, subsonic, carrier-based attack 
aircraft. It is equipped with a microminiaturized 
digital computer; a solid-state weapons release 
system; and a single, integrated track and search 
radar. The target recognition attack multisensor 
(TRAM) version of the A-6E was introduced to 
the fleet in 1979. It is equipped with a chin turret 
containing a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) 
system and a laser designator and receiver. 

The A-6E again proved it is the best all- 
weather precision bomber in the world in the joint 
strike on Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. 
With Air Force FB-llls, A-6E Intruders 
penetrated the sophisticated Libyan air defense 
systems. Since the Libyan air defense system had 
been alerted by the high level of diplomatic 
tension and by rumors of impending attacks, it 
was ready to retaliate. Although the strike force 
had to evade over 100 guided missiles while 
flying at low levels in complete darkness, it 
delivered laser-guided and other types of ordnance 
on target. 

A-7E CORSAIR II.— The A-7E Corsair II is 
the current fleet version of the A-7. After more 
than two decades of service, however, it is due 
to be replaced by the F/A-18 Hornet. The A-7E 
has a 20-mm gun, can carry payloads of up to 
15,000 pounds of bombs and missiles, and has 
eight ordnance stations. 

A-7E Corsair lis were part of the two-carrier 
battle group that conducted a joint strike on 
selected Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. 
Together with carrier-based F/A-18s, A-7s used 
antiradiation missiles to neutralize Libyan air 
defenses. 

F/A-18s are scheduled to replace A-7Es in the 
carrier air wings. The last two A-7E squadrons 
are scheduled to make the transition in fiscal year 
1992. 



12-4 



AV-8B HARRIER.— The AV-8B is a single- 
engine, single-crew-member aircraft capable of 
vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) 
operations. Operated by the U.S. Marine Corps, 
it was designed to be highly responsive to the 
needs of ground forces for close air support. Its 
V/STOL capability enables it to operate from 
relatively unprepared sites close to the action, 
thus increasing its sortie rate. It also can operate 
from U.S. Navy amphibious assault ships. The 
AV-8B is built primarily by McDonnell Aircraft 
Company, a division of McDonnell-Douglas 
Corporation, with major contributions by British 
Aerospace. The predecessor to the AV-8B, the 
British Aerospace's AV-8C, was introduced to the 
U.S. Marine Corps in 1969. The British version 
of the aircraft saw a great deal of action during 
the 1982 Falklands War. 



Other Fixed-Wing Aircraft 

The Navy uses different aircraft in various 
roles, ranging from early warning to submarine 
patrol. Some of these aircraft are discussed in the 
following paragraphs. 

E-2C HAWKEYE.— The E-2C Hawkeye is 
the U.S. Navy's all-weather, carrier-based tactical 
airborne warning and control system platform. 
An integral component of the carrier air wing, the 
E-2C carries three primary sensors: radar, 
identification friend or foe (IFF), and a passive 
detection system. These sensors are integrated 
with a general-purpose computer. This computer 
enables the E-2C to provide early warning, threat 
analyses, and control of counteraction against air 
and surface targets. The E-2C incorporates the 
latest solid-state electronics. 

F-14 Tomcat fighters provided combat air 
patrol during the two-carrier battle group joint 
strike against terrorist-related Libyan targets in 
1986. The carrier-based E-2C Hawkeye directed 
the F-14 Tomcat fighters during the strike and 
during the crisis periods preceding and following 
the strike. E-2Cs and Aegis cruisers, working 
together, provided total air mass superiority over 
the American fleet. American aircraft intercepted 
153 Libyan air force attempts to overfly the U.S. 
fleet, intercept the U.S. fighter combat air patrol, 
or gather inteUigence information. Not once did 
a Libyan aircraft get into firing position before 
a U.S. aircraft or Aegis platform missile locked 
it into its sight. 



E-2 aircraft also have worked effectively 
with U.S. law enforcement agencies in drug 
interdiction operations. 

The E-2C replaces the E-2B, an earlier version. 
E-2C aircraft entered U.S. Navy service in 
November 1973. 

EA-6B PROWLER.— The EA-6B Prowler is 
a four-seat derivative of the highly successful A-6 
Intruder medium attack aircraft. Among its 
features are a computer-controlled electronic 
surveillance and control system and high-power 
jamming transmitters in various frequency bands. 
The jamming transmitters are contained in pods 
mounted externally on the five aircraft pylons. 
Aircraft capabilities can be varied throughout the 
frequency spectrum by varying the mix of 
jamming transmitters on the aircraft. 

EA-6B Prowlers played an important role in 
the joint strike on Libyan terrorist-related targets 
in 1986. Working with Air Force EF-1 1 1 Ravens, 
Navy and Marine Corps Prowlers jammed Libyan 
air defense surveillance. That enabled carrier- 
launched Navy A-6E Intruders and land-based Air 
Force FB-llls to put their ordnance on target. 

An EA-6B improved-capabiHty (ICAP II) 
aircraft modernization program is underway to 
upgrade the entire EA-6B inventory. The first 
ICAP Il-equipped EA-6B squadron provided 
flawless coverage for the joint USS Saratoga and 
Carrier Air Wing 17 HARM missile strike against 
Libya. ICAP II includes an inertial navigation 
system, the universal exciter jamming pod, 
updated displays, and the ability to interface with 
computerized mission planning systems. It 
provides the latest equipment to meet current and 
projected threats. 

P-3C ORION.— The P-3C is a land-based, 
long-range antisubmarine warfare (ASW) patrol 
aircraft. It has advanced submarine detection 
sensors such as the directional frequency and 
ranging (DIFAR) sonobuoys and magnetic 
anomaly detection (MAD) equipment. The 
avionics system is integrated with a general- 
purpose digital computer. This computerized 
system supports all of the tactical displays and 
monitors and automatically launches ordnance, 
while providing flight information to the pilots. 
In addition, the system coordinates navigation 
information and accepts sensor data inputs for 
tactical display and storage. The P-3C can carry 
a mixed payload of weapons internally and on 
wing pylons. 



12-5 



S-3A VIKING.— The S-3A Viking is a carrier- 
based, subsonic, all-weather, long-range, high- 
endurance, turbofan-powered aircraft. It can 
locate and destroy enemy submarines, including 
newer high-speed, deep-submergence, quiet- 
running submarines. The S-3A operates primarily 
in the middle and outer carrier battle group anti- 
submarine warfare (ASW) zones with other ASW 
units — surface, airborne, and subsurface. It also 
can operate independently or in tandem with its 
long-range, land-based ASW partner, the P-3 
Orion. Weapons carried by the S-3A include 
various combinations of torpedoes, depth charges, 
missiles, rockets, and special weapons. 

ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT 

The aerodynamics of rotary-wing aircraft are 
considerably more complex than those of fixed- 
wing aircraft. A helicopter essentially consists of 
a fuselage, a main rotor or rotors, and often a 
tail rotor. The fuselage, as in fixed-wing craft, 
contains the cockpit and cabin. 

The main rotor is the approximate equivalent 
of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft; each rotor 
blade is an airfoil, Hke a wing. The rotation of 
the main rotor assembly creates a flow of air over 
the blades that generates lift. The aerodynamic 
forces on the rotor lift the helicopter into the air; 
it is not pushed up by the downwash. Some 
helicopters have twin rotors in tandem at either 
end of the fuselage. Most have a single, main rotor 
with a tail rotor mounted at right angles. A few 
have tandem intermeshing rotors. 

The tail rotor (on helicopters that have one) 
provides directional control and stability. It is 
mounted at right angles to the main rotor to 
counteract the torque of that system. By varying 
the pitch of the tail rotor blades, the pilot 
controls yaw. By effectively tilting the entire main 
rotor, the pilot determines the pitch and roll. By 
simultaneously increasing the pitch on all blades 
on the main rotor, the pilot causes the helicopter 
to climb. (The pitch is essentially how large a bite 
of air the blades take, as distinct from aircraft 
pitch.) 

A transmission, which may be disengaged, 
connects the helicopter engines to the rotor 
shaft(s). That permits operation of the engine(s) 
on the ground without engagement of the rotor 
system and a mode of flight known as auto- 
rotation. If the engines should stop while in flight, 
the pilot can disengage the transmission; the 
freewheehng action of the rotor will then allow 
a slower descent. 



Since World War II, rotary-wing aircraft have 
become an indispensable part of naval warfare. 
Their applications seem limitless — ASW; pilot 
rescue; transfer of supphes, mail, and personnel 
within dispersed forces; amphibious warfare; 
evacuation of wounded; counterinsurgency; 
minesweeping; and others. Representative types 
are shown in figure 12-2. 

SH-2F Seasprite 

The Seasprite is a ship-based antisubmarine 
warfare (ASW) and antiship surveillance and 
targeting (ASST) helicopter. The SH-2F is 
equipped with a search radar, electronic support 
measures, magnetic anomaly detectors, and an 
acoustic data link. The helicopter also carries 
active and passive sonobuoys. 

The prototype Seasprite flew for the first 
time in 1959. Since then, many versions have 
been produced for the Navy under its light 
airborne multipurpose system (LAMPS) program 
to provide hehcopters for ASW and ASST 
operations. 

SH-3H Sea King 

The SH-3H is a twin-engine, all-weather, ship- 
based ASW helicopter. It is equipped with 
variable depth sonar, sonobuoys, data hnk, chaff, 
and a tactical navigation system. 

The first version of this workhorse ASW 
helicopter was flown more than 20 years ago. 
The current model is equipped with sonar, active 
and passive sonar buoys, and magnetic anomaly 
detection equipment. 

The Sea King, also used by some squadrons 
for search and rescue missions, is being replaced 
by the SH-60F Seahawk. 

UH-46/CH-46 Sea Knight 

The Sea Knight is another example of a 
durable and versatile aircraft that still provides 
valuable service more than two decades after its 
first flight. Both the Navy and the Marine Corps 
have flown various versions of it. The Navy has 
used the UH/CH-46 for vertical replenishment, 
and the Marine Corps has used the CH-46 for 
trcfbp transport. Both the Navy and Marine Corps 
have used the CH-46 for search and rescue (SAR). 

The Sea Knight can carry approximately 6,000 
pounds of cargo in a sling beneath the fuselage. 
The CH-46E has been modified with much more 
powerful engines than earlier Navy and Marine 
Corps versions. 



12-6 






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12-7 



CH-53A/D Sea Stallion 



SH-60B Seahawk 



The CH-53A/D assault/heavy-lift helicopter 
prototype first flew in 1964. A Navy aerial 
minesweeping version, the RH-53D, is basically 
a CH-53A/D with upgraded engines and special 
minesweeping gear. 

CH-53E Super Stallion 

The CH-53E Super Stallion is a shipboard- 
compatible helicopter. It is configured for the lift 
and movement of cargo and troops/passengers 
internally and the lift of heavy, oversized 
equipment externally. The Navy uses this aircraft 
for six missions: vertical onboard delivery 
(VOD) augmentation, transfer of damaged 
aircraft, mobile construction support, high- 
priority container transportation, nuclear weapons 
transportation, and airborne mine counter- 
measures (AMCM). The Marine Corps also uses 
the CH-53 for certain missions. They include 
tactical movement of heavy weapons and equip- 
ment, amphibious assault operations, recovery of 
downed aircraft (to include self-retrieval), 
V/STOL support, and special operations. 

The great lifting capacity of the CH-53 makes 
it capable of lifting some of the Marine Corps' 
heavier weapons systems. It can lift systems such 
as the M-198 Howitzer and the different variants 
of the new light armored vehicle (LAV). Because 
of this lift capacity, the CH-53 provides greater 
assault capability. 

The range payload capability of the Super 
StalHon gives it the abihty to perform special 
operations in support of the rapid deployment 
force. 

The MH-53E Sea Dragon is a multimission 
variant of the CH-53E and has significantly 
enhanced AMCM capability over the current 
Navy RH-53D hehcopter. The AMCM improve- 
ments enhance the aircraft's capability to perform 
utility and special missions by significantly 
increasing range and navigation capability. The 
combined nomenclature designation of both 
aircraft is the CH/MH-53E. 

Weighing 73,500 pounds, the CH/MH-53E is 
the largest helicopter in the western world. Its lift 
capacity provides increased military capabilities. 
It can dehver an external cargo of 16 tons within 
a 50-nautical-mile radius and can make a VOD 
of 9.8 tons within a 500-nautical-mile radius. 
These ranges can be further extended through 
in-flight refuehng with KC-130s and helicopter 
in-flight refueling (HIR) with air-capable ships. 



The SH-60B Seahawk is the air subsystem of 
the LAMPS Mk III weapons system. LAMPS Mk 
III is a computer-integrated ship/heHcopter 
system that increases the effectiveness of surface 
combatants. It does that by providing a remote 
platform for deployment of sonobuoys and 
torpedoes and an elevated platform for radar and 
electronic support measures. It also increases 
effectiveness by processing magnetic anomaly 
detector sensor information. 

SH-60B Seahawk helicopters provided com- 
munications relay and visual surveillance services 
during the two-carrier battle group joint strike on 
selected terrorist-related Libyan targets in 1986. 

The new SH-60F, designed to operate from 
carriers, is replacing the SH-3H as the carrier 
battle group inner antisubmarine warfare zone 
helicopter. It employs a new, longer-range active 
dipping sonar in addition to sonobuoys to track 
and attack submarines. Also incorporated are 
significant improvements in reliability and 
maintainability, plus vastly improved tactical 
capabilities. 



AIRCRAFT MODEL DESIGNATIONS 

All aircraft have tri-service designations. A 
given aircraft bears the same alphanumeric 
identification symbol regardless of whether the 
Navy, Army, or Air Force uses the craft. 

Each basic designator consists of a letter and 
a number. The letter specifies the basic mission 
of the aircraft as follows: 



A— Attack 

B — Bomber 

C — Cargo/transport 

E — Special electronic 
installation 

F-=^Fighter 

H — Helicopter 

K — Tanker 

O — Observation 



R — Reconnaissance 
S — Antisubmarine 
T — Trainer 
U— Utility 



V— VTOL or STOL 

(vertical or 
short takeoff and 
landing 
capability) 

X — Research 



12-8 



The number (which may consist of one, two, 
or three digits) indicates the design number of the 
type of aircraft. The designator A-7 shows an 
aircraft to be the seventh attack design. If a 
particular design is modified, another letter (A, 
B, C, etc.) follows the design number; this letter 
identifies the number of the modification. For 
example, the second A in A-6A tells us that the 
original design of this attack plane has been 
modified one time. 

When the original mission of an aircraft 
changes, a mission-modification letter precedes 
the basic mission symbol. These are as follows: 

A — Attack Q — Drone 

C — Cargo/transport R —Reconnaissance 

D — Director (for S — Antisubmarine 

control of drones) 

E — Special electronic T — Trainer 
installation 

H — Search and rescue U — Utility 

K —Tanker V —Staff 

L — Cold weather W — Weather 

M — Missile carrier 

Thus, if the A-4 is modified to be used as a 
training aircraft, its alphanumeric identification 
becomes TA-4. 

Other letters that frequently appear before a 
basic mission symbol or mission-modification 
letter are "special-use" symbols that indicate the 
special status of an aircraft. Currently, six special- 
use symbols are used: 

G — Permanently grounded (for ground 
training) 

J — Special test, temporary (when tests are 
complete, the craft will be restored to its 
original design) 

N — Special test, permanent 

X — Experimental stage of development 

Y — Prototype (for design testing) 

Z — Early stages of planning or development 



STRIKING FORCE 

A strike is an attack that is intended to inflict 
damage to, seize, or destroy an objective. A 
striking force is a force composed of appropriate 
units needed to conduct strike, attack, or assault 
operations. 

Because of their mobility and versatile power, 
naval striking forces are ideal instruments for 
enforcing national military policy and setthng 
outbreaks of hostilities. In peacetime, the 
existence of a naval striking force may serve as 
a stabilizing influence to inhibit the outbreak of 
hostilities. 

If hostilities should occur in spite of attempts 
to settle international disputes by other means, 
the naval striking force is available immediately. 
It will take prompt and decisive action to 
accomplish national objectives. 

Mobihty is one of the greatest assets of naval 
striking forces. It makes surprise attacks possible 
from any point on the periphery of an enemy land 
area bounded by navigable waters. The versatility 
of a striking force permits the use of a wide variety 
of weapons systems from either distant or close 
ranges. 

AIR STRIKES 

An air strike is an attempt by a group of 
aircraft to inflict damage on an enemy target. 

Before an air strike is made against targets 
ashore, the strike planners will formulate and 
consider a plan of attack. First they meet in the 
carrier inteUigence center (CVIC) to view all of 
the information the air intelligence officer makes 
available to them. They use the latest technology 
available in the planning of their missions. One 
system they use is the tactical air mission planning 
system (TAMPS). It automatically performs most 
of the more tedious planning steps strike planners 
previously did manually. 

Once the plan is complete, all pilots who will 
take part in the actual strike attend a detailed 
briefing. The briefing covers all known informa- 
tion that might contribute to the success of the 
mission. It includes enemy strength; location or 
probable location of the enemy; recovery of 
"safe" areas; weather conditions; location of 
friendly forces; and, if possible, target priorities. 
The method of delivering the attacks and the 
weapons selected depends on several elements. 
They include the construction of the target, 
whether the tactical situation calls for a day or 
night attack, and the weather conditions at the 
target. 



12-9 



The three classes of modern tactical air-to- 
surface weapons are standoff outside area defense 
(SOAD), standoff outside point defense (SOPD), 
and close-in (CI) weapons. The range at which 
each specific weapon can be used most efficiently 
determines its classification. We can assume that 
the longer a weapon's range, the "smarter" it has 
to be; the "smarter" it is, the more expensive 
(and more accurate) it becomes. Therefore, strike 
planners must efficiently plan how to employ their 
weapons supplies to avoid running out of them 
before they can win the war! 

Since weapons have become more and more 
expensive, those responsible for purchasing them 
have made a recent effort to make more efficient 
purchases. Classifying weapons as mentioned 
in the previous paragraph is one way they 
accomplish that because it reduces the number of 
different types available. In addition, it makes 
everyone's job easier because fewer types of 
weapons must be stored aboard ship and loaded 
aboard aircraft. 

While planning a strike against enemy forces, 
battle group commanders must remember to plan 
for the defense of their own ships. The air defense 
of a carrier battle group is formidable, built on 
a "defense-in-depth" philosophy. Fighter aircraft 
carrying air-to-air weapons serve as the carrier air 
wing's contribution to fleet air defense. Tanker 
aircraft from the air wing refuel the fighters. 
The fighters, coordinated by ship or airborne 
controllers, will either be airborne or on the 
carrier's catapults ready for an immediate launch, 
depending on the tactical situation. 

SURFACE ACTION GROUPS (SAG'S) 

The operation orders of a task force or group 
commanders provide for surface action groups 
(SAGs) that can perform certain missions. These 
missions include antisubmarine warfare (ASW), 
antisurface warfare (ASUW), and strike warfare, 
to name a few. A battle plan is prepared for these 
forces on the assumption that they will encounter 
surface action. However, such a force is usually 
only one element of a coordinated strike by both 
air, subsurface, and surface units. 

Surface action in the modern Navy means 
much more than exchange of naval gunfire. The 
introduction of antiship cruise missiles, such as 
the Harpoon and the Tomahawk antiship missile 
(TASM), has revolutionized war at sea. 

A coordinated strike against an enemy SAG 
may well include surface-, sub-, and air-launched 
Harpoon missiles; surface- and sub-launched 
TASMs; and air-launched ordnance. Forces may 
require the use of one or more of these weapons 



systems in addition to traditional naval gunfire 
to sink disabled enemy hulks. A coordinated air 
and cruise-missile strike may surprise an enemy 
SAG so much that it may cause one of two results. 
First, the surface action may become a pursuit of 
disorganized enemy forces. Second, the strike may 
slow enemy forces so that they cannot bring their 
own surface missile systems to bear upon the 
carrier or other essential units in the battle 
group. 

Special situations may require SAGs to destroy 
isolated or crippled enemy surface units, execute 
a deep land strike, conduct naval gunfire 
shore bombardment, and perform surface 
reconnaissance missions. Today's modern surface 
force can take on all these missions with or 
without accompanying tactical air support. 

The deployment of Tomahawk land attack 
missiles (TLAMs) has turned both surface ships 
and submarines into potent strike platforms. 
These strike platforms can be widely dispersed 
throughout the battle group. 

The ability to conduct covert strikes from 
submarines brings a new dimension to naval 
warfare. Future development will bring land 
attack cruise missiles with even longer attack 
ranges. We need these missiles to further disperse 
surface forces and still conduct strike warfare 
while minimizing the involvement of the carrier 
air wing. 

FIRE SUPPORT 

Although often considered a phase of 
amphibious operations, surface forces may be 
called upon to provide gunfire support for 
troops ashore. During World War II that was 
accompHshed primarily by a force of battleships, 
cruisers, and destroyers. These forces spent hours, 
and even days, bombarding the enemy ashore to 
try to destroy as many fortifications as possible 
before troops hit the beaches. After the landings, 
ships provided support as tactical circumstances 
dictated. Since the enemy showed less opposition 
to landings during the Korean and Vietnam wars, 
forces mainly provided fire support in response 
to tactical circumstances. 

As you may recall, USS New Jersey, along 
with other surface ships, took part in fire-support 
missions in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1983. 



ANTIAIR WARFARE 

Antiair warfare (AAW) includes all measures 
designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of 
attack by hostile aircraft or guided missiles. 



12-10 



Active AAW includes the use of aircraft, anti- 
aircraft guns, missiles, and electronic counter- 
measures. (Electronic countermeasures are 
employed to jam radars, mask or monitor 
electronic transmissions, confuse guidance 
systems, present false targets, and the like.) 
Passive AAW — measures other than active, taken 
to minimize the effects of hostile air action — 
involves elements such as cover, concealment, and 
dispersion. 

Ships and aircraft are joined in a task forma- 
tion to accomplish a mission that has been 
dictated by strategic necessity. An AAW forma- 
tion is designed to protect a carrier, which is the 
offensive striking unit of a carrier task force or 
battle group. 

As enemy aircraft approach in a strike against 
our ships at sea, our forces may divide defensive 
AAW operations into three phases occurring 
successively. The first phase involves the use of 
personnel and equipment to search for, find, 
evaluate, and report the enemy attack force. The 
second phase involves initial active AAW defense 
measures — taken while attacking aircraft are at 
a considerable distance from the force. These 
measures may include electronic deception; air- 
craft interception; and long-range, surface-to-air, 
guided-missile fire. The third phase, close-range 
defense, takes place when attacking aircraft have 
penetrated near or within gun range of the main 
body of ships being defended. Close-range defense 
measures consist of gunfire, short-range missiles, 
and evasive maneuvering. 

Speeds of modern aircraft and missiles require 
that defensive measures be taken as early as 
possible at the greatest practicable distance from 
the attacking force. An AAW operation, there- 
fore, uses distant early warning aircraft, such as 
the E-2, and surface picket ships, such as guided- 
missile destroyers. Depending on the size of the 
formation and nature of the threat, several 
sector antiair warfare coordinators (SAAWCs) 
may conduct operations in designated areas. 
SAAWCs report to the force antiair warfare 
coordinator (FAAWC) who then coordinates 
defenses over the entire task force area of 
responsibihty. 

The FAAWC normally determines the extent 
of the antiair warfare area, which encompasses 
the total region to be protected from enemy air 
attack. Figure 12-3 maps the subdivisions of the 
AAW area. Concentric circles surround the main 
body of ships at distances determined by the 
nature of the expected attack. The circles 
represent the outer perimeters of the subdivisions. 
The surveillance area, the outer limit of which 




Figure 12-3. — The force antiair warfare coordinator 
(FAAWC) determines the extent of the AAW area. 



corresponds to the perimeter of the entire AAW 
area, is the region of search, detection, and 
tracking. The destruction area is the sector (within 
the surveillance area) in which destruction or 
defeat of the enemy airborne threat should 
occur. It is divided into an air-intercept and long- 
range missile zone, medium-range missile zone, 
and gunfire/short-range missile zone. The vital 
area contains the main force of ships that must 
be defended. 

The AAW area usually is oriented about an 
AAW axis, or threat axis. The AAW axis is a true 
bearing from the vital area to the most probable 
direction of enemy attack. Early warning aircraft 
and ships normally are deployed along the AAW 
axis. A number of factors affect the choice of an 
AAW disposition. These include the submarine 
threat, available ships and aircraft, fuel, amount 
of protection required, and weather. Whenever 
possible, mutual support from nearby units is 
obtained through the overlapping of AAW areas. 

Although conventional gunfire can be effective 
in AAW, high-speed jet aircraft have made 
defense by gunfire a last-ditch effort. At 600 miles 
per hour, an attacking aircraft is within effective 
range of a 5-inch gun for less than a minute before 
the plane reaches its drop point. This speed allows, 
at best, about 100 rounds of gunfire from one 
ship. In World War II we expended an average 
of 3,000 rounds of all types to down each 
propeller-driven aircraft. 



12-11 



Defense against an air attack demands a high 
degree of coordination between widely dispersed 
units in the formation. Attacking aircraft can 
climb to very high altitudes, or they can come in 
just over the wave tops. No matter what their 
altitude, the speed of the aircraft is often super- 
sonic. That means instantaneous reactions and 
quickly computed solutions are essential to 
the defenders. Even after attaining maximum 
proficiency, a ship's individual efforts would 
probably prove futile unless it were deployed in 
a defense-in-depth formation. Defense in depth 
requires intensive coordination. Teamwork is then 
the order of the day, and the captain of the team 
is the AAW coordinator. 

The AAW coordinator and staff usually 
observe the entire picture on various display 
plots aboard a missile cruiser. The coordinator 
maintains communications, except during some 
conditions of electronic silence, with all the AAW 
units. The coordinator also receives all "bogey" 
(unfriendly air contact) information from the 
detecting ship or aircraft. 

COMBAT AIR PATROL (CAP) 

When an aircraft poses a definite threat, the 
AAW coordinator must decide which defense to 
use. The first line of defense is the on-station 
combat air patrol (CAP). If the CAP is in the 
target area, the relative speeds of the CAP and 
target may indicate a possible intercept. In such 
cases, the coordinator may order the AAW unit's 
CAP air controller (aircraft or surface ship) to 
vector the CAP to the target. On-station CAP 
aircraft orbit at a station between the inner and 
intermediate surface picket lines, roughly 30 miles 
from their controlling units. 

CAP can miss the target for several reasons. 
Patrolling aircraft may be out of position, relative 
speeds may work against an intercept, or poor 
visibility and/or radar reception may make the 
CAP useless. When CAP proves ineffective, 
the AAW coordinator may employ long-range 
missiles or launch additional interceptor aircraft. 

During CAP intercept attempts, shipboard 
weapons direction systems direct fire control 
radars aboard missile ships to the target. When 
a ship is ready to engage a target with missiles, 
it notifies the AAW coordinator and may order 
one or more missile launches. If more than one 
ship is prepared to assault a target with missiles, 
the AAW coordinator must decide which ship, or 
ships, will take part in the attack. The coordinator 
must consider, among other factors, which ship 
is in the best position for a kill and what type and 
number of missiles it has aboard. 



Missile ships may be stationed in the extended 
(outer), intermediate, or inner screen position. 
However, they should remain either far enough 
in or out to allow the CAP to operate freely. Since 
a missile ship usually is free to fire on any target 
that enters its envelope, a well-defined crossover 
point must be designated. A crossover point is the 
range at which a target ceases to be an air intercept 
target and becomes a surface-to-air missile target. 
Air controllers must be careful to keep CAP 
aircraft from crossing this point to prevent their 
destruction by friendly fire. 

If CAP aircraft or long-range missiles do not 
stop an attack, the AAW coordinator may direct 
the carrier(s) to launch additional interceptor air- 
craft. Interceptors remain ready for launch in 
specified conditions of readiness as follows: 

• Condition One CAP: Pilots strapped in 
cockpits; catapult and deck crews at 
stations; and all leads to engines plugged, 
ready for immediate ignition. Reaction 
time limited only to the time required to 
turn the carrier into the wind. 

• Condition Two CAP: Aircraft ready 
to start; pilots and deck/catapult crews 
nearby rather than on station. 

• Condition Three CAP: Launch capability 
required within 15 minutes. Pilots in ready 
rooms; crews relaxing near stations. 

• Condition Four CAP: Pilots and crews on 
30 minutes' notice. 

• Condition Five CAP: Pilots and crews free 
until called. 

ANTISHIP MISSILE DEFENSE 
(ASMD) 

The antiship missile defense (ASMD) program 
significantly improves a ship's capability in 
countering high-speed, low-altitude, antiship 
missile threats. In attaining this defense posture, 
the program requires modifications to the overall 
ship combat system for the following purposes: 

^, To enhance low-flyer and electronic warfare 
(EW) detection capabihties 

To reduce reaction times by modifying com- 
mand and control functions for weapons 
direction 

To improve gun and missile system engage- 
ment capabihties 



12-12 



In addition to these combat system improve- 
ments, on-board training devices are installed to 
support combat information center (CIC) team 
training exercises. The ASMD program furthers 
the improvements provided by the ship's anti- 
missile integrated defense (SAMID) immediate 
program by expanding ship capabilities to counter 
antiship missile threats. The ASMD program 
integrates additional subsystems into the combat 
system. It makes use of expanded tactical data 
processing techniques by providing a fully 
automatic method of responding to particular 
antiship missile threats. 

The gun weapons system supports that element 
of the ship's mission requiring offensive operation 
against air, surface, and shore targets. It provides 
this support through its ability to destroy these 
types of targets at ranges within the minimum- 
range capability of the guided-missile systems. 

As in other types of warfare, successful AAW 
operations must be based in part on lessons 
learned through costly experience and must be 
practiced continually. 



ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE 

The basic elements of the Navy's antisub- 
marine warfare (ASW) forces include surface 



ships, aircraft, and submarines. The integrated 
undersea surveillance system (lUSS) is also an 
integral part of our ASW system. This system cues 
our engagement forces to respond quickly to ASW 
tactical areas. These elements are capable of 
operating independently or with each other. 

The basic mission of antisubmarine warfare 
is to deny the enemy the effective use of sub- 
marines. We must go beyond what we have 
learned in the past by developing new techniques 
to match the expanding role of the submarine. The 
long-range nuclear-missile capability of today's 
submarines requires that we do more than prevent 
submarine torpedo attacks on our shipping and 
naval vessels. Instead, we must find and keep 
under surveillance all enemy submarines before 
they can reach a point within missile-launching 
range of our coasts. 

SURFACE UNITS 

The surface ship has a greater variety of both 
detection equipment and weapons than any other 
ASW unit. A prime advantage of the surface ship 
is its ability to conduct all-weather operations and 
to remain on station for a comparatively long 
time. 

Our most effective ASW surface ships today 
are frigates, destroyers, and cruisers equipped 
with SH-60B LAMPS helicopters (fig. 12-4). 




109.17 



Figure 12-4. — An SH-60B Seahawk helicopter in flight near the stern of a guided-missile frigate. 

12-13 



These ships use new and improved radar, sonar, 
electronic counter measures, and communications 
systems to enhance their detection capabiHties. 
Another major surface unit is the aircraft 
carrier, with ASW aircraft embarked. A carrier 
can monitor midocean areas beyond the effective 
range of land-based patrol aircraft. 



ASW AIRCRAFT 

Aircraft have the ability to investigate distant 
contacts rapidly and are relatively invulnerable 
to submerged submarines. They also have the 
advantages of speed, relatively long range, and 
weapons-carrying capability. Therefore, they may 
fulfill the antisubmarine mission independently 
or in coordination with other types of anti- 
submarine units. 

The three basic antisubmarine warfare aircraft 
are long-range patrol aircraft, medium-range 
carrier-based aircraft, and heUcopters. We 
described some of these aircraft, primarily the 
P-3C Orion, the S-3A Viking, and the LAMPS 
III heUcopters, earher in this chapter. These 
aircraft use a wide variety of electronic devices 
to detect submarines. 

The magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) 
device is used mainly for submarine classification 
purposes. Depending on the height of the aircraft 
and other variables, it can detect a submarine by 
variations in the earth's magnetic lines of force. 
Because of its limited range, MAD is unsuitable 
as a device for open area searches. However, it 
is effective when used in geographically or 
tactically defined or restricted small areas. 
Aircraft normally use the MAD device to detect 
the specific location of a submarine before they 
attack it. 

Expendable sonobuoys, used with measured 
success against submarines of the last war, are 
very useful against submarines in a variety of 
tactical situations. Sonobuoys are tubes containing 
a hydrophone and radio transmitter. As aircraft 
drop them into the water, the hydrophones pick 
up sounds and broadcast them to surface craft 
or aircraft. Each sonobuoy is on a slightly 
different frequency. An active buoy is also used 
that emits a sound signal and listens for the return 
echo. 

Since helicopters are capable of hovering, they 
use a different piece of equipment. The aircraft, 
by means of a long cable, lowers a cylindrical 
sonar transducer into the water while hovering 
over the suspected contact area. With this gear 



the helicopter can listen or echo-range (determine 
the location of a submarine). 

Other methods of detection include infrared 
detection and explosive echo ranging using 
sonobuoys. 

In all types of airborne electronic ASW 
devices, proper training of both operating and 
maintenance personnel is paramount to successful 
application of the equipment. Certain applications 
require special techniques for effective use of 
sonobuoys and other sonic devices. Proper and 
accurate sound identification and spotting of 
snorkel targets on radarscopes are examples. 



ASW SUBMARINES 

The submarine itself is perhaps the most 
effective antisubmarine vehicle. It operates in the 
same medium as the target and shares the target's 
advantages of concealment and passive detection. 
(Passive sonar depends entirely on the target's 
noise as the sound source rather than the returned 
echoes of a transmitted signal.) The submarine 
can detect enemy submarines while working with 
other ASW forces or while working independently. 
Submarines can precede carrier strike forces into 
enemy waters, function as ASW screens, and operate 
as minelayers. Fleet ballistic missile submarines are 
used to destroy enemy targets when ordered by the 
President of the United States. 



SOUND NAVIGATION AND 
RANGING (SONAR) 

The use of sonar (sound wa^'igation and ranging) 
is the principal method of submarine detection. We 
have two types of sonar — passive and active. Sonar 
is an electronic device that either detects underwater 
sounds or transmits them. Passive sonar detects 
sounds originating under water. Active sonar is an 
electronic device that can transmit (through the 
depths) a sound wave which, upon striking an 
object, will reflect. Submarines use passive sonar 
to enable them to detect noise-making objects 
without transmitting a telltale ping themselves. 

To understand how sonar works, you must first 
understand sound. Sound is the physical energy that 
causes the sensation of hearing. It travels in the form 
of waves away from the point of origin, as ripples 
travel out in all directions from a pebble tossed 
into a pond. Echoes are created when sound waves 
strike objects through which they cannot travel and 
therefore bounce back to the source. 



12-14 



The substance through which sound travels is 
called a medium. All types of matter are sound 
mediums of varying efficiency. The denser the 
medium, the more rapidly sound travels through 
it. Therefore, steel is a better medium than water, 
and water is a better medium than air. 

Let us take a look at what happens to a sonar 
impulse after it leaves the transducer (the 
transmitting device in the water). The transducer 
introduces the sound wave into the water by 
converting the equipment's electrical energy into 
sound vibrations. The impulse travels at a rate 
of between 4,700 and 5,300 feet per second, 
depending on the temperature, saHnity, and 
pressure of the water. The rate of travel of the 
impulse is four or five times faster than the speed 
of sound in air. However, the hazards of travel 
take their toll on its speed and signal strength. 
Current, bubbles, and wakes absorb some of the 
sound. As the impulse passes through foreign 
matter such as seaweed, silt, and animal life in 
the water, it scatters and becomes even weaker. 
As the sound wave travels away from the 
transducer, it spreads out Hke a searchlight beam. 
The further away it travels from the transducer, 
the weaker it becomes. 

Once the wave strikes an object such as a 
submarine, that portion of the impulse which is 
at a right angle to the object reverberates toward 
the sonar receiver. Again absorption, scattering, 
and spreading will affect the strength of the 
impulse. However, it will still signal a possible 
target unless multiple reflections, or echoes, 
such as reverberations, self-noise, and a high 
surrounding noise level, drown it out. 

Multiple reflections, or echoes, can come from 
many sources. Sound waves bouncing off small 
objects such as fish or air bubbles produce small 
echoes. Sound waves reflected from the sea 
surface and bottom also cause echoes, and the 
sea mass itself causes reverberations. These 
reverberations appear on video and audio 
receivers. Reverberations from nearby points may 
be so loud on the audio receiver that they interfere 
with, or completely mask, the returning echo from 
the target. 



SHIPBOARD ASW ORGANIZATION 

Sonar control is the major shipboard ASW 
station. Other stations are the bridge, the 
combat information center (CIC), and the ASW 
weapons batteries. On most ships this organization 
is integrated into the combat systems department. 



Sonar control is the ASW station that 
maintains a continuous underwater search for 
submarines. From the bridge, the officer of the 
deck conns the ship, keeping other control 
stations informed of the ship's maneuvers. 

The combat information center is the key 
station for coordinating search/attack operations 
within the ship and betweens ships and/or 
aircraft. Personnel in CIC plot, display, evaluate, 
and disseminate all air, surface, and subsurface 
contact information and recommend search plans 
to the commanding officer. 

In modern ASW ships, the captain and the 
tactical action officer (TAO) often direct the 
attack from CIC. However, the CO may choose 
to remain on the bridge. When that happens, 
repeaters duplicate information from CIC for the 
captain's use while phone talkers relay amplifying 
information to him. That enables the captain (in 
conjunction with the TAO in CIC) to evaluate 
critical elements of the attack from his position 
on the bridge. After evaluating elements such as 
the target's course and speed, the captain can then 
authorize delivery of the necessary ASW weapons. 



AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE 

Amphibious warfare encompasses many 
different types of ships, aircraft, weapons, and 
landing forces used in a concerted mihtary effort 
on a hostile shore. An amphibious operation is 
an attack launched from the sea by naval and 
landing forces. The landing forces, transported 
by afloat landing craft and helicopters, may 
include Army and Marine Corps troops. During 
such operations, both surface ships and aircraft 
usually bombard the hostile shore immediately 
before the landing. 

Amphibious operations are conducted to 
estabhsh a landing force on a hostile shore to do 
all of the following actions: to prosecute further 
combat operations; to obtain a site for an 
advanced naval or air base; and to deny the use 
of an area or facility to the enemy. 

The principle type of amphibious operation 
is the amphibious assault. The amphibious assault 
follows a well-defined pattern. The general 
sequence consists of planning; embarkation; 
rehearsal; movement to the objective; and finally, 
assault and capture of the objective. 

PLANNING 

The planning phase of an amphibious assault 
reflects the collected intelligence data on enemy 



12-15 



forces and the territory concerned. It is designed 
to accomplish several tasks, including the 
following: 

• Embarkation by combat loading methods 

• Movement to the amphibious objective 
area, including defense against air, sub- 
marine, and surface attack 

• Preassault operations (preparation of the 
objective area), which include gaining 
and maintaining local air superiority; 
destruction of enemy forces and installa- 
tions by naval aircraft, shipboard guns, 
and missiles; clearance of mines and under- 
water obstacles; reconnaissance of beaches 
by underwater demolition groups; deter- 
mination of exits inland; and isolation of 
the objective area 

• Ship-to-shore movement by which troops 
and their weapons, vehicles, and supplies 
are moved ashore by helicopters and 
landing craft, or both 

• Clearance of beach obstacles and move- 
ment inland with tank, artillery, and light 
and heavy vehicles 

• Naval gunfire, missile, and air bombard- 
ment in support of the assault and the 
movement inland 

• Landing of supplies and logistic support 
buildup 

Although this list of tasks is incomplete, it 
illustrates the many requirements that must be 
considered and resolved. An amphibious assault 
can succeed only if it is carefully planned, 
organized, and timed. Planning is the responsibility 
of the commander and an assigned staff. It 
demands a complete knowledge of the various 
combat arms employed and the numerous 
problems unique to an amphibious operation. 

EMBARKATION 

In a major amphibious operation, troops are 
assembled at various ports with their equipment 
and vehicles. Consistent with extremely detailed 
loading plans formulated during the planning 
phase, designated ships arrive in these ports 
at specified times, ready to embark the landing 
forces. 



Each item of equipment is loaded aboard in 
reverse order of the priority in which it is desired 
on the hostile beach. The combat cargo officer 
of the ship and the commander of the landing 
force unit to be embarked in that ship prepare 
individual loading plans for each ship. The 
commanding officer of the ship reviews and 
approves the loading plan. 

As soon as the ship is moored, it is in all 
respects ready for loading. All landing craft have 
been off-loaded, and appropriate cargo-handling 
gear has been placed in readiness. All cargo booms 
have been rigged as necessary to handle the 
material to be stowed in each hold. The advance 
party of troops boards the ship at the embarkation 
port and proceeds immediately with the details of 
loading. When all cargo is aboard, the remainder 
of troops embark. The ship then leaves its berth 
and proceeds to an anchorage to await the 
forming of the convoy. In crowded ports with few 
facilities, the ship may be loaded while at anchor 
by a procedure similar to that for ships which are 
moored. The only difference is that all cargo and 
equipment must be moved out to the ship by 
boats, barges, or other lighterage. 

REHEARSALS 

The schedule for an amphibious operation 
usually allows for one or more rehearsals carried 
out under conditions approximating those of the 
anticipated operation. All units that will take part 
in the actual operation should participate in the 
rehearsal. Rehearsals test the adequacy of the 
plans for the operation as well as the familiarity 
of all echelons with the plans. They also test 
the timing of detailed operations, the combat 
readiness of participating forces, and the 
effectiveness of communications. If practicable, 
rehearsals include naval gunfire and air support 
with live ammunition. Unloading is carried out 
as determined during planning to the degree 
needed for planners to effectively test tactical and 
logistic plans. Unloading tests the operation of 
the ship-to-shore movement control organization 
and the functioning of the shore party and all 
naval components. Following each rehearsal, all 
levels of command critique the exercise to 
ejpphasize lessons learned and to correct mistakes, 

MOVEMENT TO THE OBJECTIVE 

Every stage of movement of the amphibious 
task force to the objective area must be planned. 
That includes departure of participating ships 



12-16 



from their ports of embarkation; their passage at 
sea; and their approach to, and arrival in, assigned 
positions in the objective area. The plan must 
include the movement of ships through rehearsal, 
staging, and rendezvous areas. Therefore, the 
movement plan organizes the amphibious task 
force into movement groups, which proceed along 
prescribed routes. Usually ships are assigned 
into fast or slow movement groups, depending on 
their sustained sea speed. Forces that may not be 
a part of the amphibious task force provide 
protection from air, surface, and subsurface 
attack. Carrier striking forces provide air cover 
and long-range reconnaissance. In addition, mine 
warfare ships perform screening duties with the 
help of other ships suitable for that purpose but 
with other primary functions. The safety of the 
amphibious ships with their embarked troops, 
equipment, and supplies is of paramount 
importance. Landing forces must arrive at the 
objective area without critical reduction in their 
combat potential. 

THE ASSAULT 

The assault phase begins when the assault 
forces arrive at their assigned positions in 
the amphibious objective area. It ends when the 
mission has been accomplished. 

After all the prior planning and rehearsals and 
final movement into the objective area, the assault 
commences. The assault phase encompasses the 
following: 

• Preparation of the beach by air strikes and 
naval gunfire 

• Ship-to-shore movement of the landing 
force by helicopters, landing craft, 
amphibious vehicles, and landing ships 

• Landings in landing and drop zones and 
on beaches by the assault elements of the 
landing force 

• Inland operations to unify waterborne, 
helicopter-borne, airborne, and/or air- 
landed assault forces and to seize the 
beachhead 

• Air support and naval gunfire support 
throughout the assault 

• Landing of remaining land force elements 
to conduct any operations necessary to 
complete the accomplishment of the 
mission 



The assault phase is a time when coordination 
of the operation is extremely critical. The 
amphibious task force commander, who has 
responsibility for the overall coordination of air 
and naval gunfire support, preplans to the greatest 
extent possible. Delivery of unscheduled fire 
support on targets of opportunity and unexpected 
changes in air operations require continuous 
and close coordination. Only through this 
coordination can the amphibious task force be 
assured of maximum effectiveness with a requisite 
degree of safety. The principles and procedures 
of fire support coordination haven't changed 
because of the introduction of nuclear weapons. 
However, the importance and extent of co- 
ordination have increased because of the 
magnitude of nuclear weapons effects. 

The amphibious task force commander 
eventually shifts control of land operations to the 
landing force commander. That happens when 
both commanders agree that the landing force is 
firmly established ashore and ready to assume full 
responsibility for subsequent operations. The 
amphibious operation is then terminated with the 
amphibious task force remaining in support. The 
various units of the amphibious task force may 
then be used for operations in the area or 
reembarked on the ships from which they were 
dispatched. 

NAVAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

Communications is the key to command. It 
involves the transmission and reception of military 
instructions and information; it is at once the 
voice of command and the arm of control. It 
makes coordinated action possible by enabling our 
ships and aircraft to operate in a purposeful, 
cooperative effort. Modern naval operations can 
only be executed with effective communications 
and a master battle plan. All details of the plan 
must be communicated to the fighting units. 
Communications enables those at the highest 
echelons of command to test missions, objectives, 
and enemy capability and to determine appropriate 
courses of action. 

Engagement in a full-scale war would allow 
no time for our nation to obtain quantities 
of telecommunications equipment and train 
thousands of personnel to use it. Naval tele- 
communications, being a function of command, 
must always be in a condition of preparedness. 
In the event of hostiUties, the operating forces 
would depend on communications facilities in 
existence at the time. 



12-17 



A navy that operates on a worldwide scale 
requires the services of a global communications 
network. Commanders must be able to pass the 
word — to communicate — whenever necessary in 
any mode. They must be able to communicate 
between and among ships separated by varying 
distances and from and to ships, shore stations, 
and aircraft. The ability to communicate makes 
possible effective command and control. That, in 
turn, ensures the responsiveness of every mobile 
nerve center in the fleet to the tactical and 
strategic needs and services of every other 
element. A global organization of communica- 
tions stations with hundreds of radio and 
landline circuits supports each force of ships. 
This support means a force of ships is never 
out of touch with its base of operations. 
Orders and information affecting the successful 
outcome of the force's mission are exchanged 
swiftly and accurately throughout every level 
of command. The direct result of reliable 
communications is a tightly directed fighting 
unit. 

Naval messages are sent and received in a 
variety of ways. The primary method is through 
the use of electrically transmitted communica- 
tions; other types include visual, sound, and 
pyrotechnic communications. 



ELECTRICAL 

Electrical communications are sent by wave 
propagation through the atmosphere or by 
electrical conductors (wires) that connect the 
sending and receiving equipment. Atmospheric 
propagation is potentially the least secure method 
since anyone with a receiver can intercept the 
transmission. However, most communications 
circuits use cryptographic devices to distort 
transmissions. 

Speed of delivery is one reason radio is the 
Navy's most important means of communication. 
However, it is also the only effective means by 
which the activities of widespread naval forces can 
be continuously coordinated. 



Radiotelephone (R/T) 

Radiotelephone (R/T) microphones are 
installed in strategic places on ships, such as the 
combat information center (CIC) and the bridge. 



The communications spaces provide transmitter 
and receiver service to these remote operating 
positions. Crew members communicate by speak- 
ing into a transmitting microphone connected to 
an assigned frequency. 

Although R/T is the least secure form of all 
radio communications, some systems may now 
employ cryptographic devices. 



Teletype 

The mental and manual actions performed by 
an operator in converting letters to Morse code 
(and vice versa) are replaced in teletype by 
electrical and mechanical actions. To transmit 
a message, the operator types on a keyboard 
similar to that on a typewriter. Each key that 
is pressed feeds a sequence of signals into 
receiving machines causing them to type the 
message automatically. 

Teletype signals may be sent by landline (wire), 
radio, or satellite communications systems. Both 
the mihtary services and commercial communica- 
tions companies such as Western Union use 
teletype communications. 

The primary shipboard use of radio teletype 
(RATT) is for task-group and ship-to-shore com- 
munications. Fleet broadcasts, which formerly 
used high-frequency (hf) radio transmissions 
exclusively, are now making use of satellite com- 
munications. Automated information exchange 
systems also use satellites, with attendant high 
data rates. 



Facsimile 

Recent technological improvements have made 
commercial facsimile (FAX) machines a common 
and relatively inexpensive piece of office equip- 
ment. Many commands use these to transmit 
urgent correspondence over standard or secure 
telephone lines. The "fuzzy" message trans- 
mission quality is exchanged for almost instan- 
taneous printed copies of graphic or typewritten 
documents. 

Military FAX machines are used to transmit 
photographs, charts, and graphic or pictorial 
intelligence information electronically. Signals 
are transmitted either by landHne or by radio. 



12-18 



FAX systems are not intended as replacements 
for other standard communications methods. 
They are a useful supplemental system for rapid 
communications. 



Fleet Broadcasts 

Radio traffic is sent to the fleet by two 
methods: broadcast and receipt. The first is a "do 
not answer" method; the second, as its name 
implies, requires a receipt from addressees for 
each message. The broadcast method allows the 
fleet to preserve radio silence, which is a 
great advantage from the standpoint of security. 

Civilian and naval broadcasts have some 
similarity. Commercial stations in the broadcast 
band transmit programs to radio receivers in the 
homes in their communities. Likewise, Navy com- 
munications stations broadcast messages to fleet 
units in their particular geographic areas. The 
term broadcast, in fact, originated in naval 
communications. 

The resemblance between Navy commercial 
stations ceases here, however. Information 
broadcast by naval communications stations is 
contained in chronologically numbered messages 
assigned to the ships. Fleet units copy the 
messages and check the numbers to ensure they 
have a complete file of all messages they should 
have received. 

Automated systems now key fleet broadcasts. 
Messages are broadcast in their order of 
precedence. If the automated system receives a 
higher-precedence message while transmitting a 
lower-precedence message, it may interrupt the 
latter to transmit the higher-precedence message. 

All ships copy all messages addressed to them 
that appear on the broadcast schedule they are 
guarding. 

Fleet broadcasts use satellites as their primary 
transmission media. High-frequency (hO radio 
transmission provides broadcast services to ships 
that are unable to copy the satellite systems. 



Satellite Communications 

A satellite communications (SATCOM) 
system is one that uses earth-orbiting vehicles or 



satellites to relay radio transmissions between 
earth terminals. 

A typical operational link involves a satellite 
and two earth terminals. One station transmits to 
the satellite on a frequency called the up-link 
frequency. The sateUite amplifies the signal, 
translates it to the down-link frequency, and then 
transmits it back to earth where the signal is 
picked up by the receiving terminal. 

The Commander, Naval Telecommunications 
Command (COMNAVTELCOM), is designated 
the communications manager for Navy-assigned 
satellite systems. The responsibilities of the 
communications manager include operating the 
earth terminals and publishing Satellite Com- 
munications Operating Procedures (NTP-2). 

Commander, Naval Space Command (COM- 
NAVSPACECOM), is the operational manager 
for Navy satellites. The operational manager plans 
the location of spacecraft and fixed earth 
terminals and allocates satellite capacity, power, 
bandwidth, and operating frequencies. 

The Navy uses two primary SATCOM 
systems: 

• Long-haul (long-distance) communications 
takes place via the defense satellite communica- 
tions system (DSCS), which is managed by the 
Defense Communications Agency (DCA). This 
high-capacity global system uses satellites equally 
spaced around the world operating on superhigh 
frequencies (shf). Ships and stations located 
anywhere on the earth from 70 degrees north 
latitude to 70 degrees south latitude have access 
to one of these satellites. 

• The fleet satellite communications 
(FLTSATCOM) system operates at ultrahigh fre- 
quency (uhf), making possible the use of relatively 
low-cost terminals and simple antennas. Leased 
satellites (LEASAT) are part of this system. 

• FLTSATCOM provides the primary 
means of Navy tactical satellite ship-shore-ship 
communications over the officer in tactical com- 
mand information exchange subsystem (OTCIXS) 
and the tactical data exchange subsystem 
(TADIXS). The common user digital information 
exchange system (CUDIXS) and the naval 
modular automated communications system 
(NAVMACS) combine to form a general-service 
message traffic network. 



12-19 



Many current satellites are programmed to be 
phased out by a new generation of extremely high- 
frequency (ehO satellites. The military strategic 
tactical and relay (MILSTAR) system is a joint 
service program expected to be operational in the 
1990s. 



VISUAL 

Visual communications are the preferred 
means for communicating at short range when 
weather conditions permit. In reliability and 
convenience, visual communications often are the 
equal of radio and under certain circumstances 
are more secure than radio. For example, omni- 
directional radio transmissions may be intercepted 
by many undesired listeners, whereas unidirec- 
tional visual signals are Hmited to observers 
positioned along the hne of sight. 

Visual signaling systems include flaghoist, 
flashing hght, and semaphore. 



Flaghoist 

Flaghoist signaling can be a rapid and accurate 
communications method during dayhght hours. 
International alphabet flags, numbered pennants, 
and special meaning flags can coordinate tactical 
maneuvers and ships' movements without radio 
transmissions. 

All sailors are expected to recognize everyday 
flags. Sailors rely on the safety and informational 
messages relayed by these flags, such as "divers 
in the water" or "captain's on board," to help 
them in their daily routine. 



Flashing Light 

Flashing light uses visible beams (or infrared 
light during tactical nighttime communications) 
to transmit Morse Code letters through an on/off 
method. Directional lights are pointed so that only 
the addressee can read the message. Omnidirec- 
tional lights may be located above the ship's 
superstructure for all ships within range to copy 
the message. 



their arms through various positions to 
represent letters, numerals, and special signs. 

Semaphore and flashing light can be used 
interchangeably for many purposes. Semaphore 
is more rapid for short-distance transmission in 
clear daylight and may be used to send messages 
to several addresses at once if they are in 
suitable positions. Because of its speed, 
semaphore is better adapted to the sending of 
long messages than are other visual methods. 
When radio silence is imposed, semaphore is 
the best substitute for handling administrative 
traffic. It is more secure than a light or radio 
because it provides less chance for interception 
by unauthorized persons. 

SOUND 

Sound communications systems include 
whistles, siren, bells, and acoustics. Ships use the 
first three to transmit emergency warning signals 
(such as air-raid alerts) and navigational signals 
prescribed by the rules of the road. In wartime, 
ships in convoy use these three systems to 
communicate with each other. 

An underwater sonar system called Gertrude 
is part of acoustic submarine communications. 
Used primarily for hailing NATO ships, it may 
be used for radiotelephone or carrier-wave (c/w) 
transmission. 



PYROTECHNICS 

Pyrotechnics is the use of ammunition, flares, 
or fireworks to signal a message or to illuminate 
or mark targets. Most pyrotechnics for signaUng 
are of the "fireworks" variety. Common sources 
are marine illumination cartridges, colored shell 
bursts (parachute flares), aircraft parachute 
flares, roman candles, and float-type flares. 
The meaning of a pyrotechnic signal depends 
on the color instead of the type of pyrotechnic 
employed. The authorized use of pyrotechnics 
for communications is, in general, hmited to 
emergency signals. 



SUMMARY 



Semaphore 

Semaphore is a communications medium by 
which persons signal with two hand flags, moving 



The preceding discussion of naval warfare 
operations demonstrates that extensive planning 
is required if a mission is to be successful. When 
all of the warfare components function together. 



12-20 



close cooperation must be maintained between 
them. To a large extent, that is achieved before 
an operation is conducted. 

One vital element that must be present 
throughout the operation, however, is com- 
munications. All participants in an operation must 
be able to communicate with each other. 

All of these components function as members 
of the Navy team. Trying to conduct a successful 
mission without any particular one of the com- 
ponents would be disastrous. However, when all 
function together as one, our Navy can achieve 
its assigned missions. 



REFERENCES 

Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations, JCS 
Pub 3-02, The Office of the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, Washington, D.C., 1988. 

Naval Science for the Merchant Marine Officer, 
NAVEDTRA 38051, Naval Education and 
Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1986. 

Navy Fact File, 8th ed.. Office of Information, 
Washington, D.C., 1988. 



JACOB'S LADDER 

A JACOB'S LADDER IS A PORTABLE LADDER MADE OF ROPE OR METAL USED 
PRIMARILY TO HELP PERSONNEL BOARD SHIP. ORIGINALLY, THE JACOB'S 
LADDER WAS A NETWORK OF LINE LEADING TO THE SKYSAIL ON WOODEN SHIPS. 
THE NAME ALLUDES TO THE BIBLICAL JACOB REPUTED TO HAVE DREAMED OF A 
LADDER THAT REACHED INTO HEAVEN. 

ANYONE WHO HAS EVER TRIED CLIMBING A JACOB'S LADDER WHILE CARRYING 
A SEABAG CAN APPRECIATE THE ALLUSION. IT DOES SEEM THAT THE CLIMB 
IS LONG ENOUGH TO TAKE ONE INTO THE NEXT WORLD. 




12-21 



^ 



CHAPTER 13 



SUPPORTING ELEMENTS OF THE NAVY 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon complietion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the function of Civil Engineer Corps 
officers. 

2. Identify the function of Supply Corps 
officers. 

3. Identify the function and composition of the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. 

4. Identify the function of Navy chaplains. 



5. Identify the function of officers of the Judge 
Advocate General's Corps. 

6. Describe the purpose of the Navy's security 
program. 

7. Describe the purpose of the Naval Intelligence 
Command. 

8. Describe the organization and areas of research 
of the Navy's Research and Development 
Program. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

3 Feb. 1795 Congress establishes the Navy 
Supply Corps. 

9 Mar. 1798 George Balfour is appointed as 
the first surgeon in the U.S. 

Navy. 

30 Oct. 1799 William Balch is commissioned 
as the Navy's first chaplain. 

26 Feb. 1811 A congressional act provides 
Navy hospitals. 

2 Mar. 1867 Congress establishes the Civil 

Engineering Corps. 

3 Mar. 1871 Congress establishes the Pay 

Corps. 

9 Jun. 1880 William B. Remey, USMC, is 
appointed as the first Judge 
Advocate General. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

4 Apr. 1898 Mordecai T. Endicott, the first 
Civil Engineer Corps officer, is 
appointed Chief, Bureau of 
Yards and Docks. 

17 Jun. 1898 The Hospital Corps is estab- 
Ushed. 



13 May 1908 The Nurse Corps is estabHshed. 

22 Aug. 1912 The Dental Corps is established. 

Certain supporting elements and branches of 
the Navy are required to accompHsh the Navy's 
mission. This chapter discusses the functions of 
some of these elements and various Navy 
branches. In many cases, the functions of these 
supporting elements are essential to mission 
accomphshment while at other times they only 
provide assistance for particular needs. Overall, 
they fit into the team concept of the naval 
structure. 



13-1 



CIVIL ENGINEER CORPS 

Officers of the Civil Engineer Corps (CEC), 
who administer the work of the Naval FaciH- 
ties Engineering Command (NAVFACENG- 
COM), are commissioned naval officers with 
special technical qualifications. They are engineers 
and architects who manage the Navy's shore 
facilities and oversee construction and main- 
tenance by the shore establishment. Additionally, 
they command the field forces that construct 
advanced bases for support of Marine and Navy 
contingency operations. 

The Commander of the Naval Facilities 
Engineering Command is the Chief of Civil 
Engineers (that is, the head of the Corps). The 
commander exercises technical direction over the 
naval construction forces, generally known as the 
Seabees. NAVFACENGCOM also supports sepa- 
rate activities of the Department of the Navy 
whose primary function is organizing and 
equipping the naval construction forces. These 
activities include commands and organizations 
such as construction battalion centers. 

Recent years have seen rapid technological and 
management system expansion throughout the 
engineering world and the Department of 
Defense. NAVFACENGCOM has been a leader 
in developing advanced management systems and 
in adapting these systems to the latest computers. 
Examples include the Shore Facilities Planning 
and Programming System, Production Manage- 
ment Systems, Base Engineering Support- 
Technical Systems, Energy Monitoring and 
Control Systems, and Engineered Performance 
Standards. Many of these systems use mini- 
computers to increase effectiveness and pro- 
ductivity. 

In the area of engineering development, 
NAVFACENGCOM strives to turn the most up- 
to-date technological advances into the basis for 
the efficient, economical construction of Navy 
shore facilities. For example, the graphics design 
system has been installed in the design office to 
provide architects and engineers with a computer- 
aided method of preparing plans and designs. In 
the field of energy conservation and development, 
NAVFACENGCOM emphasizes the conversion 
of coal, wind, geothermal resources, and solar 
radiation into efficient sources of energy for the 
Navy. Greatly concerned with environmental 
protection, NAVFACENGCOM encourages the 
use of new methods of managing hazardous and 
solid waste and abating all types of pollution. To 



manage these new technologies, NAVFACENG- 
COM has established the Emerging Technologies 
Management Office to ensure the proper research 
and introduction of new ideas. 

Over the last 20 years, NAVFACENGCOM 
and the CEC have undertaken major engineering 
accomplishments. The massive Vietnam construc- 
tion program, which upgraded the entire 
infrastructure of that nation, required the efforts 
of CEC officers, the naval construction force, and 
civihan contractors ahke. 

The geopolitical events in the Middle East in 
the early 1970s emphasized the need for a military 
installation in the Indian Ocean. Upon being 
tasked, NAVFACENGCOM immediately went to 
work to plan the construction of a joint British- 
American stronghold and support facility on the 
strategically important Diego Garcia Island. A few 
years later, this tiny island had become an 
operational military installation complete with an 
airfield, pier facilities, a communications station, 
and total personnel support facilities. 

A major element of the CEC is the con- 
struction battalions (Seabees). The primary job 
of the Seabees is to build. However, based on the 
theory that they can't build unless they control 
the jobsite, all Seabees receive training in defensive 
combat tactics. Controlling the jobsite involves 
"fighting," the second job of a Seabee, as 
exempUfied by the Seabee motto Construimus 
batuimus, meaning "We build — we fight." 

Each company in a battalion organization is 
divided into combat platoons, squads, and fire 
teams. A Marine Corps gunnery sergeant is 
assigned as a military adviser and training 
specialist to the commanding officer of the 
battalion. 

As a self-sustaining unit, a naval mobile 
construction battalion (NMCB) must be capable 
of self-defense for a hmited time. Each battalion 
subdivision has a construction/military support 
assignment, and everyone in the battalion fills 
a construction/military support billet. The con- 
struction aspect, of course, predominates; the 
mission is to build. Platoons are organized into 
^vork crews that correspond to the weapons squad 
organization. The basic construction/military 
support units are the work crew/rifle fire team, 
work crew/automatic weapons team, and the 
work crew/heavy weapons team. Figure 13-1 
illustrates the diversity of Seabee functions in 
Vietnam. 



13-2 




A. STEELWORKERS REMOVE ROCKET-DAMAGED 
STEEL MATTING FROM AN AIRFIELD PARKING APRON. 




C. UNITS OF AN NMCB CONSTRUCTING A BRIDGE. 





- V 

B. BRIDGE EXPERTS SURVEY VIET CONG-BLOWN BRIDGE. 




D. ERECTING A HANGAR FOR THE MARINtS. 



/ 


^ ' , :.%^ 


-' •-«- 


•^^^^^ 


■*'■ ^ 


..- j^^^S 



F WORKING ON A CANTONMENT FOR ROK TROOPS. 



F. PERIMETER PATROL RETURNING TO BASE. 



134.138 
Figure 13-1. — All construction battalions were committed to Vietnam. More than 50 percent of those in the country were, 
or had been, engaged in providing tactical support construction to United States and Allied forces under fire. 



13-3 



THE SUPPLY CORPS 

The problem of logistics in any future war, 
except limited conflicts, would exceed anything 
our nation has so far witnessed. The extent of 
total conflict would probably be such that we 
would have to mobilize all of our economic 
resources to engage the enemy successfully. While 
today's situation is entirely different from that 
faced by John Paul Jones, the basic logistics are 
the same as they were in Jones' time. In arming, 
supplying, and manning his ships, Jones went 
through the same processes of determination of 
requirements, procurement, and distribution that 
are used today. However, his problem was not 
as extensive, and he probably didn't think of it 
in such formal terms. 

The determination of requirements is the first 
step in the formation of any logistics plan. It is 
a military responsibility and prerogative involving 
strategy and tactics. It encompasses determination 
of requirements for the conduct of global war as 
well as the determination of requirements for a 
small task unit engaged in a minor operation. 

The next step is procurement. It is based upon 
the determination of requirements, the production 
sources available, and those sources to be 
developed. In many respects it may be thought 
of as the point or zone of contact between the 
armed forces and the civiHan economy. It is 
primarily controlled by the civilian element of the 
defense structure. Thus, while elements of the 
Navy Department may undertake the actual 
details of procurement, they do so under policies 
prescribed by and under the watchful eyes of the 
Secretary of the Navy and his civilian assistants. 

Distribution, the last step of the logistics 
process, starts with accumulation at continental 
depots and ends with dehvery to the ultimate 
consumer. The responsibility for distribution of 
goods in the Navy rests on the shoulders of Supply 
Corps officers. 

Officers of the Supply Corps are the Navy's 
business administrators. As such, they direct the 
Navy's logistics requirements as set forth by the 
Chief of Naval Operations. They make sure these 
requirements are provided efficiently and econom- 
ically to ships and activities around the world. 
They manage a supply system that furnishes well 
over a million items essential to the operations of 
ships, missiles, aircraft, and facilities. In addi- 
tion. Supply Corps officers disburse pay and 
allowances of Navy personnel and manage the 
operation of food service, ship's store, and Navy 
Exchange facilities. 



Supply Corps officers serve in varying 
duty assignments, ranging from supply officer 
aboard a destroyer to Commander of the Naval 
Supply Systems Command. (The Commander of 
the Naval Supply Systems Command is a rear 
admiral who also serves as the Chief of the Supply 
Corps.) The Naval Supply Systems Command is 
responsible for overall management of the Supply 
Corps ashore and afloat. Disbursing and certain 
other comptroller billets to which Supply Corps 
officers may be assigned are under the manage- 
ment of the Navy. 

Afloat supply officers manage the procure- 
ment, receipt, custody, stowage, and expenditure 
of material for ship's use as well as food service 
and ship's store operations. They maintain stock 
records and inventory control and supervise 
payment of the crew. Ashore billets manage 
requisitioning and local procurement, contract 
purchasing, and material inspection and receipt. 
They are in charge of stock management at field 
supply points, supply systems management, 
stowage and materials handling, and financial 
management. 

Current Corps strength is about 4,500 officers, 
50 percent of whom serve afloat and overseas. The 
Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps program 
serves as the main source of Supply Corps officer 
input. The Naval Academy, Officer Candidate 
School, the Limited Duty Officer Program, and 
line officer transfers also supply the corps with 
officers. While not officially members of the 
Supply Corps, about 300 chief warrant officers 
serve in the technical specialty of supply clerk. 
Supply clerks are assigned to Supply Corps billets 
both afloat and ashore. 

Newly commissioned Supply Corps officers, 
including line transferees and newly appointed 
chief warrant supply clerks, are sent to the Navy 
Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia. They 
receive 26 weeks of intensive training in Basic 
Supply Management and instruction in a wide 
range of sophisticated management techniques, 
including automatic data processing. Upon com- 
pleting the course, most corps officers receive 
assignments to afloat billets followed by tours 
ashore in the continental United States (CONUS) 
and overseas. By their third tour, typical Supply 
Corps officers are expected to develop a func- 
tional proficiency in one field. The field may be 
clothing and textiles, financial management, fuel 
distribution, merchandising, procurement, 
subsistence technology, system inventory 
management, or transportation management. 



13-4 



Courses in Navy Exchange Management (6 
weeks) and Commissary Store Management (4 
weeks) are conducted several times yearly at 
the Navy Resale and Services Supply Office, 
Brooklyn, New York. A 6-month course in 
Transportation Management conducted at the 
Naval Supply Center, Oakland, California, covers 
material on terminal operations and stevedoring, 
traffic management, and warehousing. Supply 
Corps officers may also attend other courses of 
varying length conducted at both miUtary and 
civilian facilities. Course subjects may range from 
petroleum storage to computer systems. 

Development of a functional proficiency in no 
way detracts from the overall opportunity of 
supply officers to upgrade their professional 
qualifications as a naval officer. Each year 
approximately 100 Supply Corps officers are 
selected for postgraduate training at military and 
civilian institutions, some at the doctorate level. 
Studies range from logistics and management 
sciences to law and personnel administration. 
Long-range plans for Supply Corps officers 
involve their service as technoeconomists skilled 
in the mathematical sciences, analytical methods, 
and behavioral sciences essential to future Navy 
operations. 



BUREAU F MEDICINE AND 
SURGL ^,Y (BUMED) 

The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery 
(BUMED) directs the worldwide medical and 
dental services and facilities maintained by the 
Department of the Navy. The mission of BUMED 
within the national defense structure of the United 
States is to safeguard the health of Navy and 
Marine Corps personnel in the following areas: 

• Care and treatment of sick and injured 
members of the naval service and their 
dependents 

• Training programs for BUMED personnel 

• Continuing programs of medical and 
dental research 

• Prevention and control of diseases and 
injuries 

• Promotion of physical fitness of members 
in the naval service 



• Care for on-the-job injuries and illnesses 
of civilian employees 

• Supervision of the care and preparation for 
shipment and interment of deceased 
military members and of civilian personnel 
for whom the Navy is responsible 

BUMED is headed by the Surgeon General of 
the Navy, who serves as Chief of BUMED. The 
Chief of BUMED promotes quality health care 
for the patient and professional responsibility for 
the patient's well being. BUMED performs budget 
formulation; provides manpower, facilities, and 
material; establishes clinical standards; and 
assures total quality management. 

The first naval hospital was opened in 
Portsmouth, Virginia, in 1830. In its earliest days, 
the hospital was limited to a medical staff of five 
men and very little equipment. The steady 
progress made in the naval hospitalization system 
since 1830 has kept pace with the rapid strides 
made in civilian hospital services and medical 
education. Today, the Navy operates over 30 
hospitals in the United States (4 of which are 
teaching hospitals) and over 100 medical clinics. 

A naval hospital provides relatively full 
diagnostic and therapeutic services together with 
bed care, nursing, and dietetic services. Because 
accessibility and capacity to serve the operating 
forces are prime site considerations, most 
hospitals are located along the coastal states. 
Station hospitals can offer extended care to 
patients, but they are smaller and more limited 
in scope. A medical center provides temporary 
in-patient treatment for those personnel with a 
favorable prognosis for early release. A clinic is 
designed mainly to provide examination and 
treatment for ambulatory patients and first aid 
for emergency cases. 

Aboard ship, the scope of medical facilities 
depends upon the complement of medical per- 
sonnel, available space and equipment, capability 
of the staff, and mission of the ship. Facilities thus 
range from the scantily furnished sick bay of a 
destroyer to one that is fully equipped aboard a 
carrier. Personnel assigned vary from 2 hospital 
corpsmen on a destroyer (the senior corpsman 
being specially trained for independent duty) to 
perhaps 40 or 50 officers and hospital corpsmen 
on aircraft carriers. 

To meet the demand of Navy health care, over 
3,900 physicians, 3,100 nurses, and 2,600 Medical 
Service Corps officers serve in the Navy. Other 
personnel who provide medical assistance include 



13-5 



dentists, physician's assistants, hospital corpsmen, 
and dental technicians, as well as a large number 
of civilians. 



THE CHAPLAIN CORPS 

The Constitution of the United States guar- 
antees "free exercise of religion" to all its citizens. 
However, military personnel often find themselves 
stationed far from their traditional religious 
communities. Therefore, Congress authorized the 
establishment of the Navy Chaplain Corps to 
provide for the religious needs of personnel of the 
Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Com- 
manding officers have the responsibility to ensure 
this constitutional right for each person in their 
command. Navy chaplains are accountable to 
their commanding officers for the pastoral care 
of personnel of all faiths. 

Though commissioned as an officer, the 
chaplain is first ordained as a member of the 
clergy in one of the religious bodies of the country. 
The wearing of the naval uniform is beUeved to 
enhance the chaplain's effectiveness in ministering 
within and to the military organization. The 
uniform, itself, indicates the chaplain's 
responsibility to the naval service and the Nation. 
The insignia worn, the Cross or the Tablets of the 
Law, identifies a person as a chaplain. It also 
emphasizes the chaplain's responsibility to church 
and spiritual values. 

Standards for appointment as a chaplain are 
high. Each appointee must be physically qualified. 
Each must have completed at least 120 semester 
hours of undergraduate study in an accredited 
college or university and a minimum of 90 
semester hours in an approved theological school. 
Before the appointment can be made, the chaplain 
must be duly ordained and provided with an 
ecclesiastical endorsement by his or her own 
church. 

As religious leaders, chaplains advise the 
commanding officer on all matters pertaining to 
the moral, spiritual, and religious welfare of 
Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard personnel. 
Chaplains always conduct divine services 
according to the customs, traditions, and 
regulations of their own church. Frequently called 
upon to provide religious services for those of 
other faiths, however, they must minister to the 
needs of people of all faiths. Their responsibilities 
include inviting appropriate clergy aboard, 
training lay readers, and providing proper 
material and ecclesiastical support. Each chaplain 



should use ideas, techniques, and methods that 
will help all command personnel grow spiritually 
and develop good character. 

Navy chaplains have long upheld the tradition 
of ensuring free exercise of religion by providing 
moral and spiritual support and guidance. Often 
chaplains devote the bulk of their efforts to 
pastoral care and pastoral counseling. In giving 
pastoral care, chaplains try to reflect the heart of 
God in their actions. They serve as agents through 
which God imparts healing, spiritual renewal, 
and unconditional love. In pastoral counsehng, 
chaplains help personnel resolve domestic 
problems as well as personal issues and crises. In 
addition, chaplains conduct regular worship 
services; provide religious educational opportuni- 
ties; and perform baptisms, confirmations, 
marriages, and other sacraments and ordinances. 

Chaplains serve at sea on a normal rotational 
basis. Some are assigned directly to ships' 
companies. Others become "circuit riders" who 
meet the needs of those on small ships and stations 
or at widely dispersed units. For example, a 
chaplain assigned to minister to destroyer 
personnel will serve many ships operating over 
great distances. Over 50 percent of the Navy 
chaplains are assigned to sea or overseas billets. 
In addition. Navy chaplains serve major tactical 
and support units of the U.S. Marine Corps. 
Approximately 20 percent of the total number of 
active-duty chaplains are attached to Marine 
Corps units at any given time. Ashore, three or 
more chaplains may be assigned to larger Navy, 
Marine Corps, and Coast Guard stations. Many 
of these stations have well-equipped chapels and 
educational facilities (fig. 13-2). 

Chaplains serve in commissioned grades from 
lieutenant (junior grade) through captain. Their 
promotions are based on the same precepts and 
regulations governing all other naval officer 
promotions. The Chaplain Corps is directed by 
the Chief of Chaplains, a rear admiral. 

JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S 
CORPS 

The American Fleet was authorized in 1775, 
and the Department of the Navy was established 
by an act of Congress in 1798. However, the Navy 
had no official legal counsel until well into the 
19th century. 

In 1864, because of contract frauds arising 
under Civil War naval programs, Secretary of the 
Navy Gideon Welles created the position of 
SoHcitor for the Navy Department. The quickly 



13-6 




134.50 

Figure 13-2.— On the naval base at Norfolk, Virginia, are the chapels of three faiths under one roof. To the left is the Protestant 
chapel; to the right, the Catholic chapel; and connecting the two, the Jewish chapel. 



proven value of the Solicitor's function moved 
Secretary Welles to request legislative ratification 
of the new legal office. By the act of 2 March 
1865, Congress established the Office of Solicitor 
and Naval Judge Advocate. 

The act of Congress on 8 June 1880 estab- 
hshed the Office of the Judge Advocate General 
of the Navy as we know it today. This legislation 
placed upon the Judge Advocate General the duty 
to "receive, revise, and have recorded the 
proceedings of all courts-martial, courts of 
inquiry, and boards for the examination of 
officers for retirement and promotion in the naval 
service, and to perform such other duties as have 
heretofore been performed by the Solicitor and 
Naval Judge Advocate General." The Judge 
Advocate General was given cognizance over all 
legal matters, of whatever kind, that affected the 
interest of the Navy. 

Before World War II, Navy lawyers were 
usually line officers with legal training. Their tours 
of legal duty, usually in the Office of the Judge 
Advocate General, alternated with tours of line 
duty at sea. During the war, many lawyers served 



in both line and legal functions throughout the 
world. 

The idea of organizing the Navy's uniformed 
lawyers into a distinctive professional group 
performing only legal functions was first 
considered a number of years ago. In 1945 the 
Secretary of the Navy convened the McGuire 
Committee, chaired by Matthew F. McGuire, a 
prominent civilian lawyer. The committee 
examined court-martial procedures under the 
Articles for the Government of the Navy. The 
committee's November 1945 report to the 
Secretary formally recommended the estabhsh- 
ment of a Judge Advocate General's Corps in 
which officers would perform legal duties only. 

The recommendation of the McGuire Com- 
mittee prompted Secretary of the Navy James V. 
Forrestal to appoint a board to look further into 
the question. Headed by Arthur A. Ballantine of 
the New York Bar, the board finished its report 
in April 1946. The report concluded that World 
War II had proven beyond all question the need 
for a large number of lawyers to perform legal 
duties on a continuous basis. However, it 



13-7 



recommended the creation of a "law specialist" 
category in the restricted line. The report 
concluded that this category would benefit the 
Navy more than the creation of a JAG corps. 
Authorized to procure 300 lawyers in June 
1946, the Navy began the Law Specialist Pro- 
gram. 

Until late 1967 many unsuccessful attempts to 
establish a JAG Corps were made. At that time 
a subcommittee of the House Armed Services 
Committee scheduled a hearing on provisions for 
the establishment of a JAG Corps in the Navy. 
The Judge Advocate General of the Navy pre- 
sented convincing testimony at the hearing. His 
testimony showed that membership in a legal 
corps would give the Navy lawyer a sense of 
professional identity and provide a potent career 
incentive. 

The proposed legislation made the full course 
from subcommittee hearings through a receptive 
Congress to final passage within a little more than 
2 months. On 8 December 1967 President Johnson 
signed Public Law 90-179, which estabUshed the 
JAG Corps as a staff corps of the Navy. 

Military justice is only one of the many areas 
of responsibility handled by Navy lawyers. Judge 
advocates provide legal advice in the fields of 
international law, admiralty, administrative law, 
claims litigation, and investigations. They also 
provide legal services to service members and their 
dependents in areas such as taxation, promotions, 
and retirement. 

Activity in these fields and in military justice 
is constantly expanding and changing. The largest 
change, concerning expanded rights to military 
people, occurred with passage of the Military 
Justice Act of 1968. This act expanded the rights 
of the accused to receive legal counsel before 
special courts-martial. It also inaugurated the use 
of military judges to preside over special courts- 
martial. 

JAG Corps members serve in the offices of 
the Secretary of Defense; Secretary of the 
Navy; Chief of Naval Operations; and the Chief 
of Naval Personnel. Other offices in which they 
serve include the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 
Chief of Naval Research, Comptroller of the 
Navy, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

Additionally, Judge advocates are assigned to 
the staffs of the Navy's various area coordinators 
to handle legal work generated within that area. 
Locally, they serve on the staffs of fleet, force, 
and type commanders and at many naval bases, 
stations, and schools. 



Since 1969 the JAG Corps has been organized 
into four basic components: the Office of the 
Judge Advocate General, staff and activity judge 
advocates, law centers, and a training component. 
Under that organizational structure, the corps 
experienced problems in personnel distribution, 
uniformity of funding and support, and stan- 
dardization of operations. These problems 
impeded the corps' efforts to give the best service 
it could provide. 

Following an extensive study of the problems, 
the Naval Legal Service was estabhshed in 1973. 
Its mission was to control the legal services 
program and provide command direction for all 
Naval Legal Service activities and resources 
assigned. It was also to perform other functions 
or tasks related to the Naval Legal Service as 
directed by the Chief of Naval Operations. 
Headquartered in Washington, the Naval Legal 
Service was authorized 18 offices and 15 branch 
offices throughout the world. 

Technically, Naval Legal Service offices serve 
as legal service centers in areas that have a major 
concentration of naval activities. Within the limits 
of strength authorizations, these offices provide 
a full array of legal services to commands that 
have no judge advocate assigned. A primary 
purpose of the establishment of the Naval Legal 
Service was to bring all trial and defense counsels 
under the direct authority of the Judge Advocate 
General. This step made the Naval Legal Service 
independent of court-martial convening 
authorities. 

Even though it is a relatively new organization, 
the Navy JAG Corps continues to expand. The 
passage of legislation by Congress and the 
increased need for legal services by Navy members 
result in increased responsibilities for the JAG 
Corps. 



SECURITY 

Although not in the same vein as some of the 
supporting elements previously discussed, the 
Navy's Security program helps to prevent the 
disclosure of sensitive information. It deserves 
careful attention by all naval personnel. 
^> The word security, like many other words, 
has several meanings. Expressed simply, for naval 
purposes, SECURITY = PROTECTING CLAS- 
SIFIED INFORMATION. Security requires 
active Navy support of Presidential Executive 
Order 12356 governing classifying and safe- 
guarding national security information. 



13-8 



Classified information takes several forms. It 
includes paper documents, automatic data pro- 
cessing (ADP) storage media, telephone con- 
versations, microforms, circuit boards in 
equipment, and hardware configuration briefing 
charts. Regardless of the form, however, the 
President directs that official information shall 
be classified if its unauthorized disclosure can 
reasonably be expected to cause damage to the 
national security. 

The Navy's objective of protecting classified 
information requires several actions. Of these 
actions, the following are some of the most 
important: 

• Clearing military and civilian personnel for 
access to classified information (personnel 
security) 

• Ensuring that people know security rules 
(security education and training) 

• Identifying what specific information must 
be classified (classification management) 

• Notifying users how to protect classified 
information (marking) 

• Keeping track of classified information 
(accounting and control) 

• Preventing unauthorized access to 
classified information (physical security) 

• Providing a secure environment for 
electronic processing of classified informa- 
tion and data (ADP security) 

Information that requires protection in the 
interest of national security is classified into three 
categories. These categories, in descending order 
of importance, are Top Secret, Secret, or 
Confidential. A Top Secret classification is 
applied to information that, after unauthorized 
disclosure, could be expected to cause excep- 
tionally grave damage to the national security. 
Secret applies to information that could cause 
serious damage to the national security. Confi- 
dential applies to that which could cause 
identifiable damage. 

Official information and data generated and 
used by the Navy are released to the public in large 
quantities. Classified Navy information, however, 
must undergo careful screening to be declassified 
or to have sensitive portions removed before it 



can be considered for such release. The President 
has determined that designated Navy officials may 
classify information only if it falls under one of 
10 categories: 

1. Military plans, weapons, or operations 
(e.g.. Navy plans to help rescue U.S. 
citizens captured by terrorists) 

2. Vulnerabilities or capabilities of systems, 
installations, projects, or plans relating to 
the national security (e.g., the range of a 
new missile) 

3. Foreign government information (e.g., 
Canadian secrets shared with the United 
States with the understanding that they 
will be protected) 

4. Intelligence activities (including special 
activities) or intelligence sources or 
methods (e.g., explanation of classified 
satellite photographs of Soviet weapons) 

5. Foreign relations or foreign activities of 
the United States (e.g., U.S. policy for 
dealing with Soviet requests to purchase 
grain while arms negotiations are under 
way) 

6. Scientific, technological, or economic 
matters relating to the national security 
(e.g., research on certain aspects of the 
strategic defense initiative) 

7. United States government programs for 
safeguarding nuclear materials or facilities 
(e.g., not revealing information as to 
whether or not a ship is carrying nuclear 
weapons when it visits foreign ports) 

8. Cryptology (e.g., machines and systems 
for protecting United States communica- 
tions from being compromised) 

9. Confidential source (e.g., names of 
foreign newsmen who give us secret Soviet 
plans for the evacuation of Afghanistan) 

10. Other information related to the national 
security that requires protection against 
unauthorized disclosure as determined by 
a Navy original classification authority 

Foreign espionage against the United States 
is a serious and growing concern of the Secretary 
of the Navy, the Chief of Naval Operations, and 
the Commandant of the Marine Corps. Combatt- 
ing it requires informed, constant, and alert 
attention to procedures for safeguarding classified 
information by the active cooperation of every 
member of the Navy. The agents of hostile 
governments and terrorists groups have amply 
demonstrated their danger to the security and 



13-9 



future of the United States. In recent years, 
however, disaffected U.S. citizens entrusted with 
classified information, including naval personnel, 
have caused exceptionally grave damage to our 
country. Several Navy officers and chief petty 
officers. Navy and Marine Corps noncommis- 
sioned officers, and civilians have willfully and 
deliberately sold secrets to foreign governments 
for personal financial gain. Since 1985, the so- 
called "Year of the Spy," United States 
counterintelligence has identified, prosecuted, and 
convicted several active-duty and retired personnel 
for espionage. These espionage activities have 
included the following acts of betrayal: 

• Information sold to the Soviet Union by 
a recent family network of spies provided the 
Soviets with U.S. Navy communications and 
antisubmarine operational tactics. Subsequently, 
the Soviets arranged to obtain, through a foreign 
manufacturer, restricted-technology milling 
equipment needed to develop more silent sub- 
marine propellers. Consequently, Soviet sub- 
marines have the technical capability to reduce 
their noise under water, which makes them harder 
to detect and locate. 

• A U.S. Navy ship discovered that over 100 
classified documents were missing. It then 
submitted a report to the Chief of Naval 
Operations (CNO) concluding that the documents 
were probably destroyed by accident without 
being compromised. Copies of two of the 
documents were later found among the 15 pounds 
of classified material taken by a young sailor. The 
sailor had planned to pass them to his father, a 
Soviet spy for almost two decades. Father and son 
were sent to prison. 

• A second class petty officer, with a security 
clearance, telephoned the Soviet embassy in 
Washington, D.C., and offered to sell classified 
information for $1,500. Following his conviction, 
he told a Navy counterintelligence official that he 
did this for the money. 

• An active-duty chief petty officer took 
classified information home as personal study 
material. He was apprehended and charged with 
possible espionage. 

• A Marine Corps deserter, living overseas 
on the charity of others, told an elaborate — but 
untrue — story. He claimed he worked for a Soviet 
KGB agent as a spy against the United States. 



After his arrest, the marine admitted to the Naval 
Investigative Service that he made up the entire 
story because he enjoyed the glamour of being 
considered a spy. 

• A Navy ensign was arrested after he mailed 
a classified electronic warfare document and two 
microfilm indices of key code words to a foreign 
embassy in Washington, D.C. The embassy, 
fortunately one from a friendly government, 
turned the material over to U.S. authorities along 
with the ensign's request for payment of $50,000. 
Court testimony revealed that he wanted to sell 
the material to raise money for his girl friend in 
another foreign country. 

• A Marine Corps private first class who 
deserted his guard post at a Marine weapons 
compound turned up at the Soviet embassy in 
Washington, D.C. The marine offered to sell 
unspecified military information for $500 to 
$1,000. 

The United States loses thousands of pieces 
of classified information each year, apparently 
without a trace. A simple explanation may be that 
too many people in the Navy and Marine Corps 
do not follow instructions or that they ignore 
regulations. Some of them may be disloyal citizens 
who pose a real or potential threat to the national 
defense. Regardless of the reason or motivation, 
they all make the foreign espionage agent's job 
easier. We may never know the full national 
security significance of many of these losses 
because we have not been effectively controlling 
or accounting for all classified information. Each 
member of the Navy must become a full partner 
in the costly, but necessary, efforts to keep better 
track of vital classified documents and equipment. 
Only by all hands working together can we guard 
our personal safety, protect the national security, 
and ensure the future of the United States of 
America. 



NAVAL INTELLIGENCE 

Intelligence, properly performed, can provide 
a'1'oreknowledge of important information for 
both government and military leaders. It helps our 
leaders reach sound decisions that are vital to the 
security of a nation as well as to success in 
combat. It can reduce the possibility of surprise, 
evaluate enemy potential, and predict enemy areas 
of operation. 



13-10 



The misconception of intelligence as a mysteri- 
ous, glamorous, and hazardous undertaking has 
been derived principally from two sources. The 
first has been its "cloak and dagger" treatment 
in popular literature; the second has been the 
natural reluctance of governments to disclose the 
inner workings of their intelligence organizations. 
Because of the critical nature of intelligence work, 
governments have surrounded this activity with 
the strictest of security regulations. Thus a void 
has been created in the pubhc's image of 
intelligence work that has been filled by fictional 
versions. 

While intelligence work does have its exciting 
moments, properly understood it is very similar 
to any other military staff function. Generally, 
it is knowledge upon which a course of action may 
be safely based. In its entirety, it is a vast and 
complex grouping of information covering a wide 
range of subjects. It includes closely interrelated 
subjects such as geography, transportation, tele- 
communications, sociological factors, political 
conditions, economic conditions, armed forces, 
technical developments, and biographical data. 
Intelligence workers can make a valid "estimate 
of a situation" only by considering each in its 
relation to the others. 

Since intelligence activities have three basic 
purposes, they are divided into three functional 
segments: strategic intelligence, operational 
intelligence, and counterintelligence. 

Strategic intelligence is used mainly by top 
echelons of command and top-level leaders in 
government as the basis for national planning and 
policy. That is, they use it in reaching broad 
decisions affecting the long-range security and 
welfare of a nation. 

Operational intelligence helps the local 
commander decide what personnel and material 
to use against an adversary. Local commanders 
may use some of the strategic intelligence 
information for operational purposes. However, 
when executing a planned mission, local 
commanders require much more detail than 
strategic (long-range) planners. 

CounterinteUigence is designed to destroy the 
effectiveness of the intelligence efforts of foreign 
nations. For a nation to actively collect foreign 
intelligence about actual or potential enemies is 
not enough. A nation must also protect its own 
intelligence information from the prying eyes of 
other powers. Foreign intelligence is actively at 
work. 

The term Naval Intelligence, when capitalized, 
refers to the organization, under the Commander, 



Naval Intelligence Command, responsible for 
carrying out the intelligence mission of the Navy. 
When not capitalized, the term naval intelligence 
refers to the material obtained, processed, and 
dispersed to appropriate naval authority. 

A distinction exists between information and 
intelligence. Information is the raw material and 
intelligence is the finished product. Information 
becomes intelligence after it is evaluated. 

In the United States Navy, the Chief of Naval 
Operations (CNO) supervises the intelligence 
function while the Director of Naval Intelligence 
(DNI) directs the total effort. The DNI carries out 
the responsibilities of the CNO regarding 
intelligence, cryptology, and security matters. The 
DNI is the principal staff adviser to the Secretary 
of the Navy and the CNO concerning plans, 
programming, and policy matters involving naval 
intelligence. The DNI also assists and advises the 
CNO in exercising command over the Naval 
Intelligence Command, the Naval Investigative 
Service, and the Naval Security Group Command. 

The Office of Naval Intelligence maintains a 
relatively small staff to guide and support the 
functions of its headquarters. The Commander, 
Naval Intelligence Command (COMNAVINT- 
COM), controls the major portion of the func- 
tions of program management and intelligence 
collection, production, and dissemination. 
COMNAVINTCOM also serves as the Deputy 
Director of Naval Intelligence (DDNI) for 
Intelligence Production (OP-092D). The mission 
of COMNAVINTCOM is to ensure the Depart- 
ment of the Navy fulfills its security and 
intelligence requirements and responsibilities. 



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

Because of the personnel, money, and 
materials involved, the research and development 
effort in the Department of Defense (DOD) and 
its military branches is big business. The scientific 
and military strength of the United States depends 
heavily on the success of a comprehensive research 
program. 

DOD manages the research and development 
of all major military hardware/weapons systems. 
To a lesser degree, it manages scientific study in 
fields related to long-term national security needs. 
Fields of study include the engineering, environ- 
mental, biological-medical, and behavioral social 
sciences. DOD currently authorizes about $40 
billion for research, development, test, and 
evaluation (RDT&E). 



13-11 



At the top of the Navy RDT&E organization, 
the Secretary of the Navy exerts poHcy control. 
The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, 
Engineering, and Systems (ASN/RE&S) is re- 
sponsible to SECNAV for management and 
control of Navy RDT&E matters, including 
monetary appropriations. 

The Chief of Naval Research, who heads the 
Office of the Chief of Naval Research (OCNR), 
is a principal adviser to the ASN/RE&S. The 
OCNR consists of two offices: the Office of 
Naval Research (ONR) and the Office of Naval 
Technology (ONT). Responsible for the basic 
research programs of the Navy, ONR manages 
the Navy's research laboratories and ONT 
conducts the Navy's Exploratory Development 
Program. 

The scope of the Navy's research programs is 
as broad as the Navy's working environment — 
from the deep ocean floor to outer space. Current 
and continuing long-range programs include the 
research of oceanography, space, advanced 
electronics and superconductivity, neural network 
computers, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, 
ship and aircraft design, and weapons design. 
Although this list could go on and on, it should 
give you some idea about the scope of the 
program. 



NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY 

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) at 
Washington, D.C., is considered to be the Navy's 
corporate laboratory. NRL facilities include more 
than 130 buildings on 129 acres of land. In their 
pursuit of new knowledge for the Navy and the 
Nation, NRL scientists use more than 15 field 
sites. 



OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 

The Navy has conducted oceanographic re- 
search since about 1946. Over the years, as the 
importance of this field of endeavor has grown, 
many segments of the government and the 
scientific community have become directly 
involved. Today, many federal agencies are 
involved in the Nation's oceanographic program. 
The oceanographer of the Navy coordinates the 
overall program and acts as the Navy's spokes- 
person on oceanography with other federal, 
national, and international organizations. 



SHIPBUILDING 

Shipbuilding begins with the ship design 
process. Four phases make up this process: 
feasibility studies, preliminary design, contract 
design, and detail design and construction. The 
process starts with a requirement for a new ship. 
This requirement could be for a guided-missile 
destroyer, a mine-hunting ship, an amphibious 
assault ship, or a combat logistics support ship. 
Feasibility studies provide alternative designs that 
meet the requirement. The selected alternative 
design is developed into the ship preliminary 
design. The contract design phase defines the ship 
performance and contractual terms so that the 
prospective shipbuilders can establish the cost of, 
and schedule for, ship construction. The ship- 
builder develops the detail design used to build 
the ship. 

The research, development, test, and evalua- 
tion program promotes the development of more 
capable and survivable ships at a reduced cost and 
with reduced manning. That is accomplished by 
the integration of new and emerging technologies 
with projected ship requirements. Test and 
evaluation of new projects take place in 
laboratories, at land-based test sites, and aboard 
ships. The David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research 
and Development Center at Bethesda, Maryland, 
conducts the research, development, test, and 
evaluation of many hull, propulsion, electrical, 
auxiliary, and environmental protection systems. 

SURFACE WEAPONS AND 
WEAPONS SYSTEMS 

The focal point for development of naval 
surface warfare weapons systems, research in 
ordnance technology, and support of naval 
strategic systems is the Naval Surface Warfare 
Center (NSWC). The management, technical 
programs, and resources of the Naval Ordnance 
Laboratory, White Oak, Maryland, and the Naval 
Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia, com- 
bined to form this center in 1974. 

Some of the center's current programs are in 
the areas of surface- and air-launched missiles, 
fuzing, nuclear weapons effects, high-energy laser 
engineering, antiship missile defense, aerodynamic 
and hydrodynamic research, geobaUistics, astron- 
autics, and geodesy. Other capabilities include 
development of gun systems, torpedoes, mines, 
and advanced strategic weapons concepts. 

Research and development activities in the 
weapons explosive area include the Naval 



13-12 



Explosives Development Engineering Department 
(NEDED) at the Naval Weapons Station, 
Yorktown, Virginia, and the Naval Ordnance 
Station at Indian Head, Maryland. 

UNDERWATER WEAPONS AND 
UNDERWATER WEAPONS SYSTEMS 

The Navy's main research, development, test, 
and evaluation activity for underwater combat 
systems is the Naval Underwater Systems Center 
(NUSC) at Newport, Rhode Island. NUSC is 
committed to a diversity of complex technological 
research programs concerning command and 
control systems, underwater weapons and targets, 
weapons launchers and tubes, underwater track- 
ing ranges, sonar, surveillance, ocean engineering, 
and fleet readiness. In addition to its Newport 
facilities, NUSC has a major research and 
development laboratory complex at New London, 
Connecticut. 

NUSC is tasked to perform research and 
development of torpedo-type weapons. However, 
the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station 
(NUWES) at Keyport, Washington, also conducts 
some research and development and considerable 
testing and evaluation of torpedoes. In addition, 
NUWES, Keyport, serves as the sole proofing 
activity for production torpedoes. Proofing 
includes a series of tests that a sample of 
production torpedoes must pass before the 
torpedoes are accepted and delivered to the fleet. 

NAVAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS 

The principal field activity for the design and 
cradle-to-grave management of the aircraft system 
is the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) at 
Warminster, Pennsylvania. The center conducts 
research, development, test, and evaluation of, 
and life cycle support for, major naval aircraft 
systems. NADC was established in 1944. Its 
capabiHties were expanded substantially in 1973 
when the Naval Navigation Laboratory (NNL), 
formerly the Naval Strategic Systems Naviga- 
tion Facility, was incorporated under NADC. 
Approximately 60 percent of the research and 
development at NNL deals with navigation for 
surface ships and submarines. The other 40 
percent is concentrated on airborne navigational 
systems. NNL's current and ongoing research and 
development projects include ring laser gyro 
technology, the global positioning system, and the 
joint tactical information distribution system. 



SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL 
PROTECTION 

Wearing the right protective equipment is the 
best way for personnel to prevent injuries. 
Protective equipment protects personnel from 
weapons effects in hostile actions; from fire, 
smoke, and toxic effects in peacetime accidents; 
and from hazardous and environmental effects 
in the day-to-day workplace. Since the crew must 
be able to function under all three of these 
environmental conditions, wearing protective 
equipment hmits their exposure. 

The following are some items of protective 
equipment that have been, or are being, 
developed: 

• The naval battle helmet, the ballistic face 
shield, the naval flak vest, and laser eye protection 
for wear during hostile actions 

• The fire fighter's helmet, antiflash and 
antiexposure clothing, fire-retardant working 
clothing, and fire fighter's breathing apparatus 
for protection in peacetime accidents 

• The auto-inflatable utility life preserver 
and improved clothing for both cold weather and 
hazardous material handling for protection 
against the hazardous and environmental effects 
in the workplace 



SUMMARY 

All the supporting elements of the Navy 
discussed in this chapter share a common 
thread — they all work to provide support to Navy 
personnel and programs. 

The Civil Engineer Corps oversees the 
construction of our bases and facilities. The 
Supply Corps provides parts, equipment, and 
food and disburses our pay and allowances. 
BUMED strives to keep us healthy or return us 
to health if we are ill or injured. The Chaplain 
Corps attends to our spiritual and moral needs. 
The Judge Advocate General's Corps helps us 
with our legal problems. The Naval Security 
Program helps to prevent the unauthorized 
disclosure of our vital information. Naval 
Intelligence provides us with information about 
potential threats or enemies. And last but not 
least, the Research and Development Program of 
the Navy continues to develop and improve our 
equipment. 



13-13 



Without the services provided by these 
members of the Navy team, we would not be 
able to accomplish the mission of the Navy. 
Although it is the motto of the Supply Corps, 
"Service to the fleet" applies to all of these 
elements. 



REFERENCES 

"Medical Department Reorganization," Navy 
Medicine 80, no. 4 (July - August 1989): 8-9. 

Navy Fact File, 8th ed., Office of Information, 
Washington, D.C, 1988. 



SCUTTLEBUTT 



THE 


ORIGIN 


LANCE FOR A R 


A HOLE 


IN THE 


CASK OR HOGSH 


ING WATER; TH 


IN IT. 


"SCUT 


TO THE 


SHIP, 


CASK WHERE ME 


RUMORS 


GET ST 


INTELLIGENCE" 


COURSE 


, START 



OF THE WORD "SCUTTLEBUTT," WHICH IS NAUTICAL PAR- 
UMOR, COMES FROM A COMBINATION OF "SCUTTLE," TO MAKl 

SHIP'S SIDE CAUSING HER TO SINK, AND "BUTT," A 
EAD USED IN THE DAYS OF WOODEN SHIPS TO HOLD DRINK- 
US THE TERM "SCUTTLEBUTT" MEANS A CASK WITH A HOLE 
TLE" DESCRIBES WHAT MOST RUMORS ACCOMPLISH, IF NOT 
AT LEAST TO MORALE. "BUTT" DESCRIBES THE WATER 
N NATURALLY CONGREGATED, AND THAT'S WHERE MOST 
ARTED. THE TERMS "GALLEY YARN" AND "MESS DECK 

ALSO MEAN THE SPREADING OF RUMORS AND MANY, OF 

ON THE MESS DECK. 







13-14 



CHAPTER 14 



UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Describe how tradition impacts on the Marine 
Corps. 

2. Identify the primary functions of the Marine 
Corps. 

3. Identify the organizational structure of the 
Marine Corps. 



4. Identify the major equipment used by the 
Marine Corps. 

5. Identify the procurement sources for Marine 
Corps officers. 

6. Describe the professional training available to 
Marine Corps officers. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

10 Nov. 1775 Continental Marines (now the 
Marine Corps) are established. 

23 Feb. 1945 The American flag is raised by 
Marines atop Mount Suribachi 
on Iwo Jima. 

8 Mar. 1965 Marines land at Da Nang, 
South Vietnam. 

23 Oct. 1983 A terrorist bomb explodes in 
Beirut, Lebanon, killing 241 
marines. 

Fighting men have been assigned to ships since 
the time of the Phoenicians, about five centuries 
before the Christian Era. The Greeks and Romans 
followed this practice, and later the British. 
Eventually, as the United States Navy started to 
develop, the practice continued with marines also 
being assigned to ships. 

Our Marines have played a vital part in our 
nation's history, especially in times of armed 
conflict. First called the Continental Marines, they 
fought in the American Revolution. Later called 
the United States Marines, they have fought in 
World Wars and armed conflicts throughout the 



world. The United States Marine Corps has 
always been in battle when the United States has 
been engaged in armed conflict and is still ready 
to enter battle today. Although our ships no 
longer pull alongside an enemy vessel to send men 
over the side, today's marine is still required to 
be prepared for hand-to-hand combat. 

Since 1975, Marine combat forces have 
participated in several operations in support of 
U.S. national policy. On 29 September 1982, 
following Israel's invasion of Lebanon, the U.S. 
Marines landed at Beirut, Lebanon. As part of 
a multinational force, the Marine Corps' mission 
was to oversee the evacuation of Palestinians. On 
23 October 1983 a lone terrorist drove an 
explosive-laden truck into the headquarters of 
Battalion Landing Team (BLT) 1/8 at Beirut 
International Airport killing 241 marines and 
sailors. More marines died on that day than on 
any other since World War II. 

Two days later, on 25 October, the Marines 
landed on the Caribbean island of Grenada. On 
this mission Marine forces were to rescue U.S. 
students who had become endangered when a 
communist-led coup overthrew the Grenadian 
government. A combined force of Marines, Army 
Rangers, and elements of the 82nd Airborne 
Division rescued 662 U.S. citizens. They also 



14-1 



halted Communist expansion in the Caribbean — 
the first U.S. victory ever over a Marxist state. 
Battle, success, and victory have become a 
tradition for the United States Marine Corps. 



MARINE CORPS TRADITION 

The U.S. Marine Corps, perhaps to a greater 
degree than any other military service, shows the 
power of pride in tradition to unify and motivate 
a fighting force. Almost as soon as they become 
members of the organization, marines learn that 
traditions are as much a part of their equipment 
as their pack or rifle. These traditions have 
been growing since the Continental Marines were 
organized on 10 November 1775, the birth date 
of the Corps. Marine Corps tradition has many 
phases: discipHne, devotion to duty, leadership, 
loyalty, self-sacrifice, versatility, and pride in a 
job well done (fig. 14-1). Reflections of Marine 



Corps tradition are found in the uniform, the 
insignia, the words of the "Marines' Hymn," and 
in their nicknames they have earned through the 
years. 

The familiar emblem of the U.S. Marine 
Corps— the eagle, globe, and anchor (fig. 14-2) — 
was officially adopted in 1868. It symbolizes 
worldwide service in a seagoing force — the 
"soldiers of the sea." The spread eagle holds in 
its beak streamers that bear the Marine Corps 
motto. Semper Fidelis (Always Faithful), 
officially adopted in 1883. 

The "Marines' Hymn" originated from a 
verse written by an unknown marine during the 
Mexican War. This verse, "From the Halls of 
Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli," became the 
first verse of the hymn (fig. 14-3). 

The Marine Corps march, "Semper Fidelis," 
was composed in 1888 by John Philip Sousa, at 
that time leader of the Marine Band. The band 
played for the first presidential inauguration in 




134.51 

Figure 14-1. — The marines of Marine Barracl<s 8tli and I, "the oldest post of the Corps," on parade at the Marine Corps 
War Memorial, Arlington, Virginia. Rugged in combat, U.S. Marines on parade present the perfect example of proper 
military bearing. 



14-2 




• To develop doctrines, tactics, techniques, 
and equipment employed by landing forces 
in amphibious operations 

• To develop the doctrines and procedures 
for joint amphibious operations 

The National Security Act of 1947 established 
the roles and missions of the United States Marine 
Corps. Today the Marine Corps stands ready to 
carry out a wide variety of missions that higher 
authority may assign. In addition to deploying 
forces for amphibious operations. Marines train 
foreign military forces and provide security for 
diplomatic posts worldwide. 



MARINE CORPS ORGANIZATION 



Figure 14-2.— Emblem of the U.S. Marine Corps. 



Washington in 1801. It became known as "the 
President's own" during the early years of the 
19th century, a title it holds today. 

Back when marines wore leather stocks or 
collars to protect themselves from the slash of an 
enemy sword or cutlass, they were given the 
nickname leatherneck. During World War I, after 
the fourth Marine brigade distinguished itself 
during action at Belleau Wood, the Germans were 
said to have referred to the marines as 
teufelshunden (devil dogs). 



MARINE CORPS FUNCTION 

The primary functions of the Marine Corps 
are as follows: 

• To organize, train, equip, and provide 
Fleet Marine Forces, together with 
supporting air components, for service 
with the Navy fleet in the seizure or defense 
of advanced naval bases and for the con- 
duct of such land operations as may be 
essential to the prosecution of a naval 
campaign 

• To provide detachments and organizations 
for service on armed vessels of the Navy 

• To provide security detachments for the 
protection of naval property at naval 
stations and bases 



The U.S. Marine Corps consists of not less 
than three combat divisions and three aircraft 
wings, and such land combat, aviation, and other 
services as necessary to support them. 

The Commandant of the Marine Corps 
(CMC) is a Chief of Service and a permanent 
member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC 
is responsible for the administration, discipHne, 
internal organization, training, efficiency, 
readiness, and total performance of the Marine 
Corps. The CMC also has responsibility for the 
operation of the Marine Corps' material support 
system. When performing these functions, the 
Commandant is responsible directly to the 
Secretary of the Navy; the CMC is not a part of 
the command structure of the Chief of Naval 
Operations (CNO). A close cooperative 
relationship exists, however, between the CNO, 
as the senior military officer of the Department 
of the Navy, and the CMC. 

FLEET MARINE FORCE (FMF) 

The Fleet Marine Force (FMF), which has 
been in existence since 1933, comprises the main 
fighting strength of Marines assigned to the 
operating forces of the Navy. The FMF includes 
all air and ground tactical units of the Marine 
Corps. It is organized into two commands: Fleet 
Marine Force Atlantic and Fleet Marine Force 
Pacific. 

The primary mission of the FMF is to conduct 
overseas amphibious operations for the seizure 
and defense of advanced bases as part of a naval 
campaign. The nature of this mission, therefore, 
requires that the FMF maintain a very high state 



14-3 




^ "From I/ic Halls of Montezuma. . ." General Quitman leads his battered battalion of 
^ Marines into Mexico City on 14 September 1847, ending the Mexican War with Americon 
victory. The red strip on the trousers of the Marine dress uniform commemorates the 
blood shed in the desperate fight at Chapultepec on the previous day. 



134.144 
Figure 14-3.— The first lines of the "Marines' Hymn," "From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli," commemorate, 
in reverse chronological order, the accomplishments of the Marine Corps in the Mexican War . . . 



of readiness. Its units — which include infantry, 
artillery, armor, communications, engineering, 
logistics troops, and aviation organizations — must 
be completely mobile. The FMF is the nation's 
premier force-in-readiness for all levels of conflict 
throughout the world. 

Marine forces within each FMF are task- 
organized into Marine air-ground task forces 
(MAGTFs) for deployment worldwide. The 
MAGTF combines air and ground combat forces 
in a highly mobile amphibious strike force under 
a single commander. All MAGTFs include three 
elements: a ground combat element, an aviation 
combat element, and a combat service support 
element. MAGTFs are task-organized around the 
ground combat element— a battalion, regimental, 
or division landing team — which may vary in size. 
For example, the Marine expeditionary unit 
(MEU) numbers 1 ,800 marines, while the Marine 



expeditionary brigade (MEB) may number 16,500 
and the Marine expeditionary force (MEF) may 
number 35,000. 

In late 1985 the 26th Marine amphibious unit 
(MAU) was the first MAGTF designated special- 
operations capable (SOC). (The amphibious 
[MAU] designator changed to expeditionary 
[MEU] in 1988 to reflect a broader scope in 
missions.) Currently, all MEUs that deploy as 
landing forces with the Sixth and Seventh fleets 
are' designated SOC. These special capabilities 
include short-notice amphibious raids, evacuation 
of noncombatants, search and rescue operations, 
and in-extremis hostage rescue. Forward-deployed 
MEU SOCs provide the national command 
authority with on-scene forces that can respond 
rapidly to terrorist incidents and other crises 
worldwide. 



14-4 



m^^ro^^-^r 




Figure 14-3. — (Continued) . . . and in the war with Barbary Powers. An official version of the Hymn was issued in 1929. 



Marine Division 



Marine Aircraft Wing 



The Marine Division is the basic ground or- 
ganization of the FMF. Organized as a combined 
arms team, it includes service units needed for 
sustained combat. A division consists of three in- 
fantry regiments; an artillery regiment; a head- 
quarters battalion with service, motor transport, 
military police, and communications capabilities; 
a reconnaissance battalion; a tank battalion; a light 
armored infantry battalion; a combat engineer bat- 
talion; and an assault amphibian battalion. Each 
infantry regiment is composed of three infantry 
battalions. An infantry battalion, the basic tactical 
unit of the division, contains four rifle companies, 
a weapons company, and a headquarters and ser- 
vice company. Rifle companies are further divided 
into three platoons, each with three squads of 
three fire teams, and a weapons platoon. 



The Marine aircraft wing (MAW) is the 
highest-level tactical aviation command in 
the FMF. Its structure makes it capable of 
providing all types of air support required 
in tactical air operations. Each of the exist- 
ing wings, although varying in size, is a 
balanced combat force task-organized into 
various aircraft groups. These groups are 
composed of squadrons, which provide air- 
craft, support equipment, and personnel re- 
quired to perform assigned missions. Each 
wing has a variety of aircraft — attack, fighter 
attack, reconnaissance, electronic countermea- 
sures, transport, and rotary wing. Depend- 
ing on the model of the aircraft assigned, 
a squadron will have from 10 to 24 air- 
craft. 



14-5 



Force Service Support Group 

(FSSG) 

The force service support group (FSSG) 
provides sustained combat service support for the 
Marine Division and other force level units. Each 
FSSG contains eight battalions that provide all 
combat-service support functions beyond the 
inherent capability of other FMF units. The FSSG 
is structured to support either a one-division/ 
wing-configured MEF, two MEBs simultaneously, 
or four MEUs simultaneously. 

Marine Corps Reserve 

Ready to increase the manpower combat 
strength of the Marine Corps by one-third in a 
matter of weeks is the 4th Marine Division/Wing 
Team of the Selected Marine Corps Reserve. This 
force is organized, equipped, and trained in the 
same manner as the Regular Fleet Marine Forces. 
Depending on the combat situation, 4th Marine 
Division/Wing units are capable of either 
augmenting Regular FMF units or deploying as 
a separate division/ wing team. 

The Selected Marine Corps Reserve totals 
slightly over 40,000 marines in both ground and 
aviation units. Additionally, Individual Ready 
Reservists (IRR) consist of more than 52,000 
officers and enlisted marines not assigned to units. 
IRRs are trained and prepared to fill out both 
Active and Reserve organizations in an 
emergency. 

Training programs for Reserve Marines 
include realistic air-ground training one weekend 
a month and 2 weeks each summer. During the 
latter period. Reserve and Regular units train 
together frequently, engaging in exercises that 
simulate their roles in combat. 

WOMEN MARINES 

During World War I, 305 women reservists 
served in clerical jobs in order to free male marines 
to fight in France. In February 1943 the Marine 
Corps again called on women so that men could 
be released for combat. By June 1944 the 
authorized quota of 18,000 enhsted women 
marines had been met and approximately 800 
women Marine officers had been trained and 
assigned. 

Unlike World War I women marines. World 
War II women reservists performed over 200 
different military assignments, serving at every 
major post and station in the United States and 
Hawaii. By July 1946 all women reservists became 



eligible for discharge. They had performed well 
in answering the Corps' call to "free a man to 
fight." 

By Act of Congress on 12 June 1948, authority 
was given to enlist women in the Regular Marine 
Corps. Soon thereafter a women's officer training 
detachment was set up at Quantico, Virginia, 
and the 3rd Recruit Training Battalion was 
activated at Parris Island for training women 
recruits. 

Today women marines are an integral part of 
the Regular Marine Corps, providing a nucleus 
that can expand rapidly in the event of mobiliza- 
tion. Women marines serve in all noncombat 
fields and are assigned to every major post and 
station of the Marine Corps. 



MARINE CORPS EQUIPMENT 

The Marine Corps' heavy equipment includes 
tanks, amphibians, light armored vehicles, 
artillery, missiles, and aircraft. During the 1980s, 
equipment modernization programs across the 
entire spectrum of combat arms have brought 
dramatic improvement in the Marine Corps' 
fighting capability. Major improvements include 
the AV-8B Harrier, the vertical/short takeoff and 
landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and the light armored 
vehicle (LAV). 

TANKS 

The Marine Corps' main battle tank is the 
M-60 medium tank. Its armament includes a 
105-mm gun, a 7.62-mm machine gun, and a 
.50-caHber machine gun. The M-60 tank weighs 
53 tons and can travel at speeds up to 30 miles 
per hour. It can climb 60-percent grades, scale 
3-foot-high obstacles, ford 8-foot-deep streams, 
and cross 8 1/2-foot-deep ditches. 

AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT VEHICLES 

(AAVs) 

The Marine Corps' current amphibious assault 
vehicle (AAV) is the LVTP-7 (landing vehicle, 
tracked, personnel). It can carry either 25 
combat-equipped marines or 5 tons of supplies 
iti the amphibious assault. It can travel at speeds 
up to 8.4 knots in water or 40 miles per hour on 
land. The LVTP-7 can climb 60-percent grades, 
breech 3-foot-high obstacles, and traverse 8-foot- 
wide ditches. 

Other versions of AAVs include the LVTC-7 
(command) and LVTR-7 (recovery). The LVTC-7 



14-6 



provides command and control during ship-to- 
shore and subsequent operations. The LVTR-7 
provides mobile repair and retrieval facilities for 
disabled vehicles. 

ARTILLERY 

Marine artillery weapons consist of towed and 
self-propelled howitzers and self-propelled guns. 

The Ml 98 155-mm towed howitzer is the 
standard artillery weapon of the Marine Corps. 
Mounted on a wheeled carriage, it fires a 
97-pound high-explosive (HE) shell to an effective 
range of 22,000 meters (30,000 meters with a 
rocket-assisted projectile). It can also fire white 
phosphorous, illumination, smoke, antitank and 
antipersonnel mines, laser-guided, chemical, and 
nuclear rounds. The CH-53E helicopter transports 
the M198. 

The Vietnam-era 105-mm howitzer remains in 
service with selected Regular and Reserve units. 
Mounted on a wheeled carriage, it fires a 
33-pound HE shell to an effective range of 1 1 ,400 
meters. It can also fire white phosphorous, 
illumination, smoke, and "beehive" (tiny darts 
used for repelling human- wave attacks) rounds. 

The 155-mm self-propelled howitzer is 
mounted on a tank-like body propelled by tracks. 
It fires a 97-pound HE shell to a maximum 
effective range of 18,000 meters (24,000 meters 
with a rocket-assisted projectile). 



The 8-inch, self-propelled howitzer is the 
Marine Corps' most accurate artillery piece. It 
fires a 200-pound HE round to an effective range 
of about 22,000 meters (28,000 meters with a 
rocket-assisted projectile). 

LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLES 

(LAVs) 

The Marine Corps began receiving LAVs in 
the early 1980s. Currently, the Marine Corps has 
three Ught armored infantry battalions. One is 
stationed at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, one 
at Camp Pendleton, California, and the other is 
deployed in the Western Pacific (WESTPAC). 
The LAV can travel more than 70 miles per hour. 
It contains mortar; air defense; tube-launched, 
optically-tracked, wire-command (link-guided) 
TOW missiles; and 25-mm chain gun variants. 

MISSILES 

In addition to conventional ground weapons. 
Marines have light antiaircraft missile (LAAM) 
battahons. These battalions are organized and 
equipped to provide air defense for a Marine 
landing force. The LAAM battalion is equipped 
with Hawk surface-to-air missiles, medium- and 
low-altitude acquisition radar, and fire control 
radar. These weapons systems provide defense 
against low- and medium-altitude air attacks (fig. 
14-4). 




134.150 



Figure 14-4. — In addition to conventional weapons, Marines use surface-to-air missiles for ground defense. 



14-7 



AIRCRAFT 



MARINE CORPS OFFICERS 



Marine rotary-wing units include Marine 
attack helicopter (HMA) squadrons; light (HML), 
medium (HMM), and heavy helicopter transport 
(HMH) squadrons; and experimental/special 
mission helicopter (HMX) squadrons. Marine 
fixed-wing units include Marine attack (VMA), 
all-weather attack (VHA[AW]), fighter/attack 
(VMFA), tactical electronic warfare (VMAQ), 
tactical reconnaissance (VMFP), aerial refueler/ 
transport (VMGR), and observation (VMO) 
squadrons. 

Marine helicopters include the UH-IN 
Iroquois, AH-IT/W Cobra, CH-46 Sea Knight, 
and CH-53E Sea Stallion. The Sea Stallion, the 
largest mihtary helicopter in the free world, has 
a lift capability of more than 32,000 pounds. 

Marine fixed- wing aircraft include the F/A-18 
Hornet, A-6 Intruder, A-4 Skyhawk, AV-8B 
Harrier (fig. 14-5), EA-6B Prowler, RF-4 
Phantom, OV-10 Bronco, and the KC-130 
Hercules. All Marine aircraft, except the Hercules, 
can operate from aircraft carriers and 
expeditionary airfields ashore. Helicopters and 
Harriers can also operate from amphibious ships. 



The Marine Corps has officer procurement 
programs similar to those of the Navy. They are 
based on provisions of federal statutes as issued 
by instructions from the Secretary of the Navy 
and the Commandant of the Marine Corps. 
Candidates for appointment to a commissioned 
grade in the Marine Corps and Marine Corps 
Reserve must be citizens of the United States. 
They must be mentally, morally, physically, and 
professionally qualified and at least 20 years of 
age. Naval aviator candidates must not be over 
27 1/2 years of age, and ground officer (exclusive 
of Umited duty officer and warrant officer) 
candidates must not be over 28 years of age. 

NAVAL ACADEMY 

The Secretary of the Navy allots to the Regular 
Marine Corps each year a quota (16.6 percent at 
present) from the current graduating class of the 
Naval Academy. Upon graduation, members 
whose applications for commission in the Marine 
Corp have been approved by the Superintendent 
of the Naval Academy fill this quota. AppUcants 
who were formerly enhsted in the Marine Corps 




134.52 
Figure 14-S.— The single-engine, single-seat AV-8B Harrier, used for light attack and close air support for ground forces, 

executing a vertical takeoff. 



14-8 



or Marine Corps Reserve and those who are sons 
or daughters of career Marines receive appoint- 
ment preference. 

NAVAL RESERVE OFFICER 
TRAINING CORPS (NROTC) 
PROGRAM 

At the beginning of their sophomore year of 
college, selected NROTC midshipmen may elect 
the Marine option. This option allows the 
midshipmen to pursue specialized courses during 
their last 2 years of college. Between the third and 
fourth years, Marine option personnel attend 
training at Officer Candidate School (OCS), 
Quantico, Virginia. Upon successful completion 
of their college course of study, naval science 
courses, and training at OCS, the midshipman is 
appointed a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
or Marine Corps Reserve. (For a general discus- 
sion of the NROTC Program, see chapter 10.) 

PLATOON LEADERS PROGRAM 



educational level prescribed by the Commandant 
of the Marine Corps. ^ 

WARRANT OFFICER 

Sergeants and above, with a minimum of 5 
and a maximum of 14 years of enlisted service, 
may apply for appointment to the grade of 
warrant officer, W-1, in the Marine Corps and 
Marine Corps Reserve. Selections provide for 
advancement to warrant rank in certain admin- 
istration and technical fields for marines who 
display exceptional proficiency and leadership 
potential. 

LIMITED DUTY OFFICERS 

Permanent warrant officers, W-2 through 
W-4, may be appointed to commissioned grades 
for limited duty in the technical field in which they 
are proficient. They first must have completed at 
least 10 and not more than 20 years of active 
service. 



The Platoon Leaders Program is a Marine 
Corps officer program for college students 
attending regionally accredited colleges. Upon 
successful completion of all requirements, they 
are commissioned as second lieutenants in the 
Marine Corps Reserve. 

OFFICER CANDIDATES CLASS 

This Marine officer program is open to college 
seniors and graduates. Candidates undergo 10 
weeks of precommissioning training, followed by 
appointment to commissioned grade. Aviation 
and law options are available to males; law 
options are available to females. 

MARINE CORPS ENLISTED 
COMMISSIONING EDUCATION 
PROGRAM (MECEP) 

This program is open to all qualified active- 
duty enlisted marines enrolled in an undergraduate 
program leading to a baccalaureate degree. A 
regular commission is awarded upon graduation. 

Noncommissioned officers of the Marine 
Corps whose service has been meritorious may be 
appointed to commissioned grade in the Marine 
Corps Reserve. They must be serving in the 
Marine Corps and be recommended by their 
commanding officer. They also must have 
established their mental fitness by attaining an 



OFFICER TRAINING 

The Marine Corps University at Quantico, 
Virginia, is the principal media through which 
Marine officers receive their formal education. 
Upon entry into the Marine Corps, all second 
lieutenants are sent to Basic School (fig. 14-6) for 
indoctrination and instruction in fundamental 
military subjects. Emphasis is placed on individual 
and crew-served infantry weapons instruction. 
Other subjects include marksmanship, small-unit 
tactics, basic administration, naval law, and small- 
unit leadership. Following graduation from Basic 
School, most officers attend a follow-on school 
in their military occupational specialty (MOS) 
before being assigned duty with the Fleet Marine 
Force. 

Once officers complete initial FMF and non- 
FMF tours, they become eligible for assignment 
to the Amphibious Warfare School at Quantico 
or to another Marine or Army career-level school. 
Career-level instruction focuses on training 
Marine captains for company-level command and 
staff duties at the MEB level. Particular emphasis 
is placed on teaching the coordinated employment 
of air, naval, and ground elements in amphibious 
operations. 

When promoted to major, Marine officers 
become eligible for assignment to the Marine 
Corps Command and Staff College. The purpose 



14-9 




134.63 
Figure 14-6. — The Basic School at Quantico, Virginia, teaches new lieutenants tactics, weapons, and leadership. They spend 
approximately half of their training time in the field, learning combat tactics and techniques. 



of this course is to train officers in command and 
staff duties at the MEF level. The course extends 
over a period of 9 months. It includes instruc- 
tion in the theory and nature of war, opera- 
tional art, strategic concepts. Marine air ground 
task force (MAGTF) operations, and joint 
operations. 

Throughout their careers, Marine officers are 
afforded a progressive military education that 
includes formal schooling, command-sponsored 



schooling, and professional self-study. In addition 
to Marine Corps schools, officers may attend 
other service top-level schools, such as the Armed 
Forces Staff College, Army War College, Naval 
War College, Air War College, or the National 
Defense University. 

SUMMARY 

Since the Marine Corps' top priority is combat 
readiness, it emphasizes physical fitness and 



14-10 



intensive training. Its traditional peacetime role 
is to serve as a force-in-readiness. The Marine 
Corps has a global outlook; therefore, Marines 
stand ready to be deployed to any part of the 
world to carry out their assigned missions. 

Through its traditions and training, the United 
States Marine Corps is always ready to fight for 
freedom and, as the motto goes, "Semper 
Fidelis." 



REFERENCES 

United States Department of Defense, Functions 
of the Department of Defense and Its Major 
Components, DoD Directive 5100.1, Office of 



the Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C., 
1987. 

The United States Government Manual 1989/90, 
Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, 
Washington, D.C., 1989. 

SUGGESTED READING 

Estes, K.W., The Marine Officer's Guide, 5th ed., 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1985. 

Krulak, V.H., First to Fight: An Inside View of 
the Marine Corps, Naval Institute Press, 
Annapohs, Md., 1984. 



PORTHOLES 



SOMETIMES, NOVICE SEAM 


CALLED PORTHOLES INSTEAD 


PLANATIONS, BUT ACTUALLY 


TION. THE WORD ORIGINATE 


SEEMS THE GOOD KING INSIS 


THEREFORE THE CONVENTIONA 


AND AFTCASTLE COULD NOT B 


A FRENCH SHIPBUILDER N 


AND SOLVE IT HE DID BY PI 


INSIDE THE FORE AND AFTER 


THE FRENCH WORD "PORTE 


ARY INVENTION. "PORTE" W 


HOLE. EVENTUALLY, IT CAM 


CANNON OR NOT. " —*-._] 



EN WILL ASK, "HOW 
OF STARBOARDHOLES 
THE NAME "PORTHOL 
D DURING THE REIG 
TED ON MOUNTING G 
L METHODS OF SECU 
E USED. 

AMED JAMES BAKER 
ERCING THE SHIP'S 

CASTLES. 
," MEANING DOOR, 
AS ANGLICIZED TO 
E TO MEAN ANY OPE 



COME HOLES ON THE STARBOARD SIDE ARE 
?" MANY OLD SALTS ARE READY WITH EX- 
E" HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH ITS LOCA- 
N OF HENRY VI OF ENGLAND (1485). IT 
UNS TOO LARGE FOR HIS SHIPS. AND 
RING THE WEAPONS ON THE FORECASTLE 

WAS COMMISSIONED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM, 
SIDES SO THE CANNON COULD BE MOUNTED 

WAS USED TO DESIGNATE THE REVOLUTION- 
"PORT" AND LATER CORRUPTED TO PORT- 
NING IN A SHIP'S SIDE WHETHER FOR 




14-11 



CHAPTER 1 5 

THE NAVAL RESERVE 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the historical foundation of the Naval 
Reserve. 

2. Identify the mission of the Naval Reserve. 

3. Identify the various categories of naval re- 
servists and Naval Reserve units. 



4. Describe the training program of the Naval 
Reserve. 

5. Describe the requirements for retirement from 
the Naval Reserve. 



During times of peace our Active Forces are 
sufficient to maintain national defense. During 
armed conflict, however, additional trained forces 
are required to increase the Active Fleet. For such 
occasions, the Naval Reserve is ready. 

The United States operates on a total force 
poUcy. The total force includes all resources 
available to perform the national defense 
missions. It includes the Active and Reserve 
(National Guard and Reserve) component forces; 
civihans; and in some contingency plans, 
appropriate forces of our allies. 

The total force within the Navy encompasses 
all assets, including active-duty members and the 
ships and aircraft that make up the fleet. It also 
includes the Reserve Force and hardware that will 
increase the fleet and shore estabhshments in a 
national emergency or contingency. Since Naval 
Reserve strength is directly related to the Navy's 
inventory of ships, aircraft, and support 
equipment, it is fully integrated into force strength 
planning. Reservists are full partners in the naval 
establishment with a meaningful role. They serve 
as a source to whom the Active Navy can turn 
quickly for added manpower and hardware. Each 
reservist has the opportunity to make a real 
contribution to the Navy's mission. 



HISTORY OF THE NAVAL RESERVE 

The first use of a Reserve source of naval 
manpower took place in 1888 when Massachusetts 
organized a naval battalion as part of the state 
militia. By 1897 a total of 16 states had organized 
naval units as part of their state militia. Officers 
and men from these organizations served with the 
Regular Navy during the Spanish-American War. 

The state militia organizations sought assis- 
tance from the federal government. Agreeing that 
the states should receive aid. Congress approved 
legislation establishing a federal Naval Reserve on 
3 March 1915. However, not until 19 August 
1916, with the prospect of World War I, was the 
Naval Reserve Force formally organized. 

At the end of World War I, 330,000 Naval 
Reserve officers and personnel were on active 
duty. By the end of World War II, over three- 
fourths of the 3,220,000 persons on active duty 
in the Navy were members of the Naval Reserve. 



MISSION OF THE NAVAL 
RESERVE 

The Naval Reserve's primary mission is to 
provide trained personnel to supplement the 
Active Force in war, national emergency, or when 



15-1 



otherwise needed. Its secondary mission is to help 
the Active Force accomplish its peacetime mission 
by serving as a byproduct or an adjunct of 
training. 

The Navy has many early mobilization re- 
quirements. It must immediately add aircraft and 
special units to the Active Forces and more ships 
to the fleet. It must increase its peacetime 
personnel strength to wartime complement. In 
addition, it must increase fleet support and shore- 
based activities and indoctrinate and train newly 
procured officers and enlisted personnel. 
Although the nation may reactivate ships of the 
Reserve Fleet, doing so requires too much time 
in the appraisal of early mobilization require- 
ments. 

The Reserve Forces maintain a large portion 
of the Navy's mission capability. For example, 
they are, in some cases, more skilled in riverine 
warfare, mobile inshore undersea warfare, and 
the use of minesweepers. Personnel of the Naval 
Reserve provide the capability for quick mobiliza- 
tion of the Navy. 

Those men and women who volunteer for 
military service in the Naval Reserve assume an 
8-year military obligation. They may fulfill this 
obligation on either active or inactive duty or 
divide their obligation between the two. The exact 
combination of active duty and inactive duty 
depends upon the plan under which the individual 
entered the Navy. 

Current enlistment programs call for a 
specified period of active duty with the remainder 
of the 8-year obligation served in a Reserve status. 
For example, the Active Mariner Enlistment 
Program requires 3 years' active duty followed 
by 5 years' Reserve obligation. 



COMPOSITION OF THE NAVAL 
RESERVE 

The size, composition, and deployment re- 
quirements of the military forces at any given time 
depend on this nation's posture and goals in a 
constantly changing world. The Ready Reserve 
of the armed forces provides an economical way 
to provide people who are trained to supplement 
the Active Forces. Currently, federal law limits 
the Ready Reserve of the armed forces to not 
more than 2,900,000 officers and enUsted 
personnel. Within this total, the Navy is 
authorized a Ready Reserve of 530,000; presently, 
over 230,000 personnel serve in the Ready Reserve 
of the Navy. 



Naval reservists fall into one of three general 
categories — Ready Reserve, Standby Reserve, or 
Retired Reserve. 

READY RESERVE 

The Ready Reserve consists of the Selected 
Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve. The 
Ready Reserve includes those members, not on 
active duty, who are subject to call to Active 
service. They may be called to Active service if 
the President declares a national emergency, 
Congress declares war, or when otherwise 
authorized by law. Members of the Ready Reserve 
are expected to be available for active duty 
immediately upon receiving orders. However, they 
are allowed a reasonable time between the date 
they are alerted or ordered to active duty and the 
date they must report for duty. 

Participation or nonparticipation in a drilling 
program has no effect on the liabiUty of Ready 
reservists for recall — all are equally liable. Under 
the current partial mobilization concept, however, 
those participating in Selected Reserve units are 
more likely to receive involuntary orders to active 
duty than other reservists. EnUsted members 
serving voluntarily in the Ready Reserve must 
volunteer for a specific period. Officers execute 
Ready Reserve Agreements for an indefinite 
length of time. 

Of the three Reserve categories, only members 
of the Ready Reserve may receive pay for 
participation in Reserve training. 

Selected Reserve 

Within the Ready Reserve the Navy maintains 
Selected Reserve Forces. The units and individuals 
within the Selected Reserve are so essential to 
initial wartime missions that they require a high 
degree of mobilization readiness. Therefore, they 
must take part in active-duty training and annual 
training in a pay status. 

As the initial and primary source of Active 
Fleet augmentation, the Selected Reserve is 
immediately deployable upon mobihzation. It 
must, therefore, be continuously combat ready 
and immediately responsible in times of crisis. 

Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) 

The Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) consists 
of those members of the Ready Reserve who are 
not in the Selected Reserve. Limitation of 
available pay billets, absence of drilling units 



15-2 



within commuting distance, conflicting 
employment, and other factors prevent some 
reservists from participating in the Selected 
Reserve. Therefore, reservists affected by any of 
these factors are assigned to the IRR. 

While assigned to the IRR, members can still 
participate in the Naval Reserve training program. 
Correspondence courses are available to both 
officer and enlisted personnel. These reservists 
also remain within the Navy's mobilization 
potential. Additionally, within the limitation of 
funds, personnel in the IRR who have maintained 
an Active status may participate in 12 to 14 days 
of active-duty training annually. 

STANDBY RESERVE 

The Standby Reserve consists of reservists who 
have transferred from the Ready Reserve after 
fulfilling certain requirements established by law. 
Ready and Standby status differ mainly in the 
degree of liability for recall to active duty. 
Standby reservists can be ordered to active duty 
without their consent only in the event of war or 
an emergency declared by Congress or when 
otherwise authorized by law. The Navy cannot 
recall a Standby reservist to active duty in- 
voluntarily until the Director of the Selective 
Service has determined the person's availability 
for duty. 

The Standby Reserve includes the Standby 
Reserve-Active and the Standby Reserve-In- 
active. 

Standby Reserve-Active 

The Standby Reserve-Active consists of 
reservists who have completed their active-duty 
or Selected Reserve service obligation. They have 
requested transfer to the Active status list of the 
Standby Reserve. Officers with at least 18 but less 
than 20 years' satisfactory federal service toward 
retired pay for nonregular service can also request 
transfer to the Standby Reserve-Active. Addi- 
tionally, key federal employees and personnel 
expecting to return to the Ready Reserve but 
facing temporary personal hardships may request 
assignment to the Standby Reserve- Active. 

Standby Reserve-Inactive 

The Standby Reserve-Inactive (also called the 
Inactive Status List or ISL) includes three groups 
of reservists who have been screened from the 
Ready Reserve. The first consists of those who 



did not maintain a satisfactory level of participa- 
tion. The second consists of those who allowed 
their Ready Reserve agreement to expire while in 
this status. The third consists of those who fit into 
both the first and second group. While in this 
Inactive status, a member may not participate in 
training programs, earn retirement points, or be 
considered for promotion. Reservists transferred 
to the Standby Reserve-Inactive may apply for 
reinstatement in the Ready Reserve at any time 
within the following 3 years. Those members not 
voluntarily returning to a Ready Reserve status 
at the end of 3 years are discharged or transferred 
to a retired status, as appropriate. 

Members on the Inactive Status List may be 
called to active duty under the same conditions 
as other members of the Standby Reserve. 
However, a determination must first be made that 
adequate numbers of quahfied personnel in an 
Active status (Ready and Standby Reserve-Active) 
are not available. 

RETIRED RESERVE 

The Retired Reserve-Inactive (USNR-RET) 
consists of reservists who are drawing retired pay 
or are qualified for retired pay upon reaching age 
60. It also includes those who are not ehgible for 
retired pay at any time but desire service or other 
requirements for voluntary assignment to the 
Retired Reserve in recognition of their contribu- 
tion to their country and the United States Navy. 
Their liability for Active service is the same as that 
for the Standby Reserve. 

UNIT CLASSIFICATIONS 

Selected Reserve units are grouped into three 
basic categories, each with its own mission and 
mobilization element. These primary categories 
are supplemented by other Selected Reserve units 
and individuals of the Ready Reserve. 

In some instances units of the three primary 
categories are unable to fill all authorized 
mobihzation billets because of a lack of required 
skills within their particular geographic locations. 
Additional units are organized in these areas when 
the necessary skills are available. These additional 
units provide a source of Selected reservists for 
immediate mobihzation to increase the three 
primary categories. Upon mobilization, they join 
with Selected Reserve units from other locations 
at the appropriate mobilization site. 

In addition to the units of the Selected 
Reserve, volunteer units provide meaningful and 



15-3 



productive training. These units train qualified 
Ready reservists who are required for full mobili- 
zation but who are not members of the Selected 
Reserve. These personnel remain affiliated with 
the Naval Reserve in an Active capacity and are 
available for recall under public law. Volunteer 
units train in a nonpay status and serve as a skill 
resource from which billets in the Selected Reserve 
can be filled. 

Category I 

Category I units are those with organic equip- 
ment. Each is a self-contained unit designed to 
provide complete capabilities upon recall; that is, 
a ship, squadron, or battalion. Selected reservists 
fill all manpower requirements but may be com- 
bined, as in many instances, with an active-duty 
nucleus. Each unit has its own hardware, which 
it "owns and lives with," or will use predesignated 
hardware upon recall. Hardware required varies 
from weapons systems, ships, and aircraft to 
equipment and tools necessary for mission 
performance. 

Category II 

Category II units are augmentee units for 
Active Navy ships, squadrons, and mobile units. 
They are mission-oriented, task-performing aug- 
mentation units with a mix of specific skills. Each 
unit has specific skills needed to bring an active- 
duty Navy operating platform (a ship or aircraft 
squadron) up to organizational (battle) manning 
or full complement. A Category II unit, tailored 
to a specific ship class or aircraft squadron type, 
operates equipment and uses facilities of the 
parent unit. 

Category III 

Category III units are augmentee units for the 
Shore Establishment. These units, similar in 
character to Category II, represent the mobiliza- 
tion billets needed to meet Shore EstabHshment 
organizational manning requirements. Category 
III activities are geographically fixed rather than 
mobile units. Each is tailored to strengthen a 
specific type of nonplatform activity, such as a 
shipyard, air station, or staff. Category III units 
normally operate the equipment and use the 
facihties of the mobilization activity. The 
requirements of this category are as equally 
important in the accomplishment of the wartime 
mission as are the combat requirements. 



RESERVE TRAINING 

The Selected Reserve receives ongoing training 
throughout the year. The nature of the training 
depends on each reservist's individual designator/ 
rating and job skill. It also depends on the type 
of unit to which the member is attached. Training 
takes place during unit drills and while the 
reservist is performing active duty for annual 
training (AT). A drill is a period of training 
authorized for inactive-duty reservists, in either 
a pay or nonpay status. 

Members of the Selected Reserve normally 
perform 48 drills each year. Each "drill" consists 
of a 4-hour period. For most units, regularly 
scheduled drills are conducted one weekend per 
month. This multiple drill permits a greater 
concentration of effort and extended involvement. 
In some instances, drilling only one evening a 
week better serves the unit's mission or 
configuration. 

Certain units are scheduled for inactive-duty 
travel training (IDTT). During IDTT, members 
receive training at fleet training sites or aboard 
ship. 

Selected individuals and units may perform 
additional paid drills to maintain peak efficiency 
or to complete their assigned mission, or both. 
For example, flight crews and certain critical units 
often require additional drills. The number of 
regularly scheduled or additional paid drills may 
vary with need and the availability of funds. 

Although not members of the Selected 
Reserve, Ready reservists in the IRR category and 
members of the Standby Reserve-Active may 
volunteer to participate in regularly scheduled 
drills. Although such members are inehgible for 
drill pay, they may earn retirement points by 
taking an active part in these drills. 

ACTIVE DUTY FOR ANNUAL 
TRAINING (AT) 

The careful coordination of AT with drilling 
sessions provides members of the Selected Reserve 
with practical experience that clarifies or 
supplements other instruction. On some 
occasions, reservists may train on Active Fleet 
ships for a weekend, or, in some cases for 2 weeks 
or more. Reservists may receive this shipboard 
training as an entire unit, as a team from a unit, 
or on an individual basis. 

All members of the Selected Reserve must 
receive a minimum of 12 to 14 days of annual 
training. Members of the IRR may be assigned 



15-4 



AT on a voluntary basis. Annual training for an 
entire Selected Reserve unit is an ideal goal, 
although it is not always possible. When the 
members of an entire unit train together, it 
enhances their ability to perform the unit's 
assigned mission. 

While serving on AT, Reserve units receive 
training and practical experience to maintain skills 
at Active Fleet standards. Unit, team, and 
individual readiness are emphasized. Important 
team skills may be developed through combined 
exercises that involve Reserve and Active air, 
surface, and subsurface groups in underway 
operational problems and exercises. 

Aviation Reserve squadrons designated to 
mobilize with their aircraft normally perform their 
annual training at a fleet base. The fleet base is 
under the cognizance of the fleet commander to 
whom the squadrons report when mobilized. 
During this period Reserve squadrons receive a 
modified fleet operational readiness inspec- 
tion. 

In addition to AT, all aviation squadrons 
periodically participate in fleet operational 
exercises alongside their Regular Navy counter- 
parts. Special AT is granted for this purpose. This 
integration with fleet units combines training with 
actual support of fleet activities by permitting 
Reserve squadrons to participate in surveillance 
patrols and other routine operations. 

In addition to AT aboard ships, many 
possibiHties exist for training ashore. Many 
stations ashore offer reservists practical experience 
or study of new procedures through formal 
instruction. 

When required to perform AT, reservists 
receive full pay and allowances plus travel 
expenses. When performing AT on a voluntary 
basis, reservists may or may not receive pay, 
travel, and allowances, depending on available 
funds. However, members in the Standby 
Reserve-Active category perform all AT without 
pay or other allowances. 



SURFACE PROGRAMS 

Reserve surface programs include both afloat 
and ashore programs and training systems 
development. Afloat and ashore programs consist 



of the three categories of Ready Reserve 
units discussed earlier as well as volunteer 
units. 

The afloat program includes units assigned to 
surface combatants, submarines, and service 
forces. It also includes units assigned to mine 
warfare, amphibious warfare, and inshore 
undersea warfare missions. 

The ashore organization includes construction 
forces as well as cargo-handling, supply, medical, 
dental, and security groups. It also includes units 
involved in telecommunications, law, public 
affairs, and other specialties. 

Naval Reserve centers serve as the primary 
training sites for most of the surface Reserve. 
Naval Reserve units may use these activities 
entirely for themselves or share them with other 
military services. 

Active-duty officers and enlisted personnel 
serve in full-time active-duty assignments at each 
Reserve center. The enlisted personnel support the 
various training programs and maintain the 
Reserve centers. They work in cooperation with 
officers and petty officers of the individual drilling 
units to help them carry out the training of their 
own units. 

The centers maintain equipment for training 
in various areas (e.g., shops, radio, gunnery, 
damage control). They are adding a new 
dimension to the surface training environment 
through the installation of shipboard simulators 
(SBSs). These trainers simulate various shipboard 
functions (command and control, bridge, damage 
control, engineering, and communications) 
aboard several different ship types. Working 
closely with the Chief of Naval Education and 
Training, surface Reserve planners are continually 
upgrading the training capabilities of the Reserve 
centers. 

A continuing challenge to the surface Reserve 
program has been geographic distance of inland 
units from fleet installations. Therefore, in 
addition to improving on-site training, the Navy 
and Air Force airlift reservists to their key training 
platforms for inactive-duty travel training (IDTT). 

Surface planners, along with the Chief of 
Naval Operations (CNO) and elements of the 
Active Fleet, are identifying and developing new 



15-5 



and expanded missions for the Naval Reserve. The 
purpose of these missions is to complement total 
force requirements. The twin goals of the surface 
Reserve programs are readiness and responsibility. 
In meeting these goals, the surface Reserve will 
be a full and equal partner with the Active Forces 
in the defense of this nation. 



NAVAL AIR RESERVE FORCE 
PROGRAM 

The Naval Air Reserve Force is responsible for 
providing mission-capable, task-performing units 
available for immediate mobilization and deploy- 
ment. It is an operating command of the Chief 
of Naval Operations under the direction of 
Commander Naval Air Reserve Force. The Air 
Program's sponsor, representative, and technical 
manager is the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations 
for Air Warfare. If full or partial mobihzation 
were required, the CNO would assign wings, 
squadrons, and units as needed to various Active 
Fleet-type commanders. Each wing, squadron, or 
unit would then become an integral part of its 
command. 

Air Reserve squadrons normally operate their 
jwn assigned aircraft and equipment. They are 
a striking example of the hardware-oriented type 
of Reserve the total force Navy requires. 
Squadrons are, for the most part, equipped with 
combat-deployable, fleet-compatible aircraft. A 
continuing program ensures units are re-equipped 
and retrained to meet current fleet requirements 
consistent with mission objectives and budgetary 
constraints. 

The mission, complexity of equipment, and 
inherent problems in the operation and use of 
systems used by the Naval Air Reserve Force 
require extensive and continuous training. To 
reach and maintain a high state of readiness, the 
Reserve Force provides training at naval air 
stations, facilities, and satellite activities (Naval 
Air Reserve Units and Centers) throughout the 
United States. 



RETIREMENT POINT CREDIT 

To qualify for retired pay, a member of the 
Reserve Forces must be credited with at least 50 
retirement points a year for 20 years. The total 



number of points earned is a factor in the 
computation of retirement pay. If otherwise 
eligible, the member may begin drawing retire- 
ment pay at age 60. 

Earning 35 retirement points per year satisfies 
the requirement for retirement credit because a 
reservist is allowed 15 gratuitous points for 
maintaining an Active status. The reservist earns 
1 retirement point for each day of Active service 
whether it is extended active duty or annual 
training. When not on active duty, the reservist 
receives 1 retirement point for each completed 
drill. The reservist may earn additional points by 
completing approved correspondence courses 
prepared by the Naval Education and Training 
Program Management Support Activity, other 
Navy sources, or the other armed forces. Members 
receive an appropriate number of retirement 
points for each course. When not on extended 
active duty, the member may receive a maximum 
of 60 points per year retirement credit plus those 
received for annual training. 



SUMMARY 

The Naval Reserve is a full partner with the 
Active Forces. The existence of task-oriented, 
mission-capable units has made the Naval Reserve 
a vital and contributing participant in the defense 
of the nation. 

As a byproduct of their training, naval 
reservists are capable of serving side by side with 
their active-duty counterparts in direct support of 
the fleet. This unprecedented degree of integration 
has developed a healthy feeling of mutual support. 

Such mutual support encompasses most mis- 
sion areas. This integration is also a preferred 
method of training, since tasks performed during 
peacetime are similar to those expected at the 
outbreak of hostilities. Perhaps equally important 
is the satisfaction reservists get from training 
duty. 

^ Today the total partnership between the Navy 
and the Naval Reserve has made the total force 
concept a reality. In the years ahead the Naval 
Reserve will absorb additional responsibilities. 
Therefore, its major challenge will be to recruit, 
train, and retain the numbers and types of 
reservists necessary to fulfill its expanding role. 



15-6 



Once it meets that challenge, the result is 
predictable — a ready force. 



REFERENCES 

Navy Fact File, 8th ed., Office of Information, 
Washington, D.C., 1988. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Administrative Procedures for Naval Reservists 
on Inactive Duty, BUPERSINST 1001.39, 
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, 
D.C., 1989. 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
Annapolis, Md., 1983. 




HORSE LATITUDES 



THE WORDS OF SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE "IDLE AS A PAINTED SHIP UPON A PAINTED 
OCEAN" WELL DESCRIBE A SAILING SHIP'S SITUATION WHEN IT ENTERED THE HORSE LATI- 
TUDES. LOCATED NEAR THE WEST INDIES BETWEEN 50 AND 40 DEGREES NORTH LATITUDE, 
THESE WATERS WERE NOTED FOR UNFAVORABLE WINDS THAT BECALMED CATTLE SHIPS HEAD- 
ING FROM EUROPE TO AMERICA. 

OFTEN SHIPS CARRYING HORSES WOULD HAVE TO CAST SEVERAL OVERBOARD TO CONSERVE 
DRINKING WATER FOR THE REST AS THE SHIP RODE OUT THE UNFAVORABLE WINDS. BECAUSE 
SO MANY HORSES AND OTHER CATTLE WERE TOSSED TO THE SEA, THE AREA CAME TO BE 
KNOWN AS THE "HORSE LATITUDES." 



15-7 



CHAPTER 16 



SHIPBOARD ORGANIZATION 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 

5. Identify the various conditions of readiness. 



1. Describe the authority of the commanding 
officer aboard Navy ships. 

2. Describe the duties of the executive officer 
aboard Navy ships. 

3. Identify the various departments aboard most 
Navy ships and the duties of each department. 

4. Identify the role of the department head and 
the division officer in the chain of command. 



6. Identify the purpose of the watch, quarter, and 
station bill. 



7. Describe the purpose and contents of the 
ship's deck log. 

8. Describe the purpose and contents of the 
engineering log. 



The theory of ship's organization is that ships 
should operate in peacetime with an organization 
that can be expanded quickly without basic change 
when required by wartime operating conditions. 
A warship's manning consists of officers and 
enlisted personnel required to enable the ship to 
fight the most efficiently. This theory requires that 
the ships group the functions and personnel to 
minimize the overlapping of responsibilities and 
duphcation of personnel within the command. 

The ship manning document and the Standard 
Organization and Regulations of the U.S. Navy 
(OPNAVINST 3120.32B) provide guidance in the 
preparation of the standard ship's organization 
for all types of ships. 

COMMANDING OFFICER 

The commanding officer (CO) has many 
varied but specific duties. They are so specific that 
Navy Regulations devotes one entire chapter, 
consisting of nearly 90 articles, to the duties of 
the commanding officer. In general, the CO is 
responsible for the safety, well-being, and 
efficiency of the command. 



The commanding officer's responsibilities 
include the safe navigation of the ship, condition 
and appearance of material and personnel, 
stationing of trained lookouts, and preparation 
of the ship for battle. COs may delegate authority 
in these matters, but such delegation does not 
relieve them of responsibility. The officer of the 
deck (OOD), for example, has the authority to 
run the ship; but if the ship has a collision, the 
CO and the OOD are both held responsible. 

The commanding officer must exert every 
effort to maintain the command in a state of 
maximum effectiveness for war. The CO issues 
directions to the executive officer (XO). The XO, 
with the assistance of the various department 
heads, prepares and conducts the exercises and 
drills required to prepare the ship for battle. 

During combat, the CO directs the ship to 
engage the enemy and fight to the best of its ability 
until the action is complete. The commanding 
officer's battle station is located in a position from 
which the CO can best direct the action. In case 
of the loss of the ship, both custom and 
regulations require the commanding officer 
to ensure personnel complete abandon ship 



16-1 



procedures. All personnel should be off the ship 
before the commanding officer leaves the ship. 

For centuries, the commanding officer has had 
complete authoritative power. With ultimate 
responsibility for the ship and everything 
pertaining to it, the CO obviously requires the 
authority to go with it. The CO must have the 
power to enforce prompt obedience to orders to 
maintain efficiency and discipline. As set forth 
in the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), 
the commanding officer has the power to impose 
limited punishment. This power to impose 
punishment is a part of command and may not 
be delegated. 

The commanding officer shoulders constant 
concern for the welfare, morale, and living 
conditions of the crew. The CO receives help in 
these areas from an enUsted adviser known as the 
command master chief (CM/C), command senior 
chief (CS/C), or command chief (CCh). A master 
chief detailed by the Bureau of Naval Personnel 
to the command or a master chief, senior chief, 
or chief petty officer appointed by the CO, as 
appropriate, serves as the senior enlisted adviser. 
This person has direct access to the commanding 
officer. In addition, the enlisted adviser maintains 
contact with the master chief petty officer of the 
Navy (MCPON), normally through the force or 
fleet master chief (FM/C), to ensure that ideas 
and recommendations are properly transmitted. 

If the commanding officer is absent, disabled, 
relieved from duty, or detached without relief, the 
next senior line officer eligible for command at 
sea attached to and aboard the ship assumes 
command. In most cases, that person will be the 
executive officer (XO). 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER (XO) 

As the next ranking hne officer aboard ship, 
the executive officer serves as the aide or 
"executive" to the commanding officer. As such, 
the XO is the direct representative of the 
commanding officer in maintaining the general 
efficiency of the ship. With the assistance of the 
heads of departments, the XO arranges and 
coordinates all ship's work, drills, exercises, 
personnel organization, and the policing and 
inspection of the ship. 

The XO investigates matters affecting the 
discipline and conduct of the crew and makes 
recommendations concerning these matters to the 
commanding officer. The XO usually approves 
or disapproves liberty lists and leave requests. If 



the XO is unable to carry out the duties of the 
office, the next senior line officer assigned to the 
ship normally assumes the duties. 

When the crew reports that the ship is cleared 
for action, the XO inspects it and receives 
readiness reports from the various department 
heads. After confirming the ship's readiness, the 
XO then reports to the commanding officer that 
the ship is ready for action. 

If the captain is disabled, the immediate 
superior in command of the ship (squadron or 
group commander) designates the XO as the 
acting CO until a permanent commanding officer 
can be assigned. For this reason, the XO's battle 
station, determined by the captain, is located some 
distance from the captain's — a safety measure to 
prevent disablement of both officers at the same 
time. After each battle, the executive officer 
makes a detailed report to the commanding 
officer. 

Depending on the size of the ship, the XO may 
have one or more assistants. Other officers are 
often assigned to this billet as a collateral duty. 

Chapter 3 of Standard Organization and 
Regulations of the U.S. Navy (SORN) lists 
additional duties of the XO. 



SHIPBOARD DEPARTMENTS 

The shipboard departmental organization 
shown in table 16-1 includes the most common 
types of naval ships currently in service. Each 
particular ship type uses this table to determine 
the departments that must be included in its 
administrative organization. Variations should 
occur only in exceptional circumstances. Most 
ships have five basic shipboard departments: 
navigation, operations, weapons (or deck), 
engineering, and supply. The Chief of Naval 
Operations authorizes the estabhshment of other 
departments as necessary. 

The ship type determines the number of 
departments included in a shipboard organization. 
r)epartments are grouped together as either 
command or support departments. Except in 
isolated instances, a line officer eligible to exercise 
command in the event of the loss of superior 
officers heads a command department. In aircraft 
carriers, naval aviators head the operations and 
air departments. 



16-2 



Table 16-1. — Shipboard Departmental Organization 



SHIP TYPE 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 




E A 
X D 

E M 
C I 

U N 
T I 
I S 
V T 
E R 
/ A 
T 
I 

O 
N 


N 
A 
V 
I 

G 
A 
T 
I 


N 




p 

E 
R 
A 
T 

I 

o 

N 
S 


w 

E 
A 
P 

o 

N 

s 


D 
E 
C 
K 


c 
o 

M 
B 
A 
T 

S 
Y 
S 
T 
E 
M 
S 


A 
I 
R 


A 

I 

M 
D 


C 
O 

M 
M 

U 
N 
I 

C 
A 
T 
I 

O 
N 
S 


E 

N 
G 
I 

N 
E 
E 
R 
I 

N 
G 


s 

A 
F 
E 
T 
Y 


s 

U 
P 
P 
L 

Y 

6 


M 
E 
D 

I 

c 

A 

L 


D 
E 

N 
T 
A 

L 


w 

E 
A 
P 


N 
S 

R 
E 
P 
A 
I 
R 


R 
E 
P 
A 

I 
R 


L 
E 
G 
A 

L 

7 


c 

H 
A 
P 

L 
A 
I 

N 


D 
E 
E 
P 

S 
U 
B 
M 
E 
R 
G 
E 
N 
C 
E 


LCC 

LHA/LHD 

LKA 

LPD 

LPH 

LSD 

LST 

BB 

CV/CVN 

CG/CGN 

DD/DDG 

FF/FFG 

MCM/MSH/MSO 

PHM 

AD 

AE 

AFS 

AGF 

AO 

AOE 

AOR 

AR 

ARS 

AS 

ASR 

ATF 

ATS 

AVT 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

x« 
x« 

X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

x« 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 

X 
X 

x^ 
x^ 
x^ 


X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 

X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 

x^ 
x^ 
x^ 

X 


X 

X 
X 

X^ 
X 

x^ 
x^ 

x^ 

x^ 
x^ 

X' 

x» 

X 


X 
X 

X 


X 
X 

X 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X* 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 

X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 

x^ 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 

X 


X 
X 


X 

X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 


X 
X 


X^ 



NOTES: 



1. ON LAMPS/VERTREP HELO DETACHMENT SHIPS ONLY. 

2. ON CGN 9/LSD 41 CLASSES ONLY. 

3. CG 26, CG 47, CGN 25, CGN 36, CGN 38, DD 963, DDG-51, DDG 993, AND FFG 7 CLASS SHIPS 
ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE A COMBAT SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT VICE A WEAPONS DEPARTMENT. 

4. ASR 21 CLASS ONLY. 

5. NUCLEAR POWERED CARRIERS WILL ALSO HAVE A REACTOR DEPARTMENT. 

6. ON SMALL SHIPS WHEN A LINE OFFICER ASSUMES SUPPLY OFFICER DUTIES. HE/SHE 
SHALL BECOME A DEPARTMENT HEAD. 

7. ON SHIPS WITH A JUDGE ADVOCATE ASSIGNED THERE SHALL BE A LEGAL DEPARTMENT. 

8. IN BB/CV/CVN/AVT THERE IS AN ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT. 



16-3 



WEAPONS, DECK, OR COMBAT 
SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT 

Ships whose mission is to attack using 
ordnance (gun batteries, torpedoes, missiles, and 
so forth) have a weapons department headed by 
a weapons officer. Some surface combatants with 
complete combat systems and some classes of 
submarines have a combat systems department 
headed by a combat systems officer. Ships whose 
offensive capabilities are not primarily related to 
ordnance have a deck department headed by a 
first lieutenant. Aircraft carriers and some other 
ships have a weapons or combat systems depart- 
ment in addition to a deck department. 

The weapons or combat systems officer is 
responsible for the operation, care, and 
maintenance of the ship's armament and the 
weapons fire-control equipment. The department 
head is also responsible for the care, handling, 
stowage, accountability, and issue of ammunition 
and pyrotechnics; the maintenance of magazines; 
and the external security of the ship. 

If the ship does not have an air department, 
the weapons or combat systems department is 
responsible for the launching and recovery of 
assigned aircraft. 

If the ship does not have a deck department, 
the weapons department is responsible for the 
preservation and cleanliness of the external areas 
of the ship not assigned to other departments. It 
is also responsible for the operations of the paint, 
sail, and boatswains' lockers; the inspection and 
maintenance of survival equipment; all deck 
seamanship operations; and the care and use of 
deck equipment. 

If the ship has a deck department but not a 
weapons or combat systems department, the first 
lieutenant (head of the deck department) is 
responsible for the functions just described. For 
ships that have a combat systems department but 
not a deck department, the deck functions 
described are the responsibility of the operations 
department. 

OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT 

The operations department is made up of the 
divisions needed to carry out various tasks. These 
tasks include collecting and evaluating combat and 
operational information, conducting electronic 
warfare, gathering and analyzing intelligence 
information, repairing electronic equipment, 
controlling aircraft, and forecasting weather. The 
operations department is usually in charge of all 



the radar, sonar, and communications equipment 
on the ship. The combat information center (GIG) 
is part of the operations department. 

On some larger ships, the communications 
functions, equipment, and systems may be a 
separate department. 

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 

The engineer officer is responsible for the 
operation, care, and maintenance of all 
propulsion and auxiliary machinery. The 
department head is also responsible for the control 
of damage resulting from fire, explosion, 
collision, and so forth. The engineering 
department provides power, lights, ventilation, 
heat, refrigeration, compressed air, and fresh 
water throughout the ship. 

The engineer officer may be assigned several 
assistants, such as the main propulsion assistant, 
damage control assistant, and electrical officer. 

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Among other responsibilities, the supply 
department is charged with the proper operation 
of the general mess, including preparing and 
serving food. The supply department operates the 
ship's store, which provides personal articles for 
the well-being of the ship's crew, and the clothing 
and small stores issue room, which provides 
uniform items. The supply department includes 
the disbursing officer, who maintains the pay 
records of the crew. The supply department also 
is responsible for all the ordering and receiving 
of general stores, supplies, spare parts, and 
equipment for the ship; that is, just about 
everything that comes aboard the ship. 

NAVIGATION DEPARTMENT 

The navigator is responsible for the safe 
navigation and piloting of the ship. The navigator 
is also responsible for the operation, care, and 
maintenance of navigation equipment, charts, 
publications, and records. 

MEDICAL/DENTAL DEPARTMENT 

The medical department is responsible for 
maintaining the health of personnel of the 
command. 

In addition to furnishing medical care and 
treatment to ship's personnel, the medical 
department conducts routine inspections to 



16-4 



ascertain the sanitary conditions of certain spaces. 
It inspects the ship's messing, food service, living, 
berthing, and working spaces. 

The medical department is also responsible for 
the dental care and oral health of the ship's 
personnel. Normally, if no dental officer is 
assigned on board, the medical department simply 
maintains the dental records of the crew. In the 
event of a dental emergency, the medical depart- 
ment provides temporary treatment until the 
member can be sent to a dental facility. To ensure 
the prevention and control of dental diseases and 
maintain dental hygiene within the command, the 
medical department schedules periodic dental 
examinations for all crew members. 

Some larger ships have dental officers and 
separate medical and dental departments. 

AIR DEPARTMENT 

On ships having aircraft, the air department 
is responsible for aircraft handling, both on the 
flight deck and the hangar deck. The department 
is also responsible for aviation fuels and aviation 
administration. On aircraft carriers, the air 
department also has responsibility for the 
catapults and arresting gear. Personnel assigned 
to the air department also maintain the aircraft 
towing gear and flight deck fire-fighting gear. 

If an air wing is attached to the command, it 
brings its own technicians and mechanics to 
maintain the wing's aircraft. 

During flight operations, the air department 
head, "the air boss," controls the operations from 
the primary flight control tower (pri-fly). 



FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION 

Much planning coupled with over 200 years 
of experience has helped to mold the functional 
organization of our Navy. One of the key links 
in this organization is the chain of command. We 
have described the roles of the commanding 
officer; the executive officer; and in chapter 4, 
the division officer. We have also described the 
functions of the various shipboard departments. 
But how do the department heads and division 
officers fit into this functional organization? 

The head of a department represents the 
commanding officer in all matters that pertain to 
that department. A department head is responsi- 
ble for and reports to the commanding officer the 
operational readiness of the department, the 
general condition of equipment, and any other 



matters relating to the department. The 
department head is also responsible for the 
administrative matters within the department. The 
department head customarily keeps the executive 
officer informed about all departmental matters 
reported to the commanding officer. 

Division officers are responsible to and, in 
general, act as assistants to department heads. The 
division officer is a major link in the ship's chain 
of command, particularly aboard a small ship. At 
the working level, the division officer carries out 
the policies of the command and ensures the 
division completes assigned tasks in a timely 
manner. 

The division officer makes frequent inspec- 
tions of personnel, spaces, equipment, and 
supplies assigned to the division. The division 
officer maintains copies of all bills and orders for 
the division and posts those that should be posted 
in conspicuous places. The division officer has the 
responsibility for training personnel in the division 
and preparing them for battle. Just as the depart- 
ment head reports to the executive officer and the 
commanding officer, the division officer reports 
to the department head. 

Ship's personnel must function as a well- 
coordinated team. In addition to using the chain 
of command, each ship maintains several guides 
to help ensure this coordination. These guides 
include the Standard Organization and Regula- 
tions of the U.S. Navy; a battle organization 
manual; and a watch, quarter, and station bill. 
These guides detail, for that particular ship, the 
assignment and duties of officers and enlisted 
personnel. For units under the ship manning 
document (SMD) or the squadron manning 
document (SQMD), the SMD or SQMD, as 
applicable, also serves as a battle organization 
manual and battle bill. 

For commanding officers to prepare their 
ships to fight to the best of their abihties, ships 
must have a special organization and system of 
communications for battle conditions. These are 
set forth in the battle organization manual. 
This document contains four chapters describ- 
ing the battle organization, conditions of 
readiness, battle bill, and interior communications 
systems. 



CONDITIONS OF READINESS 

Several different conditions of readiness have 
been established for battle or simulated war. The 
condition of readiness in effect depends on the 



16-5 



anticipated danger. Navy ships observe the 
following conditions of readiness: 

• CONDITION I— The maximum state of 
readiness for battle, with the entire crew 
at battle stations prepared for imminent 
action. This condition, also called general 
quarters (GQ), is often set for drills as well. 

• CONDITION IAS— A variation of 
CONDITION I designed to meet the threat 
of submarine attack. 

• CONDITION IE— Provides temporary 
relaxation of CONDITION I to enable 
personnel to rest on stations and to permit 
designated personnel to draw and distri- 
bute action meals at their action stations. 

• CONDITION II— A special watch 
applicable to gunfire support ships for 
situations such as extended periods of 
shore bombardment. 

• CONDITION III— The normal wartime 
cruising condition when surprise attack is 
possible. Part of the armament is manned 
and ready for immediate action. 

• CONDITION IV— Provides effective ship 
and aircraft control during peacetime 
cruising. 

• CONDITION V— Under this condition the 
ship is in port with no armament manned. 

WATCH, QUARTER, AND 
STATION BILL 

Each division officer is responsible for 
maintaining a watch, quarter, and station bill 
based on the ship's battle bill and the Standard 
Organization and Regulations of the U.S. Navy. 
The watch, quarter, and station bill shows each 
person's name, rate, billet number, and bunk 
number. In addition, it shows each person's battle 
station; watches during Conditions I, II, and III; 
station or duty assignments in case of an 
emergency, such as fire or man overboard; at-sea 
and in-port watch stations; and the cleaning 
station. 

LOGS 

Each ship in commission maintains a ship's 
deck log and an engineering log. Each ship also 



maintains an engineer's bell book as an adjunct 
to those logs. 

Persons who keep the logs make no erasures 
in these records. Only those persons required to 
sign the record for the watch may make 
corrections, additions, or changes. Persons who 
keep the logs make changes requested by 
commanding officers only if the persons consider 
them correct; otherwise, commanding officers 
enter over the persons' signature such remarks as 
they deem appropriate. 

Ship's Deck Log 

The ship's deck log is a complete daily record, 
by watches. It contains a description of every 
circumstance and occurrence of importance or 
interest about the crew and the operation and 
safety of the ship. It also contains a description 
of any circumstance or occurrence of possible 
historical value. The navigator has overall 
responsibility for preparation and care of the 
ship's deck log. The type of information noted 
in the log includes data such as the ship's 
operating orders; its courses, speeds, and 
positions; and the state of the sea and weather. 
It also includes information about damage or 
accidents to the ship or its cargo, deaths or injuries 
to personnel, and changes in the status of ship's 
personnel or passengers. The log also contains 
records of meetings or adjourning of courts- 
martial and other formal boards. The log contains 
reports of all routine inspections, which serves as 
a record of whether or not such inspections were 
made. OPNAVINST 3100.7B prescribes the 
manner and form in which the navigator should 
prepare the log. 

The ship's deck log serves as a chronological 
record of the events occurring during each watch. 
It provides necessary information to the 
commanding officer and ultimately serves as a 
historical document. Accuracy in describing 
events recorded in a ship's deck log is essential. 
Such entries often constitute important legal 
evidence in judicial and administrative fact- 
finding proceedings arising from incidents 
involving the ship or its personnel. 

Engineering Log 

The engineering log is a daily record, by 
watches, of important events and data about the 
engineering department and the operation of the 
ship's propulsion plant. The Commander, Naval 
Sea Systems Command, prescribes the manner 
and form of preparation of the log. 



16-6 



Engineer's Bell Book 

The engineer's bell book is a chronological 
record of orders pertaining to the speed of the 
engines. The book contains a record of orders 
affecting each shaft. It shows the time of receipt 
of each order to change the propeller speed, the 
meaning of the order, and the revolutions per 
minute resulting from action taken in obedience 
to that order. 



SUMMARY 

The structure of our shipboard organization 
allows ships to operate safely and effectively. 
Seldom do ships operate in exactly the same 
manner, but all classes of ships have the same 
basic organization. As new ships and new 
technologies are developed, our organizational 
structure will be adjusted to operate them 
efficiently. 

One thing that will never change, however, is 
the chain of command. Someone will always be 
ultimately responsible for the operation of the 
ship: the commanding officer. Likewise, someone 
will always be assigned to assist the commanding 
officer: the executive officer. Department heads 
and division officers will also be assigned areas 
of responsibility. 



While names and titles may change, the 
function of the chain of command will remain the 
same on naval ships. It will continue to ensure 
organization aboard the ship, which contributes 
to the accomplishment of its mission. 



REFERENCES 

Standard Organization and Regulations of the 
U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120. 32B, 
Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief 
of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C., 
1986. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Lee, David M., J.M. Brown, R. Morabito, 
H.S. Colenda, Watch Officer's Guide, 
12th ed.. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 
Md., 1986. 

Mack, W.P., and T.D. Paulsen, The Naval 
Officer's Guide, 9th ed.. Naval Institute Press, 
Annapolis, Md., 1983. 

Noel, J. v.. Division Officer's Guide, 8th ed., 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1986. 



LOG BOOK 

TODAY ANY BOUND RECORD KEPT ON A DAILY BASIS ABOARD 
SHIP IS CALLED A "LOG." ORIGINALLY, RECORDS WERE KEPT ON 
THE SAILING SHIPS BY INSCRIBING INFORMATION ONTO 
SHINGLES CUT FROM LOGS AND HINGED SO THEY OPENED LIKE 
BOOKS. WHEN PAPER BECAME MORE READILY AVAILABLE, "LOG 
BOOKS" WERE MANUFACTURED FROM PAPER AND BOUND. SHINGLES 
WERE RELEGATED TO NAVAL MUSEUMS-BUT THE SLANG TERM STUCK, 




16-7 



CHAPTER 17 



SHIP DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 

6. Describe the nuclear propulsion plant. 



1. Identify the major components of a ship's 
structure. 

2. Describe the use and identification of 
compartments of a ship. 

3. Describe the conventional steam turbine 
propulsion plant. 

4. Describe the diesel propulsion plant. 

5. Describe the gas turbine propulsion plant. 



7. Describe the damage control organization on 
Navy ships. 

8. Identify the types of fires and their primary 
extinguishing agents. 

9. Describe the importance of preventive damage 
control. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

17 Apr. 1866 $5,000 appropriated by Con- 

gress to test the use of petro- 
leum oil as fuel for ships' 
boilers. 

9 Nov. 1880 First steam-powered ship to 
circle globe, USS Ticonderoga, 
ends cruise begun on 7 Dec. 
1878. 

18 Dec. 1929 First use of a ship (USS 

Lexington) to furnish electrical 
power for a major city takes 
place at Tacoma, Washington, 
when that city suffers a power 
failure. 

17 Jan. 1955 World's first atomic submarine, 
USS Nautilus, sweeps into 
Long Island Sound at start 
of maiden voyage, signahng 
back to New London, Con- 
necticut, "Underway on nuclear 
power ..." 



Looking at two different types of Navy ships, 
you might notice several differences. Upon closer 
comparison, however, you might also notice many 
similarities. All use compartmentation to increase 
their ability to remain afloat in case they suffer 
damage. All use some type of propulsion plant 
and provide their own electrical power. They also 
use similar damage control equipment and 
procedures. 

In this chapter we will look at some of the 
similarities and differences of Navy ships. We will 
also give a brief overview of the various types of 
propulsion plants used by these ships. Lastly, we 
will look at one of the most important areas 
shipboard personnel have to deal with — damage 
control. 



SHIP'S BASIC STRUCTURE 

The major components of a ship's structure 
include the plating, keel, framing, bulkheads, and 
decks. Each plays a part in creating a ship from 
a mass of steel. 



17-1 



PLATING 

A ship is structurally a box girder. Shell plating 
forms the sides and bottom of the box girder, and 
the weather deck forms the top. The point where 
the weather deck (main and forecastle decks) and 
the side plating meet is called the deck edge or 
gunwale (pronounced gun-ul). The location where 
the bottom plating and the side plating meet is 
called the bilge. Usually the bottom is rounded 
into the side of the ship to some degree; this 
rounding is called the turn of the bilge. 

Most merchant ships, aircraft carriers, and 
auxiliary ships have a boxlike midship section with 
vertical sides and a flat bottom, as shown in figure 
17-1. High-speed ships such as destroyers and 
cruisers, however, have rising bottoms and broad, 
rounded bilges. This shape is partially, although 



not entirely, responsible for the high speed of 
these ships. 

Individual shell plates are usually rectangular 
in shape; the short sides are referred to as the ends, 
and the long sides are called edges. End joints are 
known as butts and edge joints as seams. Plates 
are joined together at the butts to form long strips 
of plating running lengthwise; these fore-and-aft 
rows of plating are called strakes. The uppermost 
side strake, at the gunwale, is known as the sheer 
strake. It is thicker than most strakes since it must 
withstand high stresses at these corners as the ship 
bends over wave crests. The outer weather-deck 
strake, known as the stringer strake, also 
contributes to the strength of the hull. The shell 
plating, together with the weather deck, forms the 
watertight envelope of the ship. The internal 
structural members of the hull reinforce the 
watertight capacity of the hull. 



STRINGER 
STRAKE 



NNER BOTTOM PLATING 



TRANSVERSE 
FRAME 




BUTT 
CONNECTION 

SEAM 
CONNECTION 



STANCHION 



LONGITUDINAL 
FRAME 



A" STRAKE 



KEEL 



Figure 17-1.— The ship's basic structure. 



17-2 



KEEL 

Another structural member of a ship is the 
keel, which runs the length of the ship's bottom 
from the stem to the stern post. It acts as a 
backbone, performing a function similar to that 
of the human spine. The keel of a metal ship does 
not project below the bottom as does the fin keel 
of a sailboat, but lies entirely within the ship. It 
consists of plates and angles built into an I-beam 
shape. The lower flange of the I-beam structure 
is the flat plate keel that forms the center strake 
of the bottom plating. The web of the I beam is 
the center vertical keel. The height of the center 
vertical keel varies from about 2 feet in small ships 
to nearly 7 feet in large ships. The upper flange 
of the I beam is called the rider plate. If the vessel 
is fitted with an inner bottom, the rider plate 
forms the center strake of the inner bottom plat- 
ing. At the ends of the vessel, the keel is joined 
to the stem and stern posts, which complete the 
backbone. The keel accepts the major portion of 
load during dry-docking of the ship. 

FRAMING 

Two sets of stiffening members called frames 
help the shell plating resist the pressure of water, 
wind, and waves. Transverse frames extend from 
the keel outward around the turn of the bilge and 
up the sides like the ribs of the human skeleton. 
Closely spaced along the length of the ship, they 
define the form of the ship. Longitudinals, also 
called longitudinal frames or stringers, run parallel 
to the keel along the bottom, bilge, and side 
plating. They tie the transverse frames and 
bulkheads together along the length of the ship. 

When two sets of frames intersect, openings 
in one set must be cut to make way for the other. 
Those which are not cut are known as continuous 
frames. When smaller frames butt into larger 
frames without being continuous, they are called 
intercostal frames. Therefore, ship construction 
requires two methods of framing. One method 
uses continuous transverse riblike frames with 
intercostal longitudinals between them or 
sufficient plating thickness to eliminate 
longitudinal members altogether. In this method 
the transverse frames are spaced about every 2 feet 
along the length of the ship. Ships built by this 
method are known as transversely framed vessels. 
Most merchant cargo ships and wooden ships are 
built in this fashion. The alternate method uses 
many continuous longitudinals along the length 
of the ship with the transverse frames spaced 



farther apart. Ships built by this method are 
known as longitudinally framed ships. Most naval 
ships are built this way. The plating loaded on 
the short edges of longitudinally framed ships has 
a higher buckhng strength to resist the loads. 
Therefore, although the construction for longi- 
tudinally framed ships is the more difficult 
method, ships built by this method are stronger 
for a given weight. 



BULKHEADS 

The interior of the ship is divided into 
compartments either by vertical bulkheads (walls), 
which are watertight, or joiner bulkheads, which 
are not watertight. Structural bulkheads, which 
are watertight, also divide the ship into compart- 
ments but give the ship contour, shape, rigidity, 
and strength as well. They may be transverse 
bulkheads extending athwartships or longitudinal 
bulkheads extending fore and aft. They not only 
subdivide the ship, but tie the shell plating, 
framing, and decks together in a rigid structure. 
Transverse bulkheads are numbered to correspond 
with the transverse frames at which they are 
located. 



DECKS 

The compartments of a ship are further 
divided by a series of decks and platforms into 
tiers. The floor of a ship's compartment is 
normally called the deck, and the ceiling is called 
the overhead. 

The decks of most ships consist of rectangular 
steel plates, similar to the shell plating, joined into 
strakes. The plates in the outermost strake of deck 
plating, called stringer plates, are connected to the 
shell plating. Transverse and longitudinal deck 
beams and deck girders on the underside of the 
deck strengthen the deck plating. These beams and 
girders usually consist of I beams or T beams 
fastened to the shell frames by triangular steel 
brackets. Decks above the waterline usually are 
arched (cambered) so that they are higher at 
the centerline. The camber aids in drainage of 
water. 

The name of a deck depends on its position 
in the ship and its use or function. Decks 
extending from side to side and from stem to stern 
are complete decks; decks occurring only in 
certain portions of the vessel are partial decks. 
The uppermost complete deck is the main deck. 



17-3 



The complete decks below the main deck (fig. 
17-2) are the second deck, third deck, and so 
forth. Partial decks that do not extend 
continuously from bow to stern have special 
names, such as the following: 

• Forecastle deck: A partial deck above the 
main deck at the bow. It is used primarily 
on merchant ships and is designated the 01 
level on naval ships. 

• Upper deck: Above the main deck from 
the bow to abaft amidships on merchant 
ships. It is referred to in naval ships as the 
01 level. Succeeding levels above are 
named the 02 level, 03 level, and so forth. 

• Poop deck: Above the main deck in the 
stern, usually only in merchant ships. It is 
designated the 01 level on naval ships. 

• Platform deck: Below the lowest complete 
deck. Platforms are numbered downward, 
such as first platform, second platform, 
and so on. 

Miscellaneous working platforms or flats 
consisting of gratings are located in the machinery 
spaces. These platforms aid in the access to and 
operation of the ship's propulsion equipment. 

In addition to the foregoing nomenclature, 
some decks are known by names describing their 
use or function. In aircraft carriers the uppermost 
complete deck is the flight deck, and the deck 
immediately below it is the gallery deck. The main 
deck is known as the hangar deck. The levels or 
decks above the hangar (main) deck are called the 
01 level (first level above the hangar) and the 02 
level (second level above the hangar). The gallery 



deck is also known as the 03 level and the flight 
deck as the 04 level. 

COMPARTMENTATION 

A cargo ship has only a few decks, and its 
bulkheads are widely spaced. The resulting 
compartments are identified by their primary 
purpose, such as cargo holds. In some cases, cargo 
holds are large enough to accommodate many 
tons of cargo. Passenger ships have smaller holds, 
the remainder of the space being divided by decks 
and bulkheads into smaller Uving compartments 
for passengers. Naval ships are usually more 
extensively compartmented than merchant ships. 
Their watertight compartmentation is more than 
a matter of dividing or segregating various 
activities aboard ship. The ability of a naval ship 
to withstand damage depends largely upon its 
compartmentation. In case of damage, the 
watertight boundaries of the compartments 
restrict floodwaters and stand as a barrier between 
them and the undamaged portion of the vessel. 
Extensive compartmentation lessens the amount 
of seawater that will enter the vessel through a 
rupture in its shell plating. 

Watertight Integrity 

If a compartment is not watertight, it is useless 
as a flood barrier. The quality of watertightness 
is known as watertight integrity. The greater the 
watertight integrity of a compartment, the more 
effectively it Umits flooding. The battle to 
maintain the watertight integrity of the ship as a 
whole is a complicated and never-ceasing one. 
Many members of a ship's crew spend hours 
patroUing and inspecting the ship to maintain its 
watertight integrity and keep it in battle trim. 









05 






SUPER- 1 
STRUCTURE ) 


04 






03 






02 




POOP (01) 




UPPER 


DECK 1 


FORECASTLE (01) 


\ \ MAIN DECK 






MAIN DECK y^ / 


V 




SECOND DECK / 


\ 








THIRD DECK / 






BOILER AND 
MACHINERY SPACES 


FIRST PLATFORM / 


»^ , 




SECOND PLATFORM / 




— 11-.. 


HOLD / 




"m 










1l ' 



'DOUBLE BOTTOMS 



Figure 17-2. — Decks and platforms divide the ship into tiers of compartments. 



17-4 



Countless holes pierce watertight compart- 
ments to accommodate doors and hatches; water, 
steam, oil and air piping; electrical cables; 
ventilation ducts; and other necessary utilities. 
Each hole is plugged by a stuffing tube, a pipe 
spool, or some other device to prevent water from 
leaking in and around piping and cables. Piping 
and ventilation ducts are equipped with cutoff 
valves or other closures at each main bulkhead 
so that they can be closed off if ruptured. Ships 
enforce rigid restrictions against opening 
watertight doors or hatches during action or in 
dangerous waters. A ship must take all of these 
"defense" precautions to ensure its full fighting 
capability. 

The main transverse watertight bulkheads 
contain no access doors or hatches below the 
damage control deck. The damage control deck 
is the lowest deck that permits fore-and-aft access, 
and that access is by watertight doors. The 
damage control deck is usually the first deck 
below the main deck. 

Compartment Numbering System 

This chapter does not discuss the numbering 
system for compartments of ships built before 
1949. However, if you are stationed aboard one 
of these ships, you will be required to learn that 
numbering system as part of your damage control 
qualification. 

In ships built after March 1949, each compart- 
ment number indicates that compartment's deck 
number, frame number, relation to the centerline 
of the ship, and usage. A hyphen separates the 
numbers and letters representing each type of 
information. The following is an example of a 
common compartment number and what each 
part of the number represents: 

3-75-4-M 

3 — third deck 

75 — forward boundary at or immediately 
abaft of frame 75 

4 — second compartment outboard of CL to 
port 

M — ammunition compartment 

We will now explain how each part of the 
compartment number is assigned. 

DECK NUMBER.— The main deck is deck 
number 1 . The first deck or horizontal division 
below the main deck is number 2; the second 



below, number 3; and so forth. If a compartment 
extends down to the shell of the ship, the number 
assigned the bottom compartment is used. The 
first horizontal division above the main deck is 
number 01 , the second above 02, and so on. The 
deck number, indicating its vertical position 
within the ship, becomes the first part of the 
compartment number. 

FRAME NUMBER.— The frame number at 
the foremost bulkhead of the enclosing boundary 
of a compartment is its frame location number. 
When a forward boundary lies between frames, 
the frame number forward is used. Fractional 
numbers are used only when frame spacing 
exceeds 4 feet. 

RELATION TO CENTERLINE— Compart- 
ments through which the centerline of the ship 
passes carry the number in the third part of the 
compartment number. Compartments located 
completely to starboard of the centerline have odd 
numbers; those completely to port bear even 
numbers. Two or more compartments that have 
the same deck and frame number and are entirely 
starboard or entirely port of the centerline have 
consecutively higher odd or even numbers, as the 
case may be. They are numbered from the 
centerline outboard. For example, the first 
compartment outboard of the centerline to 
starboard is 1; the second, 3; and so on. Similarly, 
the first compartment outboard of the centerline 
to port is 2; the second, 4; and so on. 

COMPARTMENT USAGE— The fourth 
and last part of the compartment number is a 
capital letter that identifies the assigned primary 
usage of the compartment. Since most ships do 
not consider a secondary usage of compartments, 
they identify them by a single letter only. 
However, dry and liquid cargo ships do not follow 
this practice. These ships use a double-letter 
identification to designate compartments assigned 
to cargo carrying. Ships assign letter 
identifications as follows: 



Letter and Category 
A — Dry stowage 



C — Ship control and 
fire control operating 
spaces 



Types of Spaces 

Storerooms, issue 
rooms, refrigerated 
spaces 

Plotting rooms, CIC, 
radio, radar, sonar 
operating spaces, pilot- 
house 



17-5 



E — Engineering spaces Main propulsion 

spaces; pump, genera- 
tor, and windlass 
rooms 



each with its own advantages and disadvan- 
tages: 

• Conventional steam turbines 



F — Oil stowage 



G — Gasoline stowage 



J— JP-5 tanks 

K — Chemicals and 
dangerous 
materials 



L — Living spaces 



M — Ammunition 

T — Vertical access 
trunks 

V— Voids 



W — Water stowage 



Fuel oil, diesel oil, and 
lubricating oil tanks 

Gasoline tank com- 
partments, cofferdams, 
trunks, and pump 
rooms 

Aircraft fuel stowage 

Stowage of chemicals 
and semisafe and dan- 
gerous materials, ex- 
cept oil and gasoline 
tanks 

Berthing and messing 
spaces, medical and 
dental areas, and 
passageways 

Stowage and handUng 



Cofferdam compart- 
ments, other than 
gasoline; void wing 
compartments 

Compartments storing 
water, including bilge, 
sump, and peak tanks 



Q — Spaces not other- Ship's offices, laundry 
wise covered rooms, galleys, pan- 

tries, and wiring trunks 

The double letters AA, FF, and GG identify 
spaces used to carry cargo. 



PROPULSION PLANTS 

All ships require a means of propulsion. Navy 
ships use four types of propulsion plants. 



• Diesel engines 

• Gas turbines 

• Nuclear power plants 
CONVENTIONAL STEAM TURBINES 

The substance that operates a conventional 
steam turbine plant is steam. The plant produces 
steam (generation phase) to drive the turbines 
(expansion phase). It then condenses the steam 
(condensation phase) and reuses it (feed phase) 
to make steam again, as shown in figure 17-3. 

One of the advantages of the steam propulsion 
plant is that it is a high-power system with the 
ability to propel combatant ships at high speeds. 
Another advantage is that ships can use it for a 
variety of auxiliary services, such as laundry and 
galley operations and hot water heaters. 

Disadvantages include its bulkiness and the 
compHcation of the system. It is the slowest of 
the plants used as far as preparations for 
underway operations. Additionally, it consists of 
a relatively large number of operating stations, 
requiring higher manning. 

Lets look at each of these four phases a little 
closer. 

Generation 

Steam is generated in the boiler. Naval 
propulsion boilers operate at 600 psi or 1 ,200 psi. 
A pressure-temperature relationship exists in the 
generation phase. At higher pressures, water must 
be heated to a higher temperature before the water 
will boil and produce steam. At 600 psi the boiling 
temperature is 489 °F. At 1,200 psi the boiUng 
temperature is 567 °F. 

In the pressure vessel of the boiler, steam 
cannot be further heated unless all the water is 
first boiled. Having some water in the boiler is 
necessary to ensure heal flow and to prevent the 
boiler tubes from melting. 

As steam is drawn from the steam drum, it 
first passes through separators to remove 
moisture. It then passes through the superheater, 
which further heats the steam to a higher tem- 
perature. Superheated steam has more energy per 
unit mass for conversion to mechanical energy. 



17-6 



WORK OUT: THERMAL 

ENERGY OF STEAM 

CONVERTED TO MECHANICAL 

ENERGY IN TURBINES 



SATURATED steam" 



GENERATING 
TUBES 



HEAT IN: CHEMICAL ENERGY OF 

FUEL CONVERTED TO THERMAL ENERGY 

IN BOILER FURNACE 




ECONOMIZER 



"~-s/^~A WATER 
V_y DRUM 






THERMAL ENERGY OF 

AUXILIARY STEAM 

CONVERTED TO 

MECHANICAL ENERGY 



CONDENSATE 

PUMP 



THERMAL ENERGY OF 
AUXILIARY STEAM 
CONVERTED TO 
MECHANICAL ENERGY 




THERMAL ENERGY OF 
AUXILIARY EXHAUST STEAM 
USED HERE TO HEAT AND 
DEAERATE FEED WATER 



Figure 17-3. — Energy relationships in the basic propulsion cycle of conventional steam-driven ships. 



Since superheated steam is dry, it causes less 
corrosion of piping and machinery. 

For auxiliary purposes, some steam is desuper- 
heated by passing through the desuperheater 
piping located in the steam drum. The superheated 
steam is then ready for use to drive the turbine. 



Expansion 

In the expansion phase the thermal energy of 
the steam is converted to mechanical energy in the 
turbines. Turbines use nozzles to convert the 
higher pressure of the steam into a high velocity. 
The kinetic energy of the steam is then transferred 
to the turbine blading, creating the mechanical 
energy of the turbine rotor. That, in turn, through 
the reduction gears, turns the propellers. 



Condensation 

As the steam leaves, or exhausts through, the 
turbine, it is condensed so that the feedwater may 
be reused. One boiler can generate 150,000 pounds 
of steam per hour. If the feedwater were not 
recovered, the system would require an enor- 
mously large evaporator to produce the required 
feedwater. 

As the steam exhausts into the main con- 
denser, seawater passes through tubes in the 
condenser. The cool seawater cools the steam to 
the point of condensation. The condenser operates 
at a vacuum, which helps this process and 
increases the efficiency of the system. 

The condensate pump takes a suction from the 
main condenser hot well and delivers the 
condensate (condensed steam) into the condensate 
piping system and the air ejector condenser. The 



17-7 



air ejector condenser removes the air and 
noncondensable gases from the condensate before 
they enter the deaerating feed tank (DFT). 

Feed 

The feed phase starts in the DFT. The DFT 
preheats the feedwater and removes dissolved 
gases. The dissolved gases, if not removed, will 
cause erosion and deterioration of the boiler 
tubes. 

The main feed booster pump and main feed 
pump increase the feedwater pressure to a pressure 
greater than the operating pressure of the boiler. 
The increased pressure ensures a flow of feedwater 
through the boiler. That brings us back to the 
point where we started. Thus, the system is a 
closed system. 

DIESEL ENGINES 

Diesel engines are the favored means of power 
for medium and light vessels. They are relatively 
low-cost power plants to produce, are reliable, and 
have a high fuel-efficiency rate. They can also be 
started from a cold-plant condition and rapidly 
brought on line. 

The cycle of operation for diesel engines starts 
with the intake of air. Next the air is compressed. 
Following compression, combustion occurs. The 
combustion produces a rapid expansion of gases 
in the cylinder. This downward expansion is the 
power stroke of the cylinder. As the waste gases 
exhaust, new air intake occurs to start the cycle 
over again. 

Each cycle causes the pistons within the 
cylinders to reciprocate. The rotary motion of the 
pistons, connected to the crankshaft, drives the 
propellers. 

Among the disadvantages are the frequent 
overhaul and periodic maintenance requirements 
and the power limitations of the engines. Diesels 
cannot develop enough power to meet the high- 
speed requirement of combatant ships. 

GAS TURBINES 

In gas turbines, as in diesel engines, the 
working substance is air. They are open systems; 
that means the air passes through the engine once 
and is discharged back to the atmosphere. 

Air is drawn into the compressor from the 
atmosphere. The compressor raises the pressure 
of the air and discharges it to the combustion 
chamber, where fuel is admitted. Here, as the 



fuel-air mixture ignites, combustion occurs. The 
hot combustion gases then expand and enter the 
turbine. This turbine is similar in design and 
theory to that of the conventional steam turbine. 
Approximately 75 percent of the power developed 
by the turbine is used to drive the compressor and 
accessory systems. The remaining power is used 
as engine output. 

The shaft of a gas turbine ship rotates in one 
direction only. An external method of reversing 
the direction of travel of the ship is required to 
propel the ship forward or backward. This 
problem is overcome by the reversible pitch 
propeller. As the shaft turns in one direction, the 
ship is propelled forward or backward by a change 
in the propeller pitch. 

Because of the high rotational speed and high 
temperatures of the gas turbine, operational 
parameters must be closely monitored. Auto- 
mated central operating systems have been 
developed to monitor those parameters, thus 
keeping the manning level low. 

Two disadvantages of gas turbines are that the 
engine must be removed for overhaul and that it 
needs a high volume of air for operation. 
However, these two disadvantages complement 
each other because the engine can be removed 
through the large ducts needed to accommodate 
the high volume of air. 

Gas turbines are becoming the preferred 
propulsion plant for several ship types. They are 
very light and compact and offer a high-power 
plant that is relatively inexpensive to build. They 
are as fuel efficient as a conventional steam plant. 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

Nuclear power plants are very similar to 
conventional steam turbine plants. The major 
difference is that a nuclear reactor replaces the 
boiler as the device that generates steam. 

Submarines are ideally suited for a nuclear 
power plant because their reactor does not need 
a supply of air from the atmosphere. Before the 
advent of nuclear power, submarines ran on 
motors charged by d.c. batteries when submerged. 
When surfaced, diesel engines supplied power for 
the submarine and recharged the batteries. The 
charge of the batteries limited the endurance of 
the submerged submarine. Nuclear power plants 
enable submarines to remain submerged for 
extended periods. 

Nuclear reactors transfer the energy emitted 
by the fission of radioactive material into thermal 
energy. A primary and a secondary system (or 



17-8 



loop) generate steam. Water in the primary loop 
(fig. 17-4) is heated but not converted to steam. 
The water in the primary loop flows from the 
reactor to a heat exchanger called the steam 
generator. Here, the high-temperature, high- 
pressure water in the primary loop heats the water 
in the secondary loop until it becomes steam. The 
water in the primary loop then returns to the 
reactor by the primary coolant pump. The steam 
generated in the secondary loop, which is not 
superheated, goes to the turbine. This portion of 
the secondary loop uses a condenser and a feed 
pump similar to the conventional steam turbine 
plant. 

The nuclear power plant has two primary ad- 
vantages — infrequent fueling requirements and no 
need for combustion air. The abiUty of the plant 
to operate without combustion air, as previously 
mentioned, makes it ideal for use in submarines. 
The nuclear power plant is, however, expensive 
to build and extremely heavy; it requires highly 
trained personnel for its operation. 

DAMAGE CONTROL 

An area of engineering that should by no 
means be considered secondary is damage control 
(DC). Damage control is an all-hands evolution 
on Navy ships that can never be overemphasized. 

DAMAGE CONTROL ORGANIZATION 

Damage control is divided into two phases — 
administrative and battle. The administrative 



phase requires the efforts of all hands in 
establishing and maintaining material readiness 
conditions. (Material readiness means all 
equipment aboard ship is available and in a 
working condition to combat any emergency.) The 
battle phase starts after a ship has received damage 
and must restore its offensive and defensive 
capabihties. All hands must be trained in both 
phases if the ship is to achieve its damage control 
objectives. 

When properly carried out, the first or initial 
action taken helps reduce and confine any damage 
received. Strict use of compartment checkoff lists 
ensures the full protection offered by each 
material readiness condition. 

Once the ship has been damaged, the ship's 
DC organization is responsible for restoring the 
ship to as near normal operation as possible. The 
ship's engineer officer is responsible for the 
operational readiness of the DC organization. 
Under the engineer officer the damage control 
assistant (DCA) coordinates the efforts of 
repair parties in the control of damage. These 
efforts include controlling the ship's stability; 
fighting fires; repairing damage; and using 
chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) 
defense measures. The DCA also ensures that 
the crew receives training in all damage con- 
trol evolutions. In some instances, the DCA 
and the engineer officer may be the same 
person. 



SECONDARY SYSTEM 



PRIMARY SYSTEM - 

SECONDARY 




FEED PUMP 



Figure 17-4. — Naval nuclear power propulsion plant. 



17-9 



Damage Control Central 

The primary purpose of damage control 
central (DCC) is to determine the condition of the 
ship and the corrective action to be taken. DCC 
makes this determination by collecting and 
comparing reports from the various repair 
stations. 

The DCA is assigned to damage control 
central, the nerve center and directing force of the 
entire damage control organization. Representa- 
tives of various shipboard divisions are also 
assigned to DCC. 

Reports from repair parties are carefully 
checked. This information enables DCC to initiate 
immediate action to isolate damaged systems and 
to make emergency repairs in the most effective 
manner. Under the direction of the DCA, graphic 
records of the damage are made on various 
damage control diagrams and status boards as 
reports are received. For example, reports on 
flooding are recorded, as they come in, on a status 
board that indicates liquid distribution (fuel and 
water) before the damage occurred. With this 
information, the stability and buoyancy of the 
ship can be estimated and the necessary corrective 
measures can be taken. 

If damage control central is destroyed or is for 
other reasons unable to retain control, designated 
repair stations take over the responsibilities of 
damage control central. 

Repair Parties 

All ships have at least one repair party; most 
have three or more. Each party has an officer, 
a chief petty officer, or a senior petty officer in 
charge. This person is called the repair locker 
leader or repair party leader. The makeup of each 
repair party depends upon the type of ship, the 
section of the ship assigned to the repair party, 
and the number of personnel available. The 
following chart lists the repair parties and their 
assigned areas of responsibility: 

Repair Party Location or Function 



Repair 1 


Main deck repair 


Repair 2 


Forward repair 


Repair 3 


After repair 


Repair 4 


Amidship repair 


Repair 5 


Propulsion repair 


Repair 6 


Ordnance 


Repair 7 


Gallery deck and island structure 


Repair 8 


Electronics 



Additionally, aircraft carriers and ships 
equipped for helicopter operations have crash and 
salvage teams and personnel trained to repair 
damaged aviation fuel piping systems. Carriers 
also have an ordnance disposal team. 

The specific purpose of each repair party 
depends on its area of responsibihty. Each repair 
party must be able to perform the following 
functions: 

1. Make repairs to electrical and sound- 
powered telephone circuits, and rig casualty 
power 

2. Give first aid and transport injured 
personnel to battle dressing stations 
without seriously reducing the party's 
damage control capabilities 

3. Detect, identify, and measure radiation 
dose and dose rate intensities; decon- 
taminate the affected areas of nuclear, 
biological, and chemical attacks 

4. Identify, control, and extinguish all types 
of fires 

5. Evaluate and report correctly the extent of 
damage in the repair party's area of 
responsibility 

6. Control flooding 

7. Make repairs to various piping systems 

8. Be familiar with all damage control fittings 
in their assigned areas, such as watertight 
doors, hatches, scuttles, ventilation 
systems, and various valves 

On large ships each party is subdivided into 
several units and assigned to the various sectors 
of the repair party's area of responsibility. That 
speeds up inspections and reduces the chances of 
an entire repair party's becoming a casualty. Each 
unit estabHshes patrols, normally consisting of 
three persons who determine material conditions 
in their sectors. These patrols report to their repair 
party headquarters, which, in turn, reports to 
DCC. When all hands are on board, major emer- 
gencies are met with the crew at general quarters. 
In port, with all hands not on board, each duty 
section has a duty in-port fire party and a rescue 
and assistance detail. If any emergency arises, all 
personnel not assigned specific duties fall in at 
quarters. These personnel are then available to 
assist the duty in-port fire party and the rescue 
and assistance detail. 



17-10 



FIRE AND FIRE FIGHTING 

Fire is a constant threat aboard ship. 
Personnel must take all possible measures to 
prevent a fire or, if one is started, to extinguish 
it quickly. Fires have several causes: spontaneous 
combustion, carelessness, hits by enemy shells, or 
a collision. If the fire is not controlled quickly, 
it could cause more damage than the initial 
casualty and could cause the loss of the ship. 

Fighting fires is primarily handled by repair 
parties. However, you must learn all you can 
about fire fighting so that you will know what to 
do if called upon. 

Fires are classified into four types based on 
the type of material burning and the fire-fighting 
agents and methods required to extinguish the fire: 

1 . Class A fires involve solid materials that 
leave an ash, such as wood, cloth, and paper. 
Water is the primary means of extinguishing class 
A fires. Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be used on 
small fires, but not on explosives. The flames of 
a large fire usually must first be knocked down 
(cooled) with fog. The material, particularly 
mattresses and similar articles, is then broken up 
with a solid stream for further cooling. 

2. Class B fires involve flammable liquids 
such as oil, gasoline, and paint. The best 
extinguishing agent for class B fires is aqueous 
film forming foam (AFFF). Another good 
extinguishing agent is Halon. Halon systems are 
being installed for combating class B and C fires. 
For small fires, or in a confined space like a paint 
locker, CO2 is a good extinguisher. For large fires, 
other agents such as a water fog or foam must 
be used. A solid water stream should NEVER be 
used on a class B fire. The stream will simply 
penetrate the flammable liquid's surface, with no 
cooling effect, and scatter the liquid, thus 
spreading the fire. 

Class B fires involve the three temperature 
levels of flash point, fire point, and ignition point. 
A small spark may be all that is needed for 
ignition. Fire will flash across a surface, but will 
not continue to burn; however, the flash may be 
hot enough to ignite some other material or to 
injure personnel. 

3. Class C fires are those associated with 
electrical or electronic equipment. The primary 
extinguishing agent is CO2, but high-velocity fog 
may be used as a last resort. Foam should not be 
used as it will damage the equipment and may 
present a shock hazard. A solid water stream 



should NEVER be used. If at all possible, electri- 
cal power to the equipment should be secured. 
4. Class D fires involve metals, such as 
magnesium, sodium, and titanium. These metals 
are used in the manufacture of certain parts of 
aircraft, missiles, electronic components, and 
other equipment. A typical example is the 
magnesium aircraft parachute flare. This flare 
burns at a temperature above 4000 °F with a 
brilliancy of 2 million candlepower. Since water 
coming in contact with burning magnesium 
produces highly explosive hydrogen gas, a solid 
water stream should NEVER be used on this type 
of fire. However, low-velocity fog can put out the 
fire in a matter of seconds with little danger. 
Jettisoning the burning object overboard is 
another method. 

Despite the most carefully observed safety 
precautions, a fire may still occur. If you discover 
a fire, report it immediately so that fire-fighting 
operations can be started. The efforts of even one 
person may contain the fire until the arrival of 
the fire party. If the fire threatens to get out of 
control, try to prevent it from spreading. Secure 
all doors, hatches, and other openings in the fire 
area, including ventilation ducts, to confine the 
fire within a specific boundary. You can establish 
a primary fire boundary by cooling all bulkheads, 
decks, and overheads surrounding the fire area. 
Always ensure dewatering equipment (pumps) is 
ready for immediate use in case of a fire. The 
amount of water used for fighting the fire and 
for cooling purposes may cause a serious ship 
stability problem. 

PREVENTIVE DAMAGE CONTROL 

Naval ships are designed to resist accidental 
and battle damage. Damage-resistant features 
include structural strength, watertight compart- 
mentation, stability, and buoyancy. Maintaining 
these features and a high state of material and 
personnel readiness before damage does more to 
save the ship than any measures taken after 
damage. Ninety percent of the damage control 
needed to save a ship takes place before damage 
and only 10 percent after the damage. 

The division damage control petty officer 
(DCPO) is one person in the DC organization who 
helps to ensure that preventive damage control 
measures have been taken. The DCPO oversees 
the maintenance of divisional DC equipment and 
also assists in training divisional personnel in DC. 

Always keep in mind that damage control is 
an all-hands evolution. The best way to defend 



17-11 



against damage is to prevent it. If damage occurs, 
however, all hands must be trained in damage 
control procedures to prevent the loss of the ship. 

SUMMARY 

In this chapter we introduced you to the major 
structural components of ships and how they 
affect the watertight integrity of the ship. We also 
explained the system of numbering ship 
compartments. 

The four primary propulsion plants used by 
the Navy are the conventional steam turbine, 
diesel engine, gas turbine, and nuclear power 
plant. We discussed the advantages and dis- 
advantages of each type. 

Last but not least, we talked about damage 
control. Once again, remember that damage 
control is an all-hands evolution. 



REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 
12043, Naval Education and Training 
Program Management Support Activity, 
Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 

Principles of Naval Engineering, NAVPERS 
10788-Bl, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Navy 
Department, Washington, D.C., 1970. 



SUGGESTED READING 

Bland, D. A., A. E. Bock, and D. J. Richardson, 
Introduction to Naval Engineering, 2d ed., 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1985. 

Felger, D. G., Engineering for the Officer of the 
Deck, Naval Institute Press, Annapohs, Md., 
1979. 



KNOT 



THE TERM "KNOT" OR "NAUTICAL 
DENOTE A SHIP'S SPEED THROUGH WA 
WITH ELECTRONIC DEVICES. BUT 200 
UNKNOWN. INGENIOUS MARINERS DEVI 
BOTH EASY TO USE AND RELIABLE: 
METHOD WE GET THE TERM "KNOT." 

THE LOG LINE WAS A LENGTH OF 
INTERVALS BY COLORED KNOTS. AT 
CHIP; IT WAS SHAPED LIKE THE SE 
ED AT THE ROUNDED END WITH LEAD. 
IT WOULD FLOAT POINTING UPWARD A 
STATIONARY. THE LOG LINE WAS ALL 
SIDE FOR 28 SECONDS AND THEN HAU 
PASSED OVER THE SIDE WERE COUNTE 
SPEED WAS MEASURED. 



MILE" IS USED WORLD WIDE TO 
TER. TODAY, WE MEASURE KNOTS 

YEARS AGO SUCH DEVICES WERE 
SED A SPEED MEASURING DEVICE 
THE " LOG LINE." FROM THIS 

TWINE MARKED AT 47.33-FOOT 
NE END WAS FASTENED A LOG 
CTOR OF A CIRCLE AND WEIGHT- 
WHEN THROWN OVER THE STERN, 
ND WOULD REMAIN RELATIVELY 
OWED TO RUN FREE OVER THE 
LED ON BOARD. KNOTS THAT HAD 
D. IN THIS WAY THE SHIP'S 




17-12 



CHAPTER 18 



EXTERNAL EQUIPMENT OF SHIPS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Identify the ground tackle used on Navy ships. 

2. Identify the boats and survival equipment used 
on Navy ships. 



3. Identify various equipment used on the bridge 
of Navy ships. 

4. State the purpose of antennas and radar on 
Navy ships. 



The external equipment of a ship differs 
according to ship type. For example, a guided- 
missile cruiser (CG) might have guns, missiles, 
torpedoes, and a close-in weapons system (CIWS). 
However, a tank landing ship (LST) may only 
have guns and the CIWS for armament. The LST 
has bow ramps and a stern gate, but the CG 
doesn't. Both ships have similar ground tackle, 
boats, and survival gear. 

In this chapter we will look at some of the 
ground tackle used on Navy ships. We will also 
identify some of the boats, survival gear, bridge 
equipment, and other various gear used on Navy 
ships. 



GROUND TACKLE 

Ground tackle is the equipment ships use in 
anchoring and mooring with anchors. It includes 
anchors; anchor cables and chains; and as- 
sociated equipment, such as chain stoppers, 
bending shackles, outboard swivel shots, and 
detachable hnks. Figure 18-1 shows a typical 
ground tackle arrangement on a forecastle. 

ANCHORS 

Anchors can be defined by their stowage 
locations aboard ship or by their type of 
construction. Bower anchors are carried on the 



PELICAN HOOK 



VERTICAL 
WINDLASS 



CHAIN STOPPER^ 



STARBOARD ANCHOR 
SECURED IN HAWSEPIPE) 




Figure 18-1. — Typical ground tackle and chain stowage. 



18-1 



bow and are secured (housed) in the hawsepipe. 
Stern anchors are carried on the stern. On landing 
ships and craft, stern anchors are used to assist 
them in pulling away from beaches. 

The most common types of anchors used 
aboard ship are the stockless and the lightweight 
(or stock in crown). The two anchors shown in 
figure 18-2 are of Navy design. The stockless types 
are used chiefly as bow anchors (bowers) on most 
Navy ships. Originally, the lightweight types were 
used only on small boats and as stern anchors on 
landing ships and craft. Recently, however, they 
have made their appearance as bowers for several 
types of vessels. 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

Modern Navy anchor chains consist of 
studded links of high-strength steel. (Studs are 
crosspieces of metal forged or welded in the center 
of the links to prevent the chain from kinking.) 
The chains are made up of 15-fathom (90-foot) 
sections called standard shots. The number of 
shots per chain depends on the size of the ship. 
Shots are secured together by detachable links that 
can be readily disassembled whenever the chain 
must be broken. 

STOWING CHAIN 

As the chain comes aboard, it passes along the 
deck on metal flash plates, over the wildcat, and 
down into the chain locker, as shown in figure 
18-1 . Its bitter end is secured to a ring bolt on the 
bulkhead of the chain locker. 




BILL OR PEA 



FLUKE 



— SHANK 



CROWN 

STANDARD STOCKLESS 




LIGHT WEIGHT TYPE (LWT) 



Figure 18-2. — Anchor types. 



ANCHOR WINDLASSES 

The Navy uses two types of anchor windlasses 
for Hfting the ship's anchor. Most combatant 
ships use the vertical shaft type (fig. 18-1). 
Amphibious and auxiliary ships use the horizontal 
shaft type. Both types are equipped with 
wildcats, which engage the link of the anchor 
chain. The wildcat may be disengaged when the 
capstan (vertical type) or the gypsy heads 
(horizontal type) are used for handling lines 
or wire. 



BOATS AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT 

Some ships carry boats used to transport 
personnel. These boats can be used for routine 
or survival purposes. Another type of boat, the 
lifeboat, is used strictly for survival purposes. 

BOATS 

The term boat refers to a noncommissioned 
waterborne vessel that is not designated as a 
service craft. A boat is capable of limited 
independent operation. Officer and personnel 
boats, motor whaleboats, and utility boats fit into 
this group. Boats carried aboard ship that can be 
hoisted from and lowered into the water are 
known as ship's boats. 

LIFEBOATS AND LIFE RAFTS 

A warship does not have room for all the 
powerboats needed to transport the entire crew 
in a survival situation. At sea, a power boat is 
usually difficult, and sometimes impossible, to 
launch rapidly. For these reasons, the Navy has 
spent time and expense developing efficient 
Hfeboats other than powerboats. 

Several types of inflatable lifeboats or life rafts 
are used by the Navy. Each boat or raft is stocked 
with enough survival equipment to support the 
number of survivors the boat was designed to 
carry. The survival gear includes a canopy, a sea 
anchor, a lifehne, boarding line, a rain-catcher 
tube, air hand pumps, paddles, sponges, a repair 
kit for patching leaks, and a floatable knife. The 
Mk 6 Mod 1 inflatable life raft also carries desalter 
kits for turning seawater into freshwater. In the 
sufVival kits are food rations, sea marker dye, a 
flashlight, batteries, a signal mirror, a whistle, a 
first-aid kit, a distress signal kit, and containers 
of freshwater. The survival kits in the Mk 6 
25-man life raft can sustain 25 people for 5 days 
on regular rations. The general arrangement of 
the Mk 6 life raft is shown in figure 18-3. 



18-2 




•o 



St: 

W S 



CM O 

<« .E 

B * 

.= O 



o 



■ 

SO 






18-3 



SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT 



BRIDGE EQUIPMENT 



All ships carry various types of survival 
equipment in addition to boats and life rafts. One 
of these items of survival gear is the life preserver. 
The Navy uses two types of life preservers — the 
inherently buoyant type and the inflatable type. 
Most ships carry both types. They are stowed in 
various locations around the ship so that all 
personnel have access to them. 

Another item along the same line is the life 
ring. It is inherently buoyant and has a strobe light 
attached to it. Often located near the life ring is 
a smoke float. In the event of a man overboard, 
both the life ring and the smoke float should be 
thrown near the person. 



The bridge is the primary control station 
aboard ship. Located on the bridge are the items 
used to control the movement of the ship. Other 
items used to ensure the safe navigation of the 
ship, such as the compass, radar repeaters, and 
status boards, are also located on the bridge. 

HELM 

The helm on a ship (fig. 18-4) is the equivalent 
of the steering wheel on a car. The helmsman 
turns the helm to keep the ship on a desired course 
or to turn the ship. When the helm is turned, the 
mechanical input of turning the helm is converted 



f?UDDER ANGLE ORDER 
INDICATOR-TRANSMITTER 



REMOTE IND. MAG. COMPASS 
REPEATER 



|— RUDDER ORDER TRANSMITTER 
OPERATING KNOB 



EMERGENCY STEERING SWITCH 



RUDDER ORDER ATTENTION 
PUSH SWITCH 



NORMAL- EMERGENCY 

RUDDER ANGLE 
TRANSFER SWITCH 



SHIPS COURSE 
INDICATOR 



GRAB BARS 







MASTER DIMMER CONTROL 



RUDDER ORDER TRANSMITTER 
"POWER on" PILOT LIGHT 



COURSE TO STEER 
INDICATOR 



STEERING WHEEL 



7.133 



Figure 18-4. — A typical helm console. 



18-4 



to an electrical signal. This electrical signal is then 
transmitted to the steering engine, usually located 
near the stern of the ship. Here the electrical signal 
is received by the steering engine, where it is 
converted to a mechanical input to move the 
rudder. The movement of the rudder causes the 
ship to move in the desired direction. 

The ship is normally steered from the helm on 
the bridge. If that part of the ship should 
sustain any kind of damage, the steering can be 
shifted to other locations, such as after steering. 

LEE HELM 

The lee helm of a ship could be compared to 
the gas pedal of a car. The lee helm, which can 



be seen in figure 18-5, is actually two instruments 
in one — the engine-order telegraph and the engine- 
revolution indicator. 



Engine-Order Telegraph 

The engine-order telegraph communicates 
speed orders to the engine room. It has duplicate 
dials divided into sectors for flank, full, standard, 
2/3, and 1/3 speed ahead and 1/3, 2/3, and full 
speed back. A hand lever fitted with an indicator 
travels over the circumference of the circular face 
of the instrument. When the handle is moved to 
the required speed sector, the engine room com- 
plies with the order immediately. The engine room 
notifies the bridge that it has complied with the 




134.54 
Figure 18-5. — An interior view of the bridge of USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69). The box-UI<e console in the left foreground 
of the figure is the lee helm; it includes the engine-order telegraph, which is the cylinder-shaped component, fitted 
with a hand lever, showing a circular-faced dial divided into sectors. 



18-5 



order by moving an answering pointer into the 
same sector as the requesting pointer from the 
bridge. 



The number of revolutions per minute 
required to travel at the various speeds (in knots) 
is calculated in advance and is posted on a table 
near the lee helm. 



Engine-Revolution Indicator 

Near the engine-order telegraph, you normally 
will find another device, the engine-revolution 
indicator (fig. 18-6). 

On the face of this instrument are three small 
windows with two rows of numbers in each 
window. The lower row of numbers is set 
individually by three hand knobs located directly 
below the windows. For example, if 110 shaft 
revolutions per minute is required for a ship to 
proceed at 15 knots, the lee helmsman would 
indicate the numbers 1,1, and in the lower row 
of numbers. These lower numbers give a visual 
indication of the shaft revolutions ordered by the 
conning officer to the engine room. Through 
electrical transmission, corresponding numbers 
appear on a similar instrument in the engine 
room(s). In the engine room(s), these orders are 
receipted and acknowledged when the engine- 
room instrument is set on the same settings. Once 
again this indication is transmitted back to the 
bridge electrically and is shown on the upper row 
of numbers. Thus, the lee helmsman is able to 
report to the conning officer the receipt of the 
order for engine speed and see that the order is 
being carried out. 




7.122 



Figure 18-6. — Engine revolution indicator. 



On older ships the helm and the lee helm are 
located in different consoles, usually near each 
other. On newer ships, however, a ship-control 
console houses all the equipment for steering the 
ship and for controlling its speed in one central 
location. Additionally, on some ships you will find 
lighting, steering, and general-alarm controls 
housed in the ship-control console. 



COMPASSES 

The best known and most widely used naviga- 
tional instrument is the compass. Without it, 
precise information on headings and directions 
would be almost impossible to obtain. Compasses 
were used even before the days of Columbus, and 
they remain indispensable to today's Navy. 

A compass is an instrument that indicates the 
fixed point or direction of north. It allows you 
to judge all other directions by this fixed point 
to determine the direction in which you are 
heading. 

The Navy uses two main types of compasses: 
gyroscopic and magnetic. The gyrocompass 
operates on the principle that a rapidly spinning 
object is balanced at its center of gravity, much 
as a spinning top stands on its point. The 
gyrocompass is designed to point toward true 
north, although it may have a slight mechanical 
error (for which an allowance is made). On the 
other hand, the magnetic compass is controlled 
primarily by the magnetic properties of the earth; 
therefore, it tends to point toward the magnetic 
north pole. 



GYROCOMPASS 

The gyrocompass is unaffected by magnetic 
influence. When in proper working order, it 
points constantly to the true rather than the 
magnetic north pole. 

The gyrocompass may have a slight mechani- 
cal error of 1 or 2 degrees, but the error is 
computed easily. Since the error remains constant 



18-6 



for any heading, it doesn't interfere with the 
instrument's practical value. 

Most shipboard installations consist of one or 
more master gyros located in close proximity to 
the steering station. The indications of the gyro 
are transmitted electrically to repeaters located on 
the bridge wings, at conning stations, and at other 
necessary points. 

Despite the excellence of the gyro mechanism, 
the magnetic compass (NOT the gyro) is standard 
equipment aboard ships. Since the gyrocompass 
is powered by electricity, it would be useless if the 
ship experienced a power loss. The gyrocompass 
is also an extremely complicated, expensive, and 
delicate instrument that is subject to mechanical 
failure. Some gyros, for instance, become erratic 
after a ship makes a series of sharp turns at high 
speeds. For this reason, the magnetic compass 
remains the reliable standby. It constantly checks 
the performance of the gyrocompass and stands 
ready at all times to take over if the gyrocompass 
fails. 



MAGNETIC COMPASS 

The magnetic compass, which is the standard 
compass on Navy ships, operates through the 
magnetic attraction of the earth itself. 

The magnetic compass is located in the pilot- 
house. It consists of a magnetized compass needle 
attached to a circular compass card that is usually 
7 1/2 inches in diameter. Although the card 
appears to move, it actually remains stationary 
while pointing to the earth's magnetic pole. In 
reality, the ship is moving under the compass 
card. 

For the magnetic compass to give reliable 
service, it must be properly installed, maintained, 
and protected from disturbing magnetic 
influences. 



antennas are used to electronically search the sea 
and sky to detect objects beyond visual range. 
They are also used as navigational aids and for 
fire control purposes. 

The function of a receiving antenna is to 
intercept a portion of the electromagnetic wave 
emitted by a transmitting antenna. The function 
of a transmitting antenna is to convert the radio 
frequency fed to it by a high-voltage generator 
into an electromagnetic wave that may be 
propagated to distant points. Radar antennas both 
transmit and receive; some communication 
antennas also have that capability. 

Whatever their purpose, antennas are located 
so that they receive the least possible amount of 
interference from each other and from the ship's 
structure. Most of the masts, stacks, and other 
structures abovedeck are grounded to the ship's 
hull and, through the hull, to the water. For an 
antenna to obtain adequate coverage, it must be 
installed so that the electromagnetic radiation 
pattern from grounded structures causes mini- 
mum distortion. Radar antennas usually rotate 
and are normally mounted on platforms. 

Also associated with the radar are radar 
repeaters. While not actually a radar, they receive 
input from a radar. They are located in different 
areas from the radar, such as on the bridge or in 
the combat information center. 

Some typical shipboard communication 
antennas include wire, whip, and high-frequency 
antennas. Wire and whip antennas are designed 
to operate through frequencies in the medium to 
high range. Ships need various types of antennas 
to ensure their use of the widest possible range 
of available frequencies consistent with available 
space. 



SUMMARY 



COMMUNICATION AND RADAR 

ANTENNAS 

From an operational standpoint, communica- 
tion and radar antennas are a vital part of a ship's 
equipment. The communication antennas provide 
us with command and control capability. Radar 



In this chapter you have learned about various 
external equipment found aboard naval ships. 
Any ship, no matter what its mission, must be 
capable of mooring or anchoring. Hence, all ships 
must have ground tackle. 

Hopes are that survival equiiDment will never 
be needed; however, all ships must have 
appropriate survival gear available. 



18-7 



Although each ship class has a different bridge 
design with different equipment, all have a bridge 
in which the movement of the ship is controlled. 
Just as each ship is run by the bridge watch team, 
officers in tactical command must be able to 
communicate their orders to all ships assigned. 
For this purpose, communication and radar 
antennas are placed on all naval ships. 

Entire books could be written on many of the 
pieces of equipment found on a ship. This chapter 
has exposed you to only a few of them. 



REFERENCES 

Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 
12043, Naval Education and Training 
Program Management Support Activity, 
Pensacola, Fla., 1992. 

Seaman, NAVEDTRA 101 20- J, Naval Education 
and Training Program Management Support 
Activity, Pensacola, Fla., 1986. 



CROW'S NEST 



THE CROW (THE 


BIRD, 


NOT THE 


ESSENTIAL 


PART OF 


THE 


EARLY 


SAI 


EQUIPMENT 


THESE 


LAND 


-LUBBING 


BOARD TO 


HELP THE 


NAVIGATOR 


DET 


LAND LAY 


WHEN THE 


WEATHER PREVE 


VISUALLY. 


IN CASES OF 


POOR 


VIS 


RELEASED 


AND THE 


NAVIGATOR PLOT 


ING WITH 


THAT OF 


THE BIRD'S, 


BE 


HEADED TOWARD LAND. 






THE CROW'S NEST WAS 


SITUATED 


WHERE THE 


LOOKOUT 


STOOD HIS 


WAT 


THIS LOFTY PERCH 


WITH 


A CROW 


OR 


CAGES WERE KEPT THERE : 


HENCE 


TH 



RATING BADGE) WAS AN 
LORS' NAVIGATION 
FOWL WERE CARRIED ON 
ERMINE WHERE THE CLOSEST 
NTED SIGHTING THE SHORE 
IBILITY, A CROW WAS 
TED A COURSE CORRESPOND- 
CAUSE IT INVARIABLY 

HIGH IN THE MAIN MAST 
CH, OFTEN, HE SHARED 

TWO SINCE THE CROWS' 
E "CROW'S NEST," 




18-8 



CHAPTER 19 



VESSEL TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 



1 . Describe the terms used to identify Navy ships. 

2. Identify the ships included in the warship 
category. 



3. Describe the roles of various types of naval 
ships. 

4. Describe the purpose and use of underway 
replenishment in the Navy. 



SIGNIFICANT DATES 

9 Sep. 1841 Congress authorizes the first 
iron ship in the U.S. Navy, 

17 Oct. 1888 The keel is laid and construction 
begun on the battleship Maine. 

16 Dec. 1907 The first fleet of warships to 
circle the globe, the Great White 
Fleet, leaves Hampton Roads, 
Virginia. 

20 Mar. 1922 The first aircraft carrier, USS 
Langley, is commissioned. 

The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint you 
with the major classes of ships operated by the 
Navy. We will describe the major types of ships 
and give their characteristics and missions. 

Before describing the ship types, however, we 
must give some background information about 
ships in general. We must also explain some of 
the terminology associated with ships. 



SHIP IDENTIFICATION 

Each Navy ship is identified by name and 
designation. In USS Forrestal (CV-59), for 
example, USS means United States ship. CV is 



the designation — it indicates this type of ship is 
a multipurpose aircraft carrier. The ship's 
identifying or hull number (59) is a general 
indication of the number of ships of the same type 
that have been built. (Gaps occur in the sequence 
of numbers of most types because of the cancella- 
tion of shipbuilding orders.) A ship's hull number 
never changes unless its designation also changes, 
and it doesn't always change then. 

SHIP SIZE 

The size of a ship usually is given in terms of 
its displacement in long tons. Displacement means 
the weight of the volume of water that the ship 
displaces when afloat; in other words, the weight 
of a ship by itself. The Navy uses full load 
displacement, which describes the condition of the 
ship complete and ready to deploy. All weights 
given in this chapter are full load displacement 
unless otherwise noted. 

SHIP ARMAMENT 

Armament describes the offensive weapons a 
ship carries: guns, rockets, guided missiles, and 
planes. 

SHIP ARMOR 

Armor means protective armor: special steel 
installed along the sides of the ship, on a deck, 
and on some gun mounts and turrets. 



19-1 



SHIP SPEED 

The speed of a ship is stated in knots, 
a knot being 1 nautical mile per hour. When 
a ship travels at 20 nautical miles an hour, 
its speed is said to be 20 knots (but never 
20 knots per hour). A statute (or land) mile 
is 5,280 feet. A nautical mile is about 6,080 
feet, or roughly 2,000 yards. A ship traveling 
at 20 knots is, therefore, traveling at the 
rate of about 23 miles per hour. 



SHIP CLASS 

Ships are said to be of a particular class. Do 
not confuse this characteristic with type, which 
is shown by a ship's designation. The Forrestal, 
for example, was the first of several aircraft 
carriers of the same general advanced type and 
configuration to be completed. The next three 
carriers completed after the Forrestal were of the 
same type and class. Later multipurpose aircraft 
carriers (CVs) or multipurpose aircraft carriers 
(nuclear propulsion) (CVNs) of other types were 
different classes (such as the Kitty Hawk class and 
the Nimitz class). 



SHIP CATEGORIES 

Ships of the U.S. Navy are divided into four 
categories: combatant ships, auxiUary ships, 
combatant craft, and support craft. Tables 19-1 
and 19-2 show the classifications of naval ships 
and craft. 



COMBATANT SHIPS 

Combatant ships, depending on size and type, 
may have missions other than simply "slugg- 
ing it out" with an enemy ship. Combatant 
ships are of two types: warships and other 
combatants. 



WARSHIPS 

Most warships are built primarily to attack an 
enemy with gunfire, missiles, or other weapons. 
There are exceptions, however, which you will see 



as we go along. The warship category includes the 
following: 

1. Aircraft carriers 

2. Surface combatants 

a. Battleships 

b. Cruisers 

c. Destroyers 

d. Frigates 

3. Submarines 

Aircraft Carriers 

Aircraft carriers are of three kinds: 
multipurpose aircraft carriers (CVs), multipurpose 
aircraft carriers (nuclear propulsion) (CVNs), and 
training carriers (AVTs). 

The job of the CV or CVN is to carry, launch, 
retrieve, and handle combat aircraft quickly and 
effectively. The aircraft carrier can approach the 
enemy at high speed, launch planes for the attack 
and recover them, and retire before its position 
can be determined. The aircraft carrier is an 
excellent long-range offensive weapon that is the 
center of the modern naval task force or task 
group. Figure 19-1 shows a Nimitz-class carrier. 

Carriers built before 1950 displace from 33,0(X) 
to 51 ,000 tons. Those built in the 1950s (Forrestal- 
class) displace 60,000 tons. The Nimitz-class 
nuclear-powered CVNs displace about 93,400 tons 
(combat load). You can see that as new carriers 
are built, they become heavier and, in general, 
larger. 

The wartime complement (including the CAG, 
or carrier air group) of each new carrier is about 
6,000, including officers and enUsted personnel — 
an increase of from 500 to 1 ,000 persons over the 
older ships. The CVs operate from 70 to 100 
planes, depending on the size and type of aircraft. 
Flight decks are roughly 1 ,000 feet long and from 
200 to 250 feet wide. In addition to planes, 
armament consists of various types of guided 
missiles. 

Carriers have angled flight decks and steam 
catapults and are able to launch and recover 
planes simultaneously. They have a large hangar 
deck for plane stowage, four deck-edge elevators 
to rapidly move aircraft between the hangar and 
flight decks, extensive repair shops, storerooms, 
and fast-fueling equipment. They are noted for 
their speed (all carriers can proceed at over 30 
knots), endurance, plane-carrying capacity, and 
maintenance capability. They are also noted for 
their sea-keeping ability (ability to successfully and 
safely execute a mission at sea despite adverse 
environmental factors). 



19-2 



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